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Joel, Joseph, Joeline, Josephine, and some other names. Not used for John (Jno.). Except in the case of John the Baptist (Jo. Bapt.).

(Domain code for) Jordan.

A sweetheart. Specifically, a Scrabble® sweetheart. The kind of sweetheart that is cherished because it's a two-letter word that enables a ``player'' to discard a letter J that is no longer wanted. It does sound rather heartless, but it's accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries.

Interestingly, this kind of jo appears to be a concrete count noun without a plural form (JOS is not accepted by any of the three major Scrabble dictionaries). Maybe it's a lonely instance of the vocative in English.

Joint Operating Agreement.

Junior Olympic Archery Development. ``Our most important asset in archery, just as in life, is our youth.'' Tough luck for me.

Surname of the family at the center of John Steinbeck's 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath.

The title of the novel is borrowed from the song ``The Battle Hymn of the Republic.'' (``Oh mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. / He is tramping out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored. / He has loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword. / His truth is marching on.'' These are not the lyrics exactly as Julia Ward Howe wrote them, but as I have always heard them.) The lyrics allude to Rev. 14:19, which mentions a ``great winepress of the wrath of God'' (in the KJV) that yielded blood (Rev. 14:20). There are plenty of other Biblical allusions, and the name Joad sounds somewhat Biblical too, echoing Joab, Moab, Job, Joed, and a very large number of personal and place names ending in -ad.

Here's an unusual use of the English language:
I got a job by accident.

When we were graduate students in physics, and we observed as each student in turn disappeared beyond the event horizon of the final public oral (FPO), to be torn apart by the tidal forces of the job-market black hole, one of the few triangulation points we learned was the following datum:

Job offers are bosons.
That is, they obey Bose-Einstein (B-E) statistics: if you are in a one-job-offer state, your probability of transitioning to a two-job-offer state is twice the probability that the poor guy with no job offer will get even one; if you are in a two-job-offer state, your chances of getting another offer are three times his chance of getting a first job offer. The injustice of this situation is obvious, since the person with no job offers needs a job offer much more than the person with two, who is going to turn down one of the offers anyway. It is said that the market is cold, and while no precise temperature measurement has been reported, it appears that we may be close to the Bose Condensation (BEC) regime, where all the job offers condense on one applicant. On the basis of this observation, I think that an effective jobs program would be to give that one applicant a secretary. That would not only open up a secretary position, but the excess job offers could be turned down promptly, creating a population inversion, etc.

Even I get tired of teeteringly extended metaphors, and I hadn't even discussed lasing. It is probably fair to note that early research on job offer statistics is implied in the classic research of Saint Matthew (Matthew Principle) However, I first learned about quantum job-offer statistics from Steve, a student of Arthur S. Wightman, so it may be that the principle has now been placed on a rigorous axiomatic field-theory foundation.

New research suggests that MOTAS statistics are also bosonic. For more detail on job stats, try following the link at the BLS entry.

Although they're not pronounced identically, it seems appropriate that the Biblical Job and the quotidian job should have the same spelling. Both are associated with great suffering. Incidentally, the English word job has been borrowed into German as a masculine noun. This loan is reputed to have a German pronunciation simmilar to the English (something like what would be spelled ``jawp''). But it's a very common word, and without researching the matter, I suspect that as usual its pronunciation will go a bit native and start to resemble that of the name of the Biblical character (also spelled Job or almost equivalently Hiob).


Jahrbuch der Österreichische Byzantinistik.

Jo. Bapt.
John the Baptist. The guy who lost his head two thousand years ago. Not used as a given name in English, but in some other languages, such as French (Jean-Baptiste, abbrev. J.-B.).

Note that normally, Jo. abbreviates Joel and some other names, and John is abbreviated Jno.. I've also seen JBap used, by HJ people who think nothing of posting ten-thousand-word messages every couple of days for months on end, all under the subject head ``Historical method.''

JOBOP, JobOp, Jobop
Job Opportunity.

job out
A term patterned on drop-out. A job out is someone who is lured out of a technical training program by a job.

JOsephson (junction) Broadband Spectrometer.

Joburg, Jo'burg
JOhannesBURG, South Africa.

Japanese Olympic Committee.

Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers. The Japanese Peace Corps.

Java Objects Everywhere.

Short for Joseph. Hey -- where' you goin' with that gun in your hand?

Baby kangaroo. A kid sister of Carrie Fisher, who's on a TV show. ``Ellen'' vel sim.

I'm goin' down to shoot my ol' lady, you know I caught'er messin'roun' with another man.

joggers with umbrellas
I thought of that today when I didn't see it. That's how free association works, probably.

Elton's last name. He was born Reginald Kenneth Dwight.

JOHN von Neumann Integrator and Automatic Computer. An early computer built by the RAND corporation and based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann and named in his honor. Like all computers of its era, it was a one-of-a-kind machine that could not exchange programs with other computers (even other IAS machines). Then again, the programs were pretty short. JOHNNIAC operated from 1953 until February 11, 1966, logging over 50,000 operational hours. The machine currently takes up space at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California.

The preceding information, but not the crucially important attitude component, was cribbed from the JOHNNIAC entry at Wikipaedia, the free encyclopaedia, with an extra vowel because this is SBFary, the free glossary.

According to the Giant Computers file, this computer contained about 3000 tubes, no crystals, and about 200 relays, and occupied 250 square feet. It was used for scientific calculations for general research.

Johnny Rotten
Gerard is taken with the album title:
Never mind the bollocks.

JR got back together with the rest of the Sex Pistols for a recording session or concert or something, in 1997, so he could insult them and give a filip to his sagging solo career.

Johnson is the second most common surname in the US.

When Gary and Susan married in Scottsdale, one of my tasks, as a local, was to taxi some of the out-of-town guests, including Gary's sister. Sitting in the back seat, she asked about the frilly black garter on the floor of my car. I had to explain about how a famed composer of liturgical music, David A. Johnson, had passed away not long before, and how, as a direct and unavoidable consequence of the Law of Unintended Consequences, a letter of condolence had arrived at CSSER, where another David A. Johnson was an ASU graduate student in EE. It was decided to celebrate David's passing with a memorial quaff at a nearby bar, within walking distance of EE for the badly decomposed body himself. Seeking to show the proper respect, I called a few funeral homes for information, but they all said it was an east coast thing, or an Italian thing, and they had no idea where I could get a black armband, so I went out and bought a black garter as the next-best thing.

Then Gary's sister asked me about the castanets.

One of the problems with having a popular name like David Johnson, in addition to people mistaking you for another David Johnson, is people mistaking you for another David Johnson when it's really you. This happened to Orioles manager Davey Johnson, who on the same day at the end of the 1997 season (a) was fired from his job and (b) won the American League Manager-of-the-Year honors. It was the same guy, but the team owner obviously thought that the Davey Johnson who did such a good job was a different Davey Johnson than the one he was firing. I guess. Perhaps owner Angelos was confused because the same Davey Johnson had managed teams in both American and National Leagues (none of which had ever finished lower than second place). Perhaps Mr. Angelos was confused because Davey Johnson had managed the team to a second-place finish the previous year, but this year the team was in first place from the first day of the season to the last. Perhaps Mr. Angelos was just confused.

Maybe Davey Johnson can pretend to be the different DJ who won the award and get his old job back as a new DJ. Reminds me of the new Richard Nixon.

There ought to be some way to take advantage of this kind of thing.

Legally, I mean.

Japanese Olympiad of Indiana.

Jewish Outreach Institute.

Remember, you can't spell joking without king. When the king tells a joke, everybody laughs.

``The Great Race'' (1965) was directed by Blake Edwards and had an all-star cast (alright, not quite literally) led by Jack Lemmon, Tony Curtis, and Natalie Wood (not credited in that order). Jack Lemmon played Professor Fate -- one of the racers -- and also Crown Prince Frederick Hoepnick of Pottsdorf, where the movie is temporarily detained on its way from New York to Paris. I won't be able to finish this entry until I revisit that.

The Icelandic word for glacier runs -- flooding due to glacier melting.

Journal of the Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society.

Joints, Obvious (cardiac), Nodules (subcutaneous), Erythema marginatum, Syndeham's chorea. The major criteria for acute rheumatic fever, in mnemonic form. (From Seth Wright's list at Vanderbilt.)

Jones, LeRoi
Imamu Amiri Baraka.

Jón Gnarr
This entry is among the j's rather than the g's because it starts with J, see? Anyway, in many languages the pronunciations of j and g overlap. Granted, that's not the case in Icelandic: the initial g in Gnarr is unvoiced. (I.e., it's pronounced /k/. Interestingly, all the stop consonants in Modern Icelandic are unvoiced, and the distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants that is typical in other European languages is replaced by a phonemic aspirated/unaspirated distinction.) Nice try, though. Honestly, I've put the entry here because I wanted another j entry. Also, this is the name of a person whose last name is not Gnarr. The full name is Jón Gnarr Kristinsson. As you may have gathered, it's an Icelandic name, so Kristinsson is a patronymic and not a family name. Jón was named Jón Gunnar Kristinsson at birth (on January 2, 1967), but in 2005 he had the middle name legally changed to Gnarr, which is the way his mother pronounced it when he was kid. How did she pronounce it later? I don't know.

For the moment, most of our substantive information about Jón Gnarr is at Farting People, The.

A mixture of Spanish and Guaraní.

Joint (Military Services) Operating Planning and Execution System.

Joseph was a snitch. It says so at Genesis, ch. 37, verse 2: he would go and rat to Dad on his own older brothers. That's the real reason they hated him. It wasn't the coat.

No one likes a snitch. His own brothers wouldn't even talk to him (37:3). God spake directly to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Joseph? Let him interpret dreams.

Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat
Joseph's father gave him a garment that was described in Hebrew as [transliterated; I'll get around to Unicode in a decade or two] k'tonet passim. The first word means `garment' of some sort, but the second word is a mystery, at least as of 1995, which is the most recent literature I've looked at. (Of course, some speculations are expressed confidently. Shame on me for being taken in.)

The Septuagint (LXX) translates the term with chiton polikilon, `many-colored coat.' But the Septuagint translation came many centuries after the text of Genesis was first composed (the Hebrew continued evolving, though), and it appears that `many-colored' was a guess. (Most of the relevant Genesis chapter, 37, appears to have been written by the J author. In fact, the sentence that introduces the famous garment calls Joseph's father ``Israel,'' and that is generally regarded as a reliable indication that the author was J. However, the other two contexts of k'tonet passim in this chapter are E, so the clause with this phrase is considered E. Textual criticism, ugh.)

Another traditional interpretation is that passim here means `with sleeves,' and that is the translation favored by, for example, the revised standard version (``robe with sleeves''). Yick. No one ever seems to mention that -im is a plural ending, and for `sleeves' one might expect the dual ending -ayim. I mean, to the extent that the -ayim is possible or probable, its absence counts as weight in the balance against the sleeve interpretation. (Ah say, ah say gimme that ollllllld time relijun! The KJV, in His Own English, says ``coat of many colors.'' Yea and Amen!)

For a word like passim, it's natural to seek occurrences elsewhere in the Bible. In addition to the three occurrences in the Joseph story (ch. 37, vss. 3, 23, 32), k'tonet passim occurs in II Sam. 23:18, where it describes a garment worn by the daughters of kings.

That's the uncertain state of affairs as it stood, in limbo for a couple of millennia. In the twentieth century, there was some new old information. Among cuneiform inventories (written in Akkadian, another Semitic language), one kind of clothing listed is kitu pishannu and kiutinnu pishannu [details in JNES vol. 8, p. 177 (1949)]. These were ceremonial robes for draping over the statues of goddesses, and pishannu apparently denoted gold appliqué ornaments. (The ornaments were sewn on; they would come undone and require resewing, at which time they would appear in the inventories.)

I'm not sure how firm this Akkadian stuff is, but it's good enough for me. Anyway, you can see that title ``Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat,'' for a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, takes no unusual liberties in translation.

A circular disc concentric to a shaft, which rests in a complementary bearing and supports centered rotation when the shaft is subject to lateral stress, as in a camshaft or crankshaft. Cf. magazine.

journalistic balance
In a 1984 conversation with Edna O'Brien, Philip Roth commented (Shop Talk, p. 109) that she ``write[s] about women without a taint of ideology or, as far as I can see, any concern with talking a correct position.'' Her reply began thus:
The correct position is to write the truth, to write what one feels regardless of any public consideration or any clique. I think an artist never takes a position either through expedience or umbrage. Artists detest and suspect positions because you know that the minute you take a fixed position you are something else--you are a journalist or you are a politician.

journalistic instinct
The courage to ask a question which accurately reflects the ignorance of one's audience, combined with the wisdom to accept an answer only if it is consonant with one's own sincerest prejudices.

For thoughts on the common adjective jovial, you obviously don't want the JOVIAL entry -- that's about a computer language. See the JPO entry instead.

JOVIAL, Jovial
Jules's Own Version of IAL. IAL was the original name of Algol, and Jovial was similar to Algol 60. I don't know who this fellow Jules is, or perhaps was, but he was apparently associated with the US Air Force, since that was the main customer for Jovial. And is! The felicitously named USAF JOVIAL Program Office, based at Hill AFB, has a webpage that was updated as recently as April 2006. Then again, the B-52 was last manufactured in 1962, and the plan is for the Air Force to still be flying it in 2040, so I suppose this isn't all that surprising.

Benjamin Jowett, of course, born in London, 1817. Often referred to as ``Jowett of Balliol,'' the college at Oxford where he was master from 1870 until his death in 1893. A Church of England clergyman, he also served as vice chancellor of Oxford.

The following bit of doggerel, written about him during his early years as a lecturer, expresses something of his personality and the pronunciation of his name:

First Come I
My name is Jowett;
It is not knowledge
If I don't know it.

Another instance of poetry used to elucidate the pronunciation of an English name is given at the Pepys entry. The poems convey the pronunciation information in rhyme as well as meter. Of course, many kinds of poetry do not use rhyme. That is particularly true of poetry in Ancient Greek (which will become relevant to this entry later) and in Latin (whose most prestigious poetic forms were adapted from Greek). As Dante wrote in Vita nuova, in his day (around 1300), the ``poet'' word was reserved for writers of Latin verse, and the rest were mere ``rimatori.'' Japanese poetry also doesn't make much use of rhyme. (Frankly, with mostly synthetic verb conjugation and with a verb-last syntax, rhyme might get pretty boring and even silly, though it seems to work in German despite the V2 structure.) So haiku is based on syllable counts. For an instance of pronunciation clarified by haiku, see the homogeneous entry.

You needed password authorization to access <www.jamesjoyce.org>. This seemed fundamentally wrong, and sure enough, they no longer have a DNS entry.

Joyce ACC
Edmund P. Joyce Athletic and Convocation Center Fieldhouse. It's located west of the Notre Dame Football stadium. (At one time, Juniper Road ran behind the west of where the stadium now, stands. Then, to accommodate the expanding campus, Juniper Road was shifted east, and the parts of it that remained inside the campus were renamed ``Old Juniper Road.'' The stadium was on the west side of the new Juniper Road, and later the Joyce ACC was built on the east side across from the stadium. Juniper Road was normally a two-way street, but for many hours on football Saturdays it was one-way ``in'' (toward the stadium) or ``out.'' Other buildings continued to be built east of Juniper, and in 2006 or so, to accommodate the expanding campus, most of Juniper Road was torn up and grassed over, or otherwise landscaped or repaved as part of the new parking configuration. As of 2008, Joyce ACC is separated from the stadium by a plaza, so it looks like part of a stadium complex. Joyce ACC is frequently mis-expanded (or at least unofficially expanded) as ``Joyce Athletic and Convention Center.''

When WNDU-TV's first transmission tower was completed in June 1955, its blinking red beacon was installed eighteen inches below the apex rather than at top, as is normal. You might think that this displacement would have endangered any barnstorming pilots coming in to land (VFR) at South Bend Regional, but not to worry: at the top was ``a gilded statue of Mary, mother [an avatar, as I understand it] of God,'' according to WNDU, which goes on to point out that

The simplicity of the sculpture is overwhelming.
Frankly, if the closest most people will get to see it is 570 feet (the height of the original broadcast tower) minus eye height, why spend money making a complex speculative likeness?

Maybe it is the simplicity of the faithful that is overwhelming. In 1415, as the friar Jan Hus (`John Huss' in English) was being burned alive at the stake, he remarked, or quipped (with great presence of mind, IMO):

O sancta simplicitas!
[`Oh Holy Simplicity!'] This was apparently a reference to a peasant adding a faggot to stoke the fire. It was also presumably an allusion to a comment of Saint Jerome -- Veneratoni mihi semper fuit non verbosa rusticas sed sancta simplicitas. [`I have always revered not crude verbosity but holy simplicity.'] Then again, maybe he was misheard and actually said ``Oh Holy Shit!''

That hasn't aught to do with this entry, I guess, except that the tower functions as a lightning arrestor, so the statue is scarred up some after fifty years. What does have to do with this entry is that in June 1955, Father Edmund P. Joyce demonstrated his athleticism by climbing to the top of the 570-foot tower and blessing the statue. Just how close did he have to get? Couldn't he bless it from the ground? In 1970, the statue was lifted to the top of WNDU's new 1000-foot tower, but it wasn't necessary to rebless it because it had already been blessed fifteen years earlier. Why didn't they think ahead in 1955 and first put it at the top of a two-foot tower so that it could be blessed at a convenient height? Then they could transfer it to the new (570-foot) tower with no need for a rebless climb (just as it wasn't needed in 1970). These clerical types just aren't practical.

Father Edmund Joyce, C.S.C., died in Spring 2004.

In a press release dated November 23, 2005, the University of Notre Dame announced that it had reached an agreement with Gray Television, Inc., under which Gray acquires all of the capital stock of Michiana Telecasting Corporation, the university-owned company that operates WNDU-TV, for $85 million in cash, most of which will be invested in the university's endowment. Student internships at WNDU-TV will continue. The agreement is subject to certain conditions and regulatory approval, and is expected to be completed before June 30, 2006. According to the press release, WNDU-TV ``is the NBC affiliate serving the South Bend-Elkhart, Ind., television market, the nation's 87th largest Designated Market Area (DMA).''

Eighty-seventh largest DMA out of roughly two hundred? A four-syllable rank? This is humiliating. No wonder all our local stations are in UHF Siberia (WNDU is channel 16, WNIT is 34, WSBT is 22; there's at least one other). Gray previously announced its acquisition of WSAZ-TV, the NBC affiliate serving Charlestown-Huntington, W.Va. Where?

Gray Television, headquartered in Atlanta, will own 35 stations when the WNDU and WSAZ acquisitions are complete, reaching approximately 6 percent of total U.S. TV households. This is not making me feel better. Of these 35, 16 are CBS affiliates, 10 are NBC affiliates, and 7 are ABC affiliates. Twenty-five of the stations ranked No. 1 in local news audience, and 24 are No. 1 in overall audience within their respective markets. Is this impressive? Why sure: the 35 stations serve only 30 TV markets, so at most 30 could be first. I don't know if any more than six of these markets are served by a No. 2 TV station.

Joy's Law
Computing power of the fastest microprocessors, measured in MIPS, increases exponentially in time. Roughly,
                   uP speed = 2             MIPS

Oh joy.

While RISC processors are following this trend, the essentially CISC personal computer uP's have been scaling more slowly. Cf. Moore's Law and Rent's Rule.

Bill Joy is a co-founder of Sun Microsystems, Inc.. In addition to this ``Joy's Law,'' he has other, noneponymous laws, such as ``The smartest people in every field are never in your own company.'' I bet this makes him real popular with his own employees. To compensate, they hold regular Gates-hates (not their official or even unofficial name, but accurate). You could see this sort of thing evolving into those Goldstein scream things in 1984. Which reminds me of the famous advertisement that Apple Computer used.

(Domain code for) Japan. There's a Japanese <--> English Dictionary Server. Here's another. A major resource for learning Japanese is also available online. A clutch of Japan FAQ's is available.

International telephone access number 81.

Impress your non-Japanese friends with authentic-sounding Japanese profound gibberish!

Here's the Japanese page of an X.500 directory.

The hierarchical structure of domains under the .jp nTLD is described under JPNIC. Appart from <google.jp>, an important Japanese search engine is NAVER.

Jerusalem Post.

Jet Prop{ ellant | ulsion }.

J. P.
Justice of the Peace.

J. P.
John Pierpont (Morgan) (1837-1913).

Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex.

Johnson Publishing Company, Inc. ``The world's largest Black-owned publishing company is the home of Ebony and Jet magazines. Also part of the company are Fashion Fair Cosmetics, Supreme Beauty Products, Ebony Fashion Fair and Johnson Publishing Company Book Division.''

Joint Publishing Company, Ltd. (In Hong Kong.)

Based at JPCERT/CC (next). A member of FIRST.

JaPan Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center. ``Emergencies'' are security breaches. See CERT for other relevant organizations.

JPEG, jpeg
Joint Photographic Experts Group of the CCITT. Also refers to the compressed graphics encoding defined by this group. There's a jpeg-faq for this. Graphics files encoded according to this scheme often take a .jpg extension. Pronounced ``Jay-peg.'' Cf. MPEG.

Jean Paul Gaultier. He's the guy trying to get non-Scottish guys to wear skirts. Not a common expansion of this acronym.

.jpg, .JPG
Common filename extension for JPEG files.


APh abbreviation that used to stand for the Journal of Philology, now long-defunct, in which A. E. Housman published many of his papers, and which now stands for the Journal of Philosophy.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Journal of Philosophical Logic.

JaPan Network Information Center.

Japanese Patent Office Others here.

Jovial Program Office. Sign me up! Errr, what's this business about ``orders'' and ``conscription''? The Air Force runs this thing!? It didn't sound so serious. It turns out that Jovial is a programming language, so I suppose JPO does sound serious -- compared to JPPO. They write it ``JOVIAL Program Office,'' and I suppose they have a point with the all-caps, since it's an acronym and all, but what I want to talk about is joviality.

[column] I can see in principle how Jove could be what is called jovial. If I were the Olympian top dog, or pot god, or some other permutation, I imagine that I could find my way to a permanent high. But his reported activities suggest that like JPO, Jove is basically about target acquisition and force projection. All you hear is thundrous lightning thrown and nymphs raped by Jove. And when a mere man calls his wife a ``goddess'' (not even a ``domestic goddess'' or a genia loci), rightly suspicious sister Juno is decidedly not the kind of babe he has in mind. ``Saturnine,'' on the other hand -- that I can see.

Jerusalem Post.

Japan Physical Society. When spelled out, it's normally Physical Society of Japan.

They publish JJAP, JPSJ, and PTP.

Jewish Publication Society. Based in Cambridge, UK. Known principally for its translation of the Jewish Bible (``Old Testament'' from a Christian POV), NJPS.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan.

Jewish Publication Society Version. The (Jewish) Bible translation of published by the JPS in 1917. Superseded by the NJPS. They just keep coming up with better bibles; you can't stop progress.

An orgy that begins the Friday following Ash Wednesday of the sophomore year. Extra-large sweat-shirts with the letters J - P - W are on sale at the university book store.

It must have been a long time ago that I wrote the first paragraph of this entry. At the University of Notre Dame (in Saint Joseph County, Indiana), JPW stands for Junior Parents' Weekend. It sounds a bit like it's promoting teenage pregnancy, but it's actually a juniors' parents weekend: a weekend when the parents of juniors enrolled in the university come to visit their kids and see what their $30,000 or so a year is buying. I'm not sure how they pick the weekend. In 2008 it was the second weekend after Ash Wednesday (Feb. 16-17), so secular considerations may intrude.

This annual ritual was instituted in 1952 by then-president Father Theodore Hesburgh. (For more about names ending in -burgh, see the Pgh entry.) Father Hesburgh (``Father'' is not his first name, so this isn't an instance of nomen est omen) felt that ``parents should become more involved in their students' lives at Notre Dame before the following year's graduation ceremony,'' according to an article in the student newspaper in 2008, when about 1750 parents were expected for JPW.

A quick bit of googling suggests that Harvard is the only other school with a Junior Parents' Weekend. Harvard is a more demanding school, though: they also have a Freshman Parents' Weekend. Saint Mary's College, which neighbors Notre Dame, has a Sophomore Parents' Weekend on the same weekend that Notre Dame has its JPW. Entirely by coincidence (surely they wouldn't do it as a deliberate provocation!?) the students who do a local performance of ``The Vagina Chronicles'' have a performance on Sunday during the parents' weekend.

Saint Mary's College also holds an annual event for seventh-grade girls from the local area (Michiana) to, of all things, ``celebrate [the] accomplishments of Saint Mary's students in math.'' They were expecting 90 students on Saturday, February 23, 2008. (I didn't follow up to check how many actually showed up, okay?) This (2008) is the 18th year they hold the event, and it's also the first year that I've heard of it. Of that I am pretty sure, because a Catholic school celebrating a ``Hypatia Day'' (that's what the event is called) is immediately arresting and memorable.

Hypatia of Alexandria had other distinctions besides being ``the first female mathematician'' (whose name we know) and a leading Platonist philosopher. During the patriarchate of Cyril of Alexandria, a (nonheretical!) Christian mob kidnapped her to a church, where she was stripped, flayed to death with tiles, and dismembered. It's not clear what role Cyril played in this episode, but it was the same Cyril who some time earlier had led mobs in the destruction of the Alexandrian synagogues and the expulsion of the Jews. I'm sorry, that's Saint Cyril.

Anyway, for SMC to hold a Hypatia Day displays about as much chutzpah as would Notre Dame University holding a day to honor Giordano Bruno or Jan Hus or the Albigensians or Galileo Galilei, although the last was not murdered. He was even rehabilitated in a sort of mini-de-Stalinization event a few years back. I guess I can see where this is leading. When ND holds its first Galileo Astronomy Day, I'll try to mention it here.

Jewish Quarterly Review.

James River. They have a clever logo, displayed on a paper towel dispenser they make in a bathroom around the corner from where I'm typing this right now. The paper towel dispenser is in the bathroom near here, but they made it elsewhere. You probably guessed that, even though my original sentence was ambiguous. The truth is, I guessed it too. I have no way of knowing for certain. Maybe they snuck in here one night and set up a paper-towel dispenser factory in the Men's Room. Probably not. They certainly don't make it there ``right now.'' I know that; I was just there.

As you've probably guessed, I win a prize this month if I add enough stuff to the neglected J section of this glossary. For more on paper dispensers, see the TP entry. Also, see the image of JR's toilet paper on exhibit at the VTPM.

Japan Railways. Seven companies created in the privatization of Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. Even in Japanese, this entity is called ``Jei Arr.''

Journal of Religion. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.



Journal of Roman Archaeology. (There's a UK mirror site.) Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI). The sister publication of JRAI is at.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

European Commission Joint Research Centre.

Japan Committee for Research Networks.

Jeunes contre le racisme en Europe. `Youth against Racism in Europe.' It doesn't seem to have its own website any more, but maybe it was always rather decentralized. It seems clear from its communiqués or whatever that it was a leftist organization and that the focus of its opposition was fascist parties. So maybe it foundered in the usual leftist schismatism.

Junior Research Fellow.

Journal of Ritual Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Journal of the Russian Numismatic Society (RNS, q.v.). Published in the USA.

US Joint Requirements Oversight Council.

Junior ROTC.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. Tolkien's last name is widely misspelled, mostly as * ``Tolkein.''

I read The Hobbit, and Uncle Charlie and Aunt Mary gave me a copy of The Silmarillion for my birthday that I recall enjoying, but my interest flagged about halfway through LOTR. I prefer his nonfiction. In LOTR, I really felt that he broke faith with the reader when Gandalf the Grey came back as Gandalf the White. Oh, you hadn't read it yet -- you didn't wanna know. Tough. You shouldn't have been surfing into spoiler danger, then. Here, go surf this tribute. Here's a helpful timeline. There's an Electronic Tolkien Encyclopedia Project (ETEP). The Tolkien Usenet newsgroups generated an faq and a LessFAQ (less frequently ...), no longer maintained (since perhaps 1996), and Steuard Jensen has created a supplement. See his Meta-FAQ.

Jesuit Refugee Service. ``A worldwide network to accompany refugees and displaced people and offer practical and spiritual support.''


Journal of Roman Studies. An annual publication of the Roman Society (SPRS). Journal catalogued by TOCS-IN. ISSN 0075-4358.

Jack Russell Terrier.

Joint Readiness Training Center. A facility covering 106,000 acres of Ft. Polk in Louisiana.

Jesus Seminar. See JSem.

Junior State of America. Sort of like a model UN. ``The Junior State is a nationwide, non-profit, non-partisan political education organization for students in grades 9-12. We are run completely by and for students, and we hold many events throughout the year to help further our goals of student political awareness and involvement.'' So far they haven't declared war on any Canadian Youth Parliaments.

Japanese Society of Automotive Engineers. They sure whupped the SAE for a few years there.

Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence. (You and your browser had better be Japanese-capable).

Johnson Space Center.

Japan Society for Computer Aided Surgery.

Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society.

Journalism SCHOOL. It's widely reported that top of the heap is the Columbia School of Journalism (i.e. Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism).

Journal of the Saudi Chemical Society. If you can't read Arabic, then you may not recognize the link there to the English version of the contribution guidelines.

``Work submitted for publication must contain original scientific work which has not been published previously. However, work which has appeared in print in the form of an abstract or as a published lecture, report, or thesis is normally acceptable.''

``The manuscript may be written in either Arabic or English. An abstract in Arabic or English must accompany the submitted papers. Furthermore, a complete abstract in the language other than that of the manuscript must be included.''

Two issues per annum ``(temporary).'' (Temporary since 1996, at least.)

It's not stated whether being a member of the SCS, or of some other group, has any effect on the likelihood of your paper being accepted.

Jesuit Secondary Education Association. A membership organization serving Jesuit (SJ) high schools in the continental United States and Puerto Rico. Forty-Six members as of September 1998.

Jesus SEMinar. A bunch of scholars who get together and vote in a vain attempt to achieve ``consensus'' on what words in the gospels Jesus did or did not say. Each person in the shifting membership votes red (that's Jesus!), pink, gray, or black (no way!).

Joint Strike Fighter. ``Joint'' in the sense that all of the services (Army, Navy, Air Force...) are buying essentially the same bird.

Japan Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Joseph Snerdly Mohammed Jackson Version. An illustrated edition of Ye Holy Bible. This doesn't exist yet, but it's coming. In order to satisfy the surge in religious feeling, yet accommodate and be welcoming to the diversity of everlastingly true interpretations of that good book, services will arise to provide customized print-on-demand versions. It'll give a whole new meaning to the term ``family bible.'' You'll visit a website, fill out a detailed form stating your requirements (e.g.:
Question 43: Homosexual proscriptions:
Yes (God's Very Words!)
No (Damnable late interpolation!)

There will be a dramatic increase in the number of people quoting chapter and verse, when they get to choose the wording.

Journal for the Study of the New Testament.

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Hmmm, maybe you'd prefer to read English A private foundation chartered by Emperor Showa in 1932, reestablished as a quasi-governmental organization within the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture (Monbusho) in 1967. A researcher visiting here from JSPS gave a talk on VCSEL's. He claimed that JSPS is the Japanese equivalent of the US NSF. The JSPS budget in FY 2000 was 135.2 billion yen, or roughly a billion dollars US. The NSF had US$3.897 billion for FY 2000 (that's over 5% of the US government's budget for research).

Journal of Semitic Studies.

Japan Society of Snow and Ice. If you or your browser lack Japanese capability, you can find some English-language information on this topic at the SBF snow blower entry.

Japan Society for Software Science and Technology.

Japanese Standard Time. They don't use daylight saving time (DST) there at any time of the year. Just like Hawaii (which has the highest percentage of ethnic Japanese of any US state) and most of Arizona. The Navajo reservation in Arizona does use DST, however. During WWII, US forces had Navajo servicemen send spoken messages in their obscure language (particularly obscure to the Japanese) as a kind of what we might now call ``secure communication.'' The Navajo engaged in this were called ``code talkers.'' There are a few other places that don't use DST, amounting to about half the world.

Japan Science and Technology Information AGgregator, Electronic.

Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System. A 707 outfitted for reconnaissance against enemy ground forces.

Japan Science and Technology Foundation.

Journal STORage. ``Redefining access to scholarly literature.'' Back issues of paper-printed journals.

Jackson State University. It's a HBCU located in Jackson, Mississippi.

Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine.

Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems. Not available for purchase to the general public, whoever that is. For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.


James Taylor.

Jewish Telegraphic Agency.

Joint Technical Architecture. [For the US Department of Defense (DoD).]

Joint Test Assembly. Another definition for the same DoD acronym. I thought they kept a big acronyms book to prevent this from happening. JTA's are assemblies of components in weapon-like configurations delivered by a weapons contractor to the DOD for flight testing under field conditions. Inside, the ``physics package'' (gotta love it), consisting of the cased HE and nuclear materials components of the nuclear weapon, is replaced with ballast to simulate and electronic test equipment.

Joint Test Action Group.

JISC Technology Applications Programme. [JISC is the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee.]

Jahn-Teller Distortion.

Japanese Technology Evaluation Center ``and its companion World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) at Loyola College provide assessments of foreign research and development in selected technologies under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF).''

January-Term. A short session between fall and Spring semesters of the academic calendar, used for short course.

Joint Time-Frequency Analysis.

Journal of Theological Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Japan Toilet Institute. Most of the -- ahem -- content is in what Gibbon called ``the decent obscurity'' of a foreign, if not learned, language. JTI seems to be pushing Western-style toilets. The Shinkansen have (or had, when I was there in the 1990's) equal numbers of Western and traditional Japanese models. Generally, the Western sitting-down models (as opposed to the native-standard squatting models) are becoming more popular as the population ages.

The JTI pages have prominent links to the Singapore-based WTO but not to the upstart Seoul-based WTA.

Jane's Terrorism and Insurgency Center. (They don't do, they just write about it. Sort of like Penthouse Forum.) For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (UK).

Jobs Training and Partnership Act.

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

Journal of Theological Studies.

Jump The Shark. A television series is said to jump the shark when it airs a particularly lamentable episode that heralds the show's decline. Often this show involves a, ah, let us say, daring premise (Josh cloning a thought-to-be-dead Reva, or Reva time-traveling, on GL), and demonstrates final exhaustion or jettison of the original artistic inspiration.

The term is not applied to the first show or the pilot: there is an underlying assumption that every show has achieved some sort of level from which it can decline. It is fashionable to pretend that each show has only one JTS moment, but the reality is that if a show declines only as fast as standards generally, there is nothing to prevent it from gaining a new loyal following during its post-JTS decline. These fans will eventually find their own JTS moment, and so on.

The term was coined in reference to the episode of Happy Days in which the Fonz went water-skiing in California and jumped a shark.

Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor. For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

jua jua
One Spanish version of English `ha ha.' If the sound of the letters jua as read in Spanish were transliterated into English, it would be written ``hwa.'' Still, on the web, if not among my friends, it appears that ja ja is much more common.

Jwa jwa is also seen, but rarely. The letter w is principally for foreign loans. (We're not talkin' FIM here.)

Okay look, if you don't find this intuitive, here's what to think of: comedies of the silent era. No canned laughter, of course, but after someone was humiliated for the amusement of everyone else (not a rare occurrence), a lone horn would intone hwa-hwa-hwaaa on a descending scale.

[Football icon]

JUnior COllege. Term used in describing the struggle of scholar athletes to get the strongest possible education.

There are a number of toponymic Judays north of South Bend, Indiana. Some of these apparently antedate the puzzling story about Cary Grant. Not he nor anybody else seems to have been able to track down with any certainty the origin of the story of his saying ``Judy, Judy, Judy.'' The repeated name is pronounced in an affected way, with both syllables stressed, and the second syllable sounding a bit like ``day''; this is sometimes indicated in eye dialect by writing the name ``Juday.''

Locally, the name comes from meandering Juday Creek, north of the University of Notre Dame. It's not clear how that name in turn arose. An 1863 map labels it Sheffield Creek, and in the late 1880's it was referred to as ``The State Ditch.'' I kid you not..

judge names
People whose names include common non-name words, or whose names are odd in some other way, end up on the bench surprisingly often. A number of them are listed in the Nomenclature-is-destiny entry. Here's a complete list of the judges listed there; you can decide which fit the bill above.

Not mentioned there, because it's hard to state precisely and with certainty some way in which his name turned out to be unusually appropriate, is John Minor Wisdom. He's mentioned in the black Republicans footnotes. I guess from the text quoted there that Judge Wisdom was known by his last two names (Minor Justice), as Judge Learned Hand was.

The following is from the chapter entitled ``Judicial Levity'' in Arthur Train's nonfiction My Day In Court (New York and London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939), p. 61.

    Even the names of the defendants and other trial participants sometimes had a humorous aspect.
    I had a case in the Supreme Court Criminal Trial Term before the present Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals, Cuthbert W. Pound, which no doubt he remembers. The defendant's name was Schornstein (chimney), that of his counsel, Firestone, my own, Train (also suggestive of smoke and cinders), while the judge and clerk rejoiced respectively in those of Pound and Penny.

What a knee-slapper, oh boy!

A Field-Effect Transistor made out of a gallon container for moderately-priced alcoholic beverages. Frankfort Kentucky's belated answer to the Leiden Jar. Okay, maybe not. JUnction-Gate Field-Effect Transistor. Now generally called JFET.

Juggalo, Juggalette
Members of the rap group ICP (that stands for Insane Clown Posse, but visit the entry anyway) at some point started to refer to themselves as Juggalos. (The plural is formed without an e.) Lyrics in their Carnival of Carnage CD make reference to the jugula' (vein, to rhyme approximately with strangle-uh, and mentioned in the context of neck-breaking), and also to juggling (metaphorically). There might be some reference to gigolos too, but probably not to boogaloo dudes (vide Day Tripper entry).

The next album, The Great Milenko, included a rap entitled ``What is a Juggalo?'' that doesn't answer the title question in any essential way. As the term is used by ICP fans, a Juggalo is an ICP fan. (Unless he is an ICP member who isn't a fan. I don't know if this second category is, or is conceived to be, nonempty yet. Positive enthusiasm isn't very cool, you know, if you're a Juggalo.) A Juggalette (or Lette) is a female ICP fan, and the term Juggalo is typically used in the complementary sense of a male ICP fan. Juggalettes can be enthusiastic about ICP and some other groups (but not eminem!) and not suffer any coolness deficit. (Juggalos should say that they really like ICP, but that they don't consider themselves Juggalos.) To signal their coolness and belonging, Juggalos and Juggalettes can use expressions like ``down wit' de clown'' (DWTC) and MCL, and buy ICP merchandise. No secret decoder rings yet, though they could come in handy.

Los and Lettes are unexceptional young white people (``caucasions'') who are often bored and who think of themselves as nonconformist. They make careers as associates in the retail service profession. They like 2 party! Have fun! They used to wear clown make-up occasionally. There's probably a white-face angle in this somewhere, but I don't give a %^*##@!!, and that's cool. F off. Peace.

There's a large Ukrainian community around southern Ontario, extending into the Detroit and Buffalo areas. I don't know how my homies in ICP happened to chose the name Milenko (probably for scansion, dontchathink?), but ICP is Detroit-based. Milenko sounds like a Ukrainian surname (a large fraction of Ukrainian surnames end in -ko). And Mihalenko (also Mihailenko or Mihajlenko) is a moderately common Ukrainian surname. But it turns out that Milenko is mostly a south Slav (Slovenia to Macedonia) man's given name. I figured I ought to explain that.

Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display! A search engine for gopher space!

Veronica is another gopher-space search engine! Archie searches anonymous ftp servers (by filename or file pathname only)! The other major teen characters in the Archie comic book series (Reggie and Betty) don't seem to have any engines named after them! Gopher servers and gopher-protocol support are disappearing fast!


Jukka Ammondt
A Finnish Elvis impersonator who sings the King's songs in Latin. I probably should write the Finnish Elvisimpersonator who..., but you never know with these crazy Northern types. (I hear that the Finns aren't even Scandinavians.) At least one CD has been released. See here for details. Last I heard, he was working on a Sumerian version.

Japanese term for a wide range of schools or classes. In practice now, if not otherwise qualified, it refers to cram schools.

Cram school makes a lot of Japanese kids miserable, and somebody has to take the blame. Hence kyoiku-mama.

Jumping Frenchmen of Maine Syndrome
This syndrome deserves to be better known, maybe. It's an exaggerated startle reflex that was first reported to the medical community by G.M. Beard, at the 1878 conference of the American Neurological Association [see ``Remarks upon `jumpers or jumping Frenchmen','' J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. vol. 5, p. 526 (1878)]. The following description, at least partly a quote of Beard, is in an article at OMIM (see item 244100):

In response to sudden sensory input, abnormal reaction occurred. For example, if one of them was abruptly asked to strike another, he would do so without hesitation, even if it was his mother and he had an ax in his hand. If given a short, sudden, quick command, the affected person would respond with the appropriate action, often echoing the words of command. Some, when addressed quickly in a language foreign to them, would echo the phrase.

Beard found it among French-Canadian lumberjacks in the Moosehead Lake area of Maine. Many of the lumbermen had origins in the Beauce region of Quebec, and the syndrome has been documented there and also reported in five offspring of a French-Canadian fishing guide in Wedgport, Nova Scotia. In some cases, there was a family history of the syndrome. All this suggests that the condition is hereditary, but does not exclude a necessary environmental trigger. A 1986 study (see the OMIM article for reference) concluded that the cases they studied were related to the specific conditions in lumber camps in the 19th and early 20th centuries. They also concluded that `jumping' is not a neurologic disease but rather can be explained in psychologic terms as operant conditioning.

Georges Gilles de la Tourette translated Beard's 1880 article on the syndrome, and this may have stimulated him to study certain patients making peculiar sounds and movements. This research led him to describe the disorder that soon bore his name (see GTS).

jumping up and down
When you think about it, there's a lot to ponder in this phrase. Most people really just jump up repeatedly and allow gravity to complete the cycle. This seems most efficient. I'll finish the entry when I'm ready to make a complete final report.

The only time that anyone can recall George Washington jumping up and/or down in excitement was when he received word of French ship arrivals around Yorktown, which meant that he had Lord Cornwallis completely surrounded. Cornwallis's subsequent surrender marked the end of the military action in the Revolutionary War.

junction isolation
Doping to achieve electronic isolation between devices. E.g.: Integrated-circuit BJT's are fabricated as a sequence of successively enclosed doped regions; an npn presents an outer n (collector) region. For junction isolation (JI), this is fabricated in an n epi layer on a p substrate, and different devices are separated by thick p regions that reach down to the substrate. The substrate and these doped regions constitute a single electrical node which is connected to the most negative voltage on the chip, so that the electrical path between any two transistors is collector-to-collector, through a pair of junctions equivalent to a pair of opposed, reverse-biased diodes.

Cf. ROx, dielectric isolation, LOCOS. One striking difference between junction isolation and dielectric isolation is that within the same technology, JI'd pnp transistors have much lower fT values than npn transistors, whereas dielectric isolation tends to give comparable fT values.

An early form of JI is (or better ``was'') CDI.

Japan Unix Network. A researchers' net. (Do not confuse with JANET.)

`Fountain of youth' in German. The noun Brunnen (`well') is masculine.

Jurassic Park
A work of fiction. Vide dinosaurs.

jury of your peers
Jury of idle busybodies and suckers too stupid to wangle their way out of serving.

Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. Look, this is the order they give. I have a better idea, but they didn't consult me.

The username of Joe User. A restricted subset of foos.

just coincidence
Ed Turner, vice-president of CNN, is no relation of Ted Turner, network founder.

See also the nomen-est-omen item on Samuel Johnson, Jr.

just desserts
Uh, no. See the second definition under deserts.

When others write ``just desserts,'' you should ridicule their ignorance mercilessly. Draw it out. Ponder at length whether there are meals that are postprandial repasts, entire of themselves (just desserts), or if all deserts are by their nature part of the meal they, conclude. Then run away.

Just Desserts

Taylor's `Just Desserts' specializes in New Hampshire maple-syrup products.

Just do it.
This was/is a campaign slogan for a sneaker company (oh! I'm sorry, that should be ``athletic shoe'' company). I think it's Nike.

I read the following interesting advice in Some of my best friends are writers, but I wouldn't want my daughter to marry one! by Robert Turner (Los Angeles: Sherbourne Pr., 1970). It's in the chapter on getting past initial writer's block -- attacking page 1:

One other warning. The subconscious is a slippery, sneaky little devil, too. At times, it will try to dodge all your attempts to nudge it into motion by conning you that you are too sick, too hung over, too depressed, too tired to try to write. And that if you do write, it will be appallingly bad, not up to your usual standards; so, forget it. You may even attempt to do a few pages, then read back over them and decide that it is true. What you have just written is sheer tripe, so what's the use of going on?

Ordinarily, this will just not be true. Forget it. Write anyhow. Unless you are practically a hospital case or have the shakes so bad that you can't hit the right typewriter keys, what you write under these conditions will probably not be any worse than at any other time. It will just seem that way. If you will just persevere, sometime later, when you reread it, you will realize the truth.

just don't get it
Just don't agree; labor under a different enlightenment.

Just my personal opinion.
Oh wait, I just remembered: I've got a fully documented analysis here in my hip pocket.

Cf. JMO.

just packaging
  1. Righteous, honest, and complete wrapping.
  2. Look, don't be so smug. Packagers've got to feed their families too.

Juvenile detention facility. No, not room 203 after school. Prison. (And the word is slang. I'm not going to write ``JUVenIlE'' as if juvie were an acronym; that would be juvenile.)

Stephanie Wilder apparently burned out as an English teacher in juvie and took a job recruiting deep-foundations and geotechnical professionals. In Foundation Drilling (see ADCS) she wrote that she had found frustrating similarities. One is that both juvenile delinquents and geo industry professionals are tight-lipped and suspicious of outsiders. Another is that in both the juvenile justice system and the deep foundations industries, personnel are often needed in a hurry, but when an appropriate candidate is available the hiring decision often takes too long.

Joint Venture.

Junior Varsity.

Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. A publication of the AFB.

Java Virtual Machine. In mid-July 2001, Microsoft acknowledged that JVM would not come pre-installed with its next Windows ``upgrade,'' Windows XP.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. A publication of the AAVMC.

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology.

Current-density (vs.) Voltage (as a function of) Temperature. Cf. IVT.

Jehovah's Witness[es].

Japan Weather Association.

The Journal of World Anthroplogy. Available free on the internet.

Crossing the street on foot, if the street is bounded by two regulated intersections. If you want to get technical, this is probably vague. On the other hand, this is probably not a frequently cited violation. Also, that woman you were approaching, who crossed to the other side, that wasn't J-walking, or jaywalking either. There's a secret codicil to the law now; everybody else got the announcement in the mail, but it wasn't broadcast so you wouldn't find out. It's now legal to cross the street to avoid you.

Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Joint Working Group Group on Telemedicine. Sounds like an infomercial cooperative, but it's sponsored by the US government's National Agricultural Library (NAL).

Jewish Women International.

Journal of Women's Imaging. Settle down, settle down. It's a quarterly that ``focuses [ooh, good word] on all clinical imaging modalities, as well as on health care policy and economic issues related to women's imaging. The Journal is intended to serve not only radiologists, but [yes? yes?] all the physicians who are an integral part of the team required to provide health care to women.'' Alright then, I guess I'll order Playboy instead.

JWI is the official journal of the AAWR and has an association with SAWI (qq.v.). It would seem to make more sense the other way around.

Javits-Wagner-O'Day. The JWOD Program, subsidized by the US government, ``provides a wide array of custom solutions at a fair market price while creating employment opportunities for people who are blind or have other severe disabilities.''

The original Wagner-O'Day act ``Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act'' is the popular name of an act that became law on June 25, 1938. ``In 1971, under the leadership of Senator Jacob Javits, Congress amended this Act (41 U.S.C. 46-48c) to include people with severe disabilities and allow the Program to also provide services to the Federal Government.'' (According to 41 U.S.C. 46 nt., it may be cited as the ``Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act.'')

Jane's World Railways.

Jewish World Review.

The Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, ``organized in 1896 by Jewish Veterans of the Civil War, is the oldest active national veterans' service organization in America.''

[dive flag]

Jacques-Yves Cousteau. His friends actually pronounced this as an acronym. Transliterated into English, the acronym is something like ``Zheek.''

With various collaborators, he invented relatively lightweight and self-contained apparatus for breathing underwater (scuba). Almost as important, they invented good watertight goggles and underwater camera housings, and JYC became world-famous with films and books about his explorations. I still remember watching this stuff on TV as a kid. His ship was called the Calypso; whether for the Greek legend or the Caribbean music, I don't remember. He died on June 25, 1997, at the age of 87, and you can find more information about him in obituaries from then, like this reverent one still up at the IANTD website.

A detail about capitalization. The pronunciation of JYC as an acronym is mentioned in various French-language articles I can pull up from the 1990's -- mostly obituaries. For example, the AFP announcement commented en passant, ``JYC, comme tous ses amis l'appelaient....'' The 26 articles that mentioned the nickname generally wrote it in all-caps, with the single exception of one article with ``Jyc'' in Le Figaro (out of four). But here's some really big news: as of 2004, French-language articles in Lexis-Nexis finally use accented characters!

Visa type for a ``short-term scholar'' [clever phrase!]. Also professors and au pairs (would that be aux pairs in French?) and a variety of other guests. Category includes graduate students, foreign guest lecturers, participants in meetings (workshops, seminars, conferences,...). They're permitted to receive direct compensation as well as payment for travel expenses. There is a limit on how many hours per week an au pair may be required to provide child care services, but professors do not benefit from this kind of protection.

Cf. J-2 visa.

j10n, J10N
Japanization. A particular L10n.

Visa type for person present in the US as the spouse of someone on a J-1 visa.

Java 2 platform Enterprise Edition.

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