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Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Journal of Experimental Algorithmics. Published by the ACM.

ISSN 1084-6654.

James Edward Austen-Leigh, born 1798, died 1874. Nephew and important biographer of Jane Austen. He was the eldest son of James Austen, Jane Austen's eldest brother. The Austen family tree had a lot of rather leafy branches, and they tended to overuse some names. (Then again, in the period 1750-1799 a fifth of all English boys were christened William and almost a quarter of girls were christened Mary, so this can't have been a peculiarity.) Within the family, JEAL was called Edward.

The mother of Jane and James Austen was born Cassandra Leigh (1739-1827). Her brother James Leigh (1735-1817) changed his name to James Leigh Perrot in 1751 in order to inherit the estate of his maternal great-uncle Thomas Perrot. When Mrs. Leigh Perrot died in 1836, JEAL inherited Scarlets (the Leigh Perrots' Berkshire estate) on the condition that he add the name Leigh to his own. This stuff happened repeatedly. For example, JEAL was originally named after his uncle Edward Austen (1767-1852). However, uncle Edward had been adopted in childhood by his cousin Mr. Knight, and became Edward Knight in 1812. A rose by some other name may smell a lot sweeter with a comfortable legacy. (And on the subject of clichés, see about Bulwer Lytton's name at the entry for ``It was a dark and stormy night.'')

I haven't seen specific instructions on the pronunciation of the Leigh surname. However, a celebrated cousin, Dr. Theophilus Leigh, was master of Balliol College, Oxford for over fifty years. (When elected, he'd been expected to be just a temporary placeholder, as he was thought to be in poor health. He lived to be over 90.) In a letter to Dr. Samuel Johnson, local resident Mrs. Thrale wrote his name as ``Dr. Lee,'' so there's a clue.

Jane Austen died on July 18, 1817. Jane Austen's last surviving sibling, Admiral Sir Francis Austen, died in August 1865 at the age of 91. With a consciousness that the last of those who had any personal memory of Jane Austen would soon be passing away, and with some concern about what distant family or non-family might write about her, the family decided that a biographical memoir of Jane Austen should be prepared.

As a schoolboy, JEAL had once -- with Aunt Jane's encouragement -- begun to write a novel, though he never finished it. Late in life, he had published Recollections of the Vine Hunt (1865), and this success probably encouraged him in his efforts toward a biography. As the only son of JA's eldest sibling (this is sounding a little like a mafia story, isn't it?), JEAL took the task as his duty. His A Memoir of Jane Austen was based on his own and two of his sisters' recollections (his sister Caroline and his half-sister Anne), as well as those of some cousins. There were also a few relatives alive who for various reasons did not cooperate, and one consequence of this was that JEAL did not have access to all of JA's surviving correspondence.

JEAL began writing the memoir on 30 March 1869 and was done in early September. According to his daughter's memoir of him [Mary Augusta Austen-Leigh: James Edward Austen-Leigh: A Memoir, privately published in 1911], JEAL's A Memoir was published on 16 December 1869 -- what would have been JA's 94th birthday. The volume contains a postscript dated 17 November 1869, JEAL's own 71st birthday. In any event, the volume, published in a small print run of about 1000, bore the publication year 1870. A revised second edition of the memoir, published or at least printed on JEAL's 72nd birthday, dated 1871. (This sort of forward-dating is common in book-publishing, at least partly because it makes books seem fresher longer. Another book I can think of that was forward-dated was Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams -- it was published on November 4, 1899, but the date in the book is 1900.) Don't tell me you didn't need to read all this -- it's too late.

Two important documents that contributed to JEAL's memoir were written by JA's favorite brother Henry, who had seen her novels through to publication, including Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, which were published posthumously. Henry wrote a ``Biographical Notice'' that prefaced the two posthumous novels. (The four previous novels had been published anonymously, though their common authorship was indicated as they appeared successively.) Henry Austen's ``Memoir'' of 1833 was largely a shorter reworking of the 1818 notice, padded back up with quotes of favorable reviews, for inclusion in a new publication of Sense and Sensibility.

Ordained in 1823, JEAL was a clergyman his entire life. Yes, some clergymen hunted. Those who could, I think. Chaplain Groves (US Army), father of General Leslie R. (``Dick'') Groves, of the Manhattan Engineer District, was a severe Presbyterian who considered ``any leisure-time activity other than reading, hunting, and fishing to be a frivolous waste of time if not downright diabolical.'' [I quote William Lawren from p. 45 of a book mentioned at this MED entry.] Interestingly, from 1852 on, JEAL was the vicar of Bray, sir!

[The datum on names in 1750-1799 is lifted from a book by Maggie Lane: Jane Austen and Names (Blaise Books, 2002),]

A durable cotton fabric useful for long treks across the Scrabble tablelands. Gee (``Jea''?), I wonder if this has anything to do with pants called jeans. In any case, the plural jeans is also accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries, but of these three only OSPD4 and TWL2006 accept jeaned (as an adjective). That word was not in OSPD3 and is not in SOWPODS as of 2006. There's no mention of jeaning in any of the above-named dictionaries.

A nickname that is sometimes given to males with the initials J.E.B. The most famous instance is probably still the Confederate Army general James Ewell Brown ``Jeb'' Stuart.

So Jeb can be an acronym. In the case of John Ellis Bush, better known by his nickname Jeb, it gives rise to ``Jeb Bush,'' an acronym-assisted Aap pleonasm. (Jeb, who served as the 43rd governor of Florida, is brother of dubya, who served as the 43rd president of the US. The number 42 is special, though it is neither perfect nor prime. The father, George H.W., served as the 41st president of the US.)

Jeb also occurs directly as a given name. That's the case with Jeb Stuart Magruder, who achieved notoriety in the Watergate scandal. According to his memoir,

[m]y brother Don, who was named for our father, was born in June of 1930, and I arrived in November of 1934. Since my father was both a Civil War buff and a horseman, he named me for his favorite Confederate general, Jeb Stuart, his ideal of a hard-riding cavalry officer. I can remember seeing my father ride a few time when I was quite young. He was into middle age by then but he rode beautifully, always wearing a treasured pair of riding boots from his days in Squadron A.
[An American Life: One Man's Road to Watergate (New York: Atheneum, 1974), p. 15. Earlier Jeb Magruder explains that in 1916, Donald Dilworth Magruder had joined the New York National Guard's famous Squadron A, the last cavalry division in the US Army, but that he saw service in WWI as a sergeant in the 27th Infantry Division. I'm not sure what ``last cavalry division'' is supposed to mean; horse-mounted cavalry were used by the US in WWI and WWII, although modern weapons did render old-stye cavalry charges obsolete.]

Don senior grew up in Staten Island, New York, but from his choice of a CSA general's name for his second son, you might suspect a Southern background. In fact, the Magruder family was established in Maryland in 1659 by family patriarch Alexander Magruder. Thomas Jefferson Magruder, Jeb's great-grandfather, smuggled shoes and boots into Virginia during the American Civil War, and another ancestor, John Bankhead Magruder, was one of Robert E. Lee's generals (p. 13). Alexander, incidentally, arrived from Scotland as an impounded prisoner, and 1659 was the last year of Cromwell's rule -- the year before the restoration of the Stuarts to power. So there's another nominal connection. Moreover, after he was released from prison, Jeb Magruder pursued a career in the Presbyterian Church. (The Presbyterians are originally Scottish Calvinists. They were generally less regicidally disposed to Charles I, not necessarily because the Stuarts were a Scottish line of royalty.)

I myself met Robert E. Lee personally when he visited the Engineering Research Center at Arizona State University in the late 80's. He was introduced as Robert Lee, but I noticed a middle initial E on his briefcase and asked him if he was one of the Virginia Lees. He said no, his parents just liked the name. When Lee Iacocca (actually Lido Anthony Iacocca) was working his way up the corporate ladder at Ford, he spent some time in the South, where his Italian surname was regarded as difficult. He would break the ice by joking about being or not being part of the famous Lee family. (That's from memory; I suppose I read it in his best-selling 1984 autobiography.) The point, if there is one, is that you can't conclude too much from a name, although the collocation of ``Jeb'' and ``Stuart'' is rather suggestive, especially when Stuart is a given name.

That brings us to Jeb Stuart. He was born in 1956 in Little Rock, Arkansas, and is a scriptwriter probably best known for the screenplay of Die Hard, based on a novel by Roderick Thorp. (This is the 1988 action movie -- the first in a franchise that will eventually include 23 sequels and an unknown number of prequels. For Die Hard XV through XXIV, a stunt double will be used for all scenes which require Bruce Willis to walk without assistance. Later, he will shill for the DieHard automobile battery company, which will have been spun off from Sears, which will have died around 2013.) This was Jeb Stuart's first script, or at least his first that was commercially produced. I hesitate to say that it's been downhill since then.

The point is (okay, this isn't the point, but I just ought to point this out), that those who do not remember history are condemned to use ``Jeb'' as a sealed acronym. Also, if it's true (as some claim) that ``Jeb'' arose independently as a short form of ``Jacob,'' then it might be a backronym. My head hurts when I try to figure out whether it could possibly be a sealed backronym.

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.

Job Entry Control Language.


Journal of Early Christian Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. Used to be called Second Century and abbreviated SCent.

Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. A journal, as you have probably surmised. An economics journal. About dynamics and control.

I hope that's clear.

Joint Electron Device Engineering Council.

In a talk on 1997.10.1, a speaker on JEDEC specs in development was asked what ``JEDEC'' stood for, and he said ``it used to stand for'' the expansion above, ``but everyone had trouble remembering that so now it's just `jedec'.'' [Both ees short, accent on the first syllable.] (It's a good thing I put these comments in the glossary shortly after the meeting. I was just throwing away some old notes from that meeting, and ``jedec `used to' '' was all I had scribbled down.) It would help people realize that JEDEC no longer has an expansion if it was written

See previous entry.

Joint Enforcement Database Initiative.

May the Enforce be with you.

It seems to be generally believed that the word jeep, as a common noun or proper noun for the vehicle, originated as a pronunciation of an abbreviation GP (GP ... ``Gee Pee'' ... ``Jeep''). If so, the GP stood for either General Purpose (vehicle) or as a manufacturer's internal designation of the vehicle for part numbering, the G standing for government. It might have stood for both, if quartermasters correctly misinterpreted the manufacturer's code.

Originally introduced by Sir Harold Austin as a rugged utility vehicle for the American market, it never quite caught on in the twenties and thirties; the American Austin company, reorganized under some other name I forgot, continued to make them in small numbers right up to the war. They achieved a small cult following. When the US went to war, bids were requested for a general-purpose 4WD military vehicle, to be produced in unheard-of numbers. The successful bids were all for minor variations on that American Austin vehicle. Ford and Willys produced 75 per day, and from 1942, when civilian production was halted for the duration of the war, that was the closest thing to a car that American industry produced. After the war, Willys continued to manufacture a 2WD version for the civilian market, instead of returning to conventional car production. They eventually made some small ``improvements'' like roll-down windows.

In the 70's, the military finally replaced the Jeep with the HMMWV (Humvee).

WWII-surplus jeeps in the Philippines were converted to small, garishly decorated open buses called jeepneys. Here's a page with lots of Philippine Jeepneys. A similar vehicle is used in Puerto Rico.

It's Willys and not Willy's, after owner John North Willys. Jeep, the vehicle and brand, has been a kind of curse -- a perennial survivor of the auto companies that manufactured it. American Motors (AMC) had the Jeep for a number of years after Willys folded, and introduced the highly successful Wagoneer series. Renault tried to make a go of American Motors, and when they sold AMC to the Chrysler Corporation, Jeep was the only product line that eventually survived (I think they also kept up the Eagle line for a little bit). In 1999, Chrysler ``merged with'' (i.e., was diplomatically taken over by) Daimler-Benz, which unloaded it for a loss in 2007. Chrysler's Plymouth brand was an immediate casualty of the takeover, but Jeep keeps on truckin'.

Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (beamline). An X-ray beamline at the Diamond Light Source -- the UK's national synchrotron facility, which is located at the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Oxfordshire.

Japan Educational Exchanges and Services. JEES ``provides services and supports for all students in Japan to promote international understanding and exchange.'' One service it does not appear to provide is a homepage in any language other than Japanese, although the site for its Japanese Language Proficiency Test (JLPT) is in English. Aw, geez!

Japan Electronic Industries Development Association. Merged with EIAJ in 2000 to form JEITA.

German,`yes and no,' from ja and nein. Part of the reason this works is that, despite orthographic appearances, the two words share a vowel. This is apparent in IPA, in which the words are written /ja/ and /nai:n/.

Japan Electronic and Information Technology Industries Association. Created on November 1, 2000 in the merger of the two Japanese electronics industry associations EIAJ and JEIDA.

Jerusalem English { Language | Lending } Library for Youth.

Joint Equipment Manufacturers Initiative.

Short for a four-year series of Latin textbooks. They had their origin in Minnie L. Smith's First Latin lessons (1904). Charles Jenney, Jr., authored revisions to later versions of that book at least as early as 1954, and eight years later, it was still being published as Smith and Thompson's First year Latin, revised by Charles Jenney, Jr. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1962). Jenney's second-year book then was called Scudder's Second year Latin, revised by Charles Jenney, Jr.

Allyn and Bacon had a front-page advertisement for the set on the 1948-49 school year's first issue of Classical Weekly (CW). The advertisement bore the caption ``Latin and World Peace.'' Those were the days. The days of dodgy reasoning, among other things. It's not like that any more. From the ad, I infer that the third-year book was by Kelsey and Meinecke by then, and the fourth-year by Carlisle and Richardson. I have no idea how well coordinated the original ``well-tested Series'' was.

The books have continued to be revised by an army of successors, but (or perhaps therefore) the only author whose name appears on the cover nowadays is Jenney's (Jenney's First Year Latin, etc.), and there are workbooks available for the first two years. (In 1948 there was a workbook by Thompson and Peters, and an associated volume of classical myths compiled by Herzberg.) Your opinion of the books is bound to depend strongly on your opinion regarding the value of the traditional ``grammar-translation'' approach. It is a very traditional book based on ``real Latin'' -- excerpts from classical literature -- rather than made-up readings. Other texts typically introduce ``real Latin'' in the fourth year. Here's a detailed review. (There is some sentiment that the 1984 edition is better than the subsequently improved versions.)

A girl born in 1974.

Jennifer Jones
  1. The mother of Tom Jones in Richardson's novel of that name.
  2. A contributor to various web resources on Victorian literature, such as Voice of the Shuttle: English Literature and The Victorian Canon. [The latter is a ``web site devoted to investigating the problem of taste and aesthetics with regard to the Victorian canon in particular, and to the canon debates in the academy in general . . .  contains on-line syllabi (e.g. Victoriana: The Popular Canon; The Victorian Novel; Victorian Poetry; The Novel and the Long 19th Century; Literature of Empire), on-line texts (including short stories by Lady Jane Wilde and Mary Elizabeth Braddon), images, external links, and a theory archive.''] Okay, so Richardson is pre-Victorian; it's close.
  3. An Academy-Award-winning actress. She starred as Emma Bovary in the 1949 movie Madame Bovary, which was constructed as a frame narrative about Gustave Flaubert's famous novel. She co-starred in The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, discussed at the Babbitt entry. In her mid-twenties, she was cast as the fourteen-year-old Bernadette in the 1943 Song of Bernadette. This is a story about the creation of the religious attraction at Lourdes, and as such you expect it to have taken place in medieval times, but Bernadette reported her vision in 1858. Madonna named her daughter Lourdes. It seems to run in the family. Once I mentioned to Sabine that I had met a woman named Bernadette in France, and she laughed out loud -- Bernadette seemed such an old-fashioned name to her.
  4. There's another Jennifer Jones in show business, as well as a Jennifer Leigh Jones and J.B. Jones, who has gone by ``Jennifer Jones,'' and assorted Jennifer Joneses in non-acting roles.

Woman's name, or nickname for Jennifer.

Female donkey.

Journal of Economic Psychology. Do you really want to pay for this journal? Buy it and see.

  1. Third time derivative of position, equivalently the (first) time derivative of acceleration. Corresponds approximately to the ordinary notion of a jerk.
  2. [Among the old Los Alamos `device' makers] an energy of 1016 ergs. Does not correspond even approximately to anything ordinary.

Five-liter resealable container for ethanol-water solutions. Cf. the smaller magnum and the larger double imperial. I learned all this cool stuff by watching TV.

The term jerry can, for a flat-sided metal fuel can, capacity about five (US) gallons, stems from jeroboam in the sense of a large fluid container. A lot of folks who don't drink enough probably suppose it has something to do with this other jerry.

Joint Explosive Ordinance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle.

A German soldier, blitzing his way across the low-lying rectilinear battlelines of the Scrabble tablelands.

Japanese Earth Resources Satellite.

Job Entry Subsystem.

A regular verb (regular in the morphological sense, anyway) meaning to fasten straps around the legs of a hawk. Even if you're not into falconry, but just happen to find yourself lost and looking for a way out of the Scrabble forest, you might find this a useful word. Keep in mind also...

This is an alternate spelling of jess. It's accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries.

JESSI, Jessi
Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative.

Jessica Mitford
Jessica Mitford is one of the famous Mitford sisters. They're so famous that they really don't need a glossary entry. (However, as their floruit recedes into the past, such an entry may become necessary as early as next week.) We already have Jessica Mitford content elsewhere in the glossary. The most important bits are at the Lady Bird entry and within the U and non-U entry (specifically at this point, where ``You-All and Non-You-All'' and Poison Pen are discussed).

Jessica's (and all her sisters') mother had the given name Sydney. Around 1982, I myself met a woman whose name was Sydney. This Sydney was American, and I would guess she was born in the 1950's. I asked her how she felt about her name. I can't remember her exact words, but she seemed to rather resent her parents' having given it to her. I didn't ask why she didn't change it. Apparently she was waiting for 1995 and the release of ``The American President,'' in which Annette Benning played the love interest of Michael Douglas, as the lobbyist Sydney Ellen Wade to his President Andrew Shepherd.

Jessica Mitford herself was always known personally as ``Decca.'' Her first child, who died in infancy, was named ``Julia Decca Romilly.'' Her surviving children called her ``Decca'' or ``Dec'' rather than anything like ``mom.'' (Her daughter was called ``Dinky Donk'' and variants or pieces of that.) The kids got some press when they helped to promote Peter Sussman's Decca: The Letters of Jessica Mitford, published in 2006.

In early 1995, Jessica Mitford and her backing band recorded an album as ``Decca and the Dectones.'' The band was described by Patricia Holt in the San Francisco Chronicle as ``a kazoo-and-cowbell orchestra led by San Francisco author escort [the SBF glossary does not know what that means] and recording producer Kathi Kamen Goldmark. (Goldmark has done other similar projects; some are linked from this webpage, where you can order the two-song album in CD or MP3 format.) Yeah, Mitford was 77 at the time. That's not such a big deal; my mother was still singing (soprano in choirs) into her mid-80's. Mitford was wheelchair-bound with a broken ankle when she did her recordings, and she died of lung cancer a year-and-a-half later, aet. 78. Holt wrote, ``certainly the term `barrel-voice' comes to mind.''

I don't know how Jessica Mitford came by her nickname, but Decca was a well-known name in music for much of the twentieth century. In 1914, the musical instrument maker Barnett Samuel and Sons patented a portable record player called the Decca Dulcephone. The word Decca is said to have been coined by Wilfred S. Samuel, who merged the word Mecca with the initial D of their logo ``Dulcet'' or their trademark ``Dulcephone.'' I don't know what motivated an etymology based on Mecca. Barnett Samuel and Son was eventually renamed ``The Decca Gramophone Co., Ltd.'' and in 1929 it was sold to former stockbroker Edward Lewis. I suppose 1929 was a good year for former stockbrokers who still had their shirts to get into another line of business. Lewis fared well; his ``Decca Records, Ltd.'' [I guess there were partners] became the second-largest record label in the world. I used to own many of their records from the 1950's.

I'm not sure precisely when Jessica Mitford used a married name, but she does describe at least one occasion in Poison Penmanship. Vivian Cadden, an editor at McCall's, invited her to do an article on Elizabeth Arden's Maine Chance (a weight-loss spa located, against toponymic expectation, in Arizona):

... a slight feeling of paranoia took hold at the moment of actually picking up the phone to call Elizabeth Arden's for a reservation. Maine Chance would surely be, for me, enemy territory [she had earned a reputation as a muck-raking journalist]; what if my identity were discovered by the reservations people? Would they refuse my application? I could use my married name, but this would be scanty cover at the local Arden salon in San Francisco [she lived in Oakland], where they might easily make the connection with Jessica Mitford. So I telephoned to the New York office and announced myself as Mrs. Robert Treuhaft, which was how I was introduced to the other slimmers at Maine Chance. One day at lunch I overheard a woman asking another, ``Who is that?'' ``Oh, that's Mrs. Fruehauf'' came the reply. ``Her husband is very big in trucking.''

Journal of Extraneous Scientific Topics. SBF homeboy sez: Check it out!

Joint European Torus. An old tokomak.

I thought the major was a lady suffragette. (Hey, a jet has wings, Wings had a Jet.)

Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics. The Physical Review Letters (PRL) of the Russian Federation.

JETRO, Jetro
Japan External TRade Organization.

Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society.

The Junior Engineering Technical Society. ``Promoting Interest in Engineering, Science, Mathematics and Technology.'' An associate society of the AAES.

jeunes des banlieues
French term literally meaning `suburban youths.' A euphemism for ``beurs'' (not a euphemism) from any of the crime-infested rings of housing projects (see HLM) that were built on the outskirts of French cities in the 1960's and 1970's.

In October 2005, when major rioting broke out in les banlieues around Paris, Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy repeatedly objected to the euphemism, insisting for example that voyous (`thugs') was a better word for the rioters than jeunes (`youth'). A snit-load of bien-pensants criticized him for using accurate terms such as this and racaille, q.v.

But the voters found a way to punish Sarkozy: they made him Co-Prince of Andorra! (And President of France.) Also, his half-brother married Mary-Kate Olsen. I don't know what to say, but I don't have to.

Joint (J) Engagement Zone. This is not the romantic kind of engagement. This is a different kind, also expected to end only when someone has died. For a nonelliptic explanation, see the weapon engagement zone entry of the DOD's online Dictionary of Military Terms.

Journal of Field Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. If you think field archaeology is all the archaeology there is, consider IJNA.

If you're looking for the LGBT equal-rights organization with ``Justice for All'' in its name, you want AJA (And Justice for All).

Justice For All. ``Justice For All and our JFA E-mail Network were formed [apparently by the AAPD] to defend and advance disability rights and programs in the 104th Congress [1995-1997]. One JFA goal is to work with national and state organizations of people with disabilities to get the word from Washington D.C. out to the grassroots.''

Justice For All. ``Justice For All shall act as an advocate for change in a criminal justice system that is inadequate in protecting the lives and property of law-abiding citizens.'' JFA sponsors <murdervictims.com> and <prodeathpenalty.com>.

Joint (Military Services) Flow and Analysis System for Transportation.

Just Do It! Adjective, as in ``JFDI methodology.''

The story is told that once, after presenting a paper at a conference of film academics, P. Adams Sitney was asked by an audience member how he would characterize the methodology used for his analysis. Sitney replied,

My methodology is called `watching the films.'

Junior Faculty Development Program. There's one run by USAID for Russia.

Journal of Fluids Engineering. LC number TA357.T69; published by ASME.

Junction Field-Effect Transistor (FET). First proposed by William Shockley in Procs. of the IRE, 40, 1365 (1952). The first functioning JFET was made by G. C. Dacey and I. M. Ross, ibid., 41, 970 (1953).

Jordanian Fencing Federation. No-no: not that kind of fencing. No, not that kind either! Fencing the sport -- with swords'n'all.

JPEG File Interchange Format.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics. LC number QA901.J87 . First volume in 1956. It took 33 years to generate the first two hundred volumes; it took six years to generate the next hundred.

Jane's Foreign Report. (``Foreign'' here means other than UK.) For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Journaled File System. IBM disk-use system for machines running AIX, as near as I can make out.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy. A US president. Also an airport (next entry). John Forbes Kerry, another Roman Catholic Senator, also a Massachusetts Democrat, ran for president in 2004, another closely contested, high turn-out election. If he had won, we'd have had a massive namespace collision that might've taken years to sort out. Instead, we got President Bush. Man, did we ever dodge a bullet!

IATA code for John F. Kennedy International Airport. Located on the southern coast of Long Island. It used to be called Idlewild, after the location, although the official name was New York International Airport. Renamed for the assassinated president in memoriam. JFK is one of four airports for which reservations are always allocated by the ARO. Here's its status in real time from the ATCSCC.

Jewish Federations of North America. A federation, er, umbrella organization, of upwards of 150 Jewish federations. It was the ``United Jewish Communities'' until October 2009. Judging from the tool to find local organizations, the ``North America'' in the name includes Hawaii and excludes Mexico.

Junction-Gate [of a Junction (-gate) Field-Effect Transistor (JFET)].

Japanese Government Bond.

Japanese Geomorphological Union.

JoHannesBurg. One local name for the town is eGoli, meaning `city of gold.' Another town that doesn't have any native gold resources is Jerusalem, which has the epithet Yerushalayim shel zahar, `Jerusalem of gold.'

Jackson Hole Bible College.

``One God ... One Creation ... One Year ... One Foundation'' Trilogy. (Sorry, felt like sneaking that in.)

``Jackson Hole Bible College is a one-year, in depth study of the scriptures with a creation emphasis leading to a Biblical Foundation and Christian Worldview. ... We are dedicated to providing our students with a quality program combining outdoor recreational activities and solid Biblical teaching.''

One question you will ponder: ``How was the Grand Canyon really formed?'' Somehow I get the idea that this isn't going to be addressed from the ordinary godless perspective of a typical geology course. (Someone mentioned last February 2004 that there was a news story on just this topic: A book claiming that the Grand Canyon was formed in the aftermath of the Biblical flood was for sale at a US Park Service gift shop.)

Another: ``Could all the animals really fit on the Ark?'' Sure -- at the time all the life forms were prokaryotes.

Located in Jackson, Wyoming. ``Come visit our campus in the center of the beautiful Tetons.'' Pretty racy language for a bible college.

Journal of the History of Ideas. Published by Johns Hopkins University Press. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

J Homosexual
ISI abbreviation for the Journal of HOMOSEXUALity. I guess nothing shorter would do. They wanted to avoid confusion in case someone should start up a publication called Journal of Homologous Series (J Homo Se). I'm sure that's the reason.

Okay, the manuscripts were due at the end of August, and the following June, we heard that the relevant special issue was in press. It's November, two issues have appeared since the heads-up, but our issue hasn't. This isn't slow -- not even a little strange. It's f---in' queer!

There's actually a little bit of historical information (in your face!) at the GLQ entry.

Horrible film of Japan origin. Ah, sorry, please mistake, ah, HORROR film of Japanese origin.

Required features:

  1. Creepy little girl with long, dark hair.
  2. Supernatural stuff.
  3. Water as symbol of death.
  4. Western stars.
Recommended features:
  1. Remake of version with all-Japanese cast.
  2. Kouji Suzuki included in writing credits.

Movies like ``The Ring'' (2002) (not to be mistaken for the 1998 version with an all-Japanese cast or the 1999 Korean version), ``The Grudge'' (2004) (not to be mistaken for ``Ju-on: The Grudge'' (2003), Japanese cast), and ``Dark Water'' (2005).

Jobs, Health care, Oil, and Security. Pronounced, not very propitiously, ``jay-hose.'' Acronym, used within the 2004 Kerry presidential campaign, to refer to the campaign's essential message. Democratic presidential campaigns seem to generate more neologisms than Republican ones do. Cf. scorps.

Y'NO, I hadn't realized Kerry 2004 had a prospective policy-related message, but if I'd had to guess, I guess I'd have been way off. It's true that campaigns don't regularly have the luxury of being about what they'd like to be about, but this was ridiculous.

Journal of the History of Philosophy. ISSN 0022-5053.

JHPIEGO, the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Reproductive Health. I know, I know: it's a little bit difficult to extract the initials G-O from the words Reproductive Health. I only found this expansion in an article from 1999. Since then, they're even more reluctant to give an expansion. A few pages have the expansion, but the easiest way to find a page that gives it is to guess the expansion correctly first. It's the ``Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics.''

When they were founded, in 1973 or so, this was okay; since then, I guess the gee and oh terms have become increasingly politically fraught, so they're covering their, uh, asses. We live in a crazy world, but what's the alternative? This particular craziness is what we have come to recognize as a sealed acronym, but the seal is very slightly ajar or nonhermetic or something: Googling in January 2005, I found that for every page that revealed the original expansion of JHPIEGO, there were 300 that used JHPIEGO without the original expansion (whether without any expansion, or with the appositive and partially accurate expansion). That's unusual, but here at SBF it's our bread and butter, or anyway our virtual bread and butter. [In January 2013, it looks like someone has virtually eaten our breakfast, because that 300 is down to less than 20.]

Many webpages explain that JHPIEGO is ``pronounced `ja-pie-go'.'' When I learn how ``ja'' is pronounced (elsewhere than Jamaica), I'll let you know.

Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. You're probably asking yourself, ``are there some new ones?'' There always are.


Journal of Hellenic Studies. Founded in 1880, but it still hasn't got a website of its very own. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. A publication of the Hellenic Society (SPHS), annual since 1958 (previously semiannual).

Since the 1950's the JHS has had a supplement entitled Archaeological Reports (AR).

Junior High School. Typically seventh through ninth grades, distinguished from middle school, which ends at eighth grade (extended random thoughts at the MS entry).

Johns Hopkins University. The only university whose name is an admissions test. If you mess up the grammatical-number agreement in the school name, they toss your application in a slush pile for forwarding to UMBC admissions. Okay, I made that part up. They probably just write ``ADDRESSEES UNKNOWNS'' in big letters across the front and return to sender. That's what I would do. Cf. Liouville.

Johns Hopkins University CTY.

Joint Implementation (of action on greenhouse gases).

Junction Isolation (q.v.).

Apparently Japan International Cooperation. Standards.

Joint Industry Committee. An organization that standardizes hydraulic fittings specifications and symbols. More standards.

George Westinghouse, now best remembered for his electrical enterprises, made his fortune with an air brake for trains, and was a great proponent of industrial standardization. He lost his money in a crash (of the stock market) and died poor.

Joint Information Center.

Japan International Cooperation Agency.

Japan Industrial Conference on Cleaning.

Jerusalem International Computers and Communication.

Joint Industry Coupon Committee.

Japan Information Center of Science and Technology.

Jane's Intelligence Digest. They've really leveraged the name recognition now. JID is part of Jane's Information Group. For a list of their information services, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Joint Interoperability and Engineering Organization. [Of US Dept. of Defense (DOD).]

Journal of Indo-European Studies. A journal catalogued in TOCS-IN.

A dry liquid measure: 1.5 oz.

Obsolete term for four iron (golf club).

Japanese Institute of Intellectual Property.

Job Information List. The MLA has one that's divided up by academic disciplines.

Abstracted from the English Edition of the October MLA JIL's, 1975-1998, here is a graph of the number of positions listed. It peaked at 1053 positions in 1988. Another graph, served by ADE, shows the number of Ph.D.'s granted (probably only in the US) in English and American language and literature, 1958-2000. The curve has a similar shape, but it peaks at 1412 in 1973.

An alternate spelling of the volume unit normally spelled gill. Like gaol (British spelling of jail, pronounced ``jail''), gill is pronounced with a ``soft gee.'' So even though few people will recognize the unit in this alternate spelling, at least they'll know how to pronounce it. Also, it's accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries.

The gill is now generally taken to be equal to a quarter of a pint: 4 fluid ounces in the God-Ordained Tradition! System of Weights and Measures in use in the US, or 5 fluid ounces in the old British Imperial system. (Note that those are different fluid ounces: the fluid ounce of the US customary system is a volume equal to 1.8046875 cu. in., while the British fluid ounce measures 1.733871 cu. in., approximately.)

A half a gill (an eighth of a pint) is a noggin... in some places. In others it's equal to twice or four times that. Ain't it great? At various times and places, mostly in the past and England, a gill has also been a half pint, and in those places a quarter pint was a jack.

In Tour of the Hebrides for September 20, 1773, Boswell records Johnson's saying ``Each man called for his own half-pint of wine, or gill, if he pleased.'' I don't know how ``or'' was meant there (i.e., I don't know whether it is implied that a gill is a half pint), but I think it's worth pointing out that until British Imperial units were introduced, the Scots pint was a volume about equal to 1.80 US quarts.

Let's consider the spellings. English spelling generally reflects etymology, so that the pronunciation of certain letter sequences depends on the origin (or sometimes the mistakenly imputed origin) of the word. The initial letter sequence gi is a case in point.

The g is normally ``hard'' (or ``guttural'') in words of Germanic origin. Examples include giddy, gift, gild, gilt, gird, girdle, girth, girl, and give.

The g is ``soft'' in words taken from French, Italian, or Latin (even if they only passed through one of these languages on their way from Arabic or Greek). Relatively simple examples include giant, gibbet, giblet, gigantic, gigolo, ginger, and gingivitis. Gill itself is from the Old French gille, from the medieval Latin gillus, a wine vessel. Some exceptions to the rule can be explained on the basis of gui- spellings in Old French, including gimlet, gingham, and probably gizzard. More complicated things have happened as well (see gaol).

I suppose all this information really belongs at a gill entry rather than at this jill ``alternate spelling'' entry. Therefore, its presence here is a bonus.

Just to round out the entry, I should point out that in seventeenth-century England, the gill was once a unit used to measure quantities of tin, and in that application it corresponded to a full pint.

Japan Institute of Metals.

A nickname for James. In fact, ``James'' has a somewhat formal sound, so most Jameses are called Jim by their friends. But an Indian friend of mine is named James, and he doesn't use ``Jim'' because in many languages of the Indian subcontinent, jim means `dog.'

A tiny bit of candy for decorating ice cream, and a valid Scrabble word (with regular plural) according to the OSPD4 and the TWL2006. It wasn't listed in OSPD3 and was added to SOWPODS during the year or so before June 2007.

Diminutive form of Jim.

Jimmy the lock! Donald -- duck! Shit, John! It's a snap, Ginger! Oh Joy! You understand, Ken?

Name that GM came up with for its GMC truck division products. Cf. RB.

Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter. A proposed NASA vehicle that could move in and out of orbit around three of Jupiter's largest and most distant moons. The orbiter, to be powered by a nuclear reactor (for instruments and for an ion propulsion system) and expected to cost billions of dollars, is not expected to launch any earlier than 2011; exploratory studies for the project only began in February 2003.

Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures.

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. JINR is a research center in Dubna, Russia.

The first major research instrument was built at Dubna in 1947-1949, and the USSR Academy of Sciences eventually had two research institutes there: the Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP) and the Electrophysical Laboratory. CERN was created in 1954, and in 1956, keeping up with the Joneses of the West, the Soviet Union used those two Academy institutes as the basis on which to establish JINR. Initially, JINR could be regarded by the Soviets as their CERN, but over time they diverged. In particular, CERN eventually had showcase high-energy accelerators for elementary particle research, whereas Dubna stayed in what became the medium-energy regime -- nuclear physics. Probably the thing for which Dubna is best known is the discovery of new transuranic elements. This defines its peers: initially (like its prececessor INP), it competed with Berkeley (LBL) for discovery of and naming rights to new elements. Berkeley eventually moved in different directions also, and now Dubna's main peer institutions are GSI in Germany and the RIKEN Nishina Center (Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics Laboratory) in Japan.

The ``Joint'' in the name originally referred to various parts of the Soviet Empire: some, at least, of the republics of the USSR, and Soviet bloc member states. In a couple of days, I hope to find out about possible members or ``participants'' that are no longer such. I wonder in particular about the Baltic republics. It seems there may have been a little hesitation evem among those that re-upped: sovereign but not-especially independent Belarus renewed or continued its participation in 1991, seven other current participants that had been Soviet Republics did so only in 1992. (These were Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan). Russia, where Dubna is located, was always a participant by dint of the owner and operator, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, becoming the Russian Academy of Sciences. Nine other countries participate formally: Bulgaria, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Vietnam. Most of these, or their Soviet-era predecessors, have been members since 1956; Cuba joined in 1976; and for North Korea (the ``Democratic People's Republic'' and mass prison), appropriately enough, no details are available.

Most of my life, I've heard JINR referred to simply as ``Dubna.'' The 1962 accident that ended Lev Landau's career took place when he was being driven to Dubna. He was being driven by a graduate student, so you might suppose Dau was going to JINR. I think he was, but he was probably mixing business with pleasure. As his widow Kora Landau-Drobantseva explained in ch. 4 of her 1983 memoir (Akademik Landau. Kak mi zhili, `Professor Landau: How We Lived'), the Landaus had an open marriage. That fateful morning of January 7, 1962, he told her that she shouldn't answer the door -- he would do so. This was what she called a `stop sign' or `red light' -- evidently a warning not to be too inquisitive about his plans.)

Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs.

Jane's Intelligence Review. Just how much intelligence can they have if they try to hijack the acronym of the real JIR? How bright is that? They want the free publicity, sure. For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Journal of Irreproducible Results.TM Either this or Nature (London) is the most widely read scientific journal in the world. This is particularly impressive when you consider that JIR is no longer published as a periodical -- they're just reprinting best-of collections in book form. For something that's up-to-date, but no less um, whatever, see AIR.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences.

Japan Industrial Standard. Standards established by JISC (infra). More English-friendly JIS information served from Chiba University.

Jurisdictional Interstate Service.

Japan Information Service Association. (In English also.)

Japan Industrial Standards Committee.

Joint Information Systems Committee (of UK). Sometimes incorrectly expanded ``SubCommittee.'' Man, that kindof sloppiness really gets on my nerves.

Japanese Industrial Standard Code for Information Interchange. Slang designation of JIS character-set standards, modeled after ASCII (q.v.).

Juvenile Intensive Supervision Program. A New Jersey alternate-punishment program. See the ISP entry.

Just In Time. A manufacturing strategy that minimizes the capital invested in inventory by substituting close coordination with suppliers. First widely implemented in Japan, where many companies belong to keiretsu (loose conglomerates, very loosely speaking) that engender broad cooperation. There are both horizontal and vertical (integration) keiretsu, and some of both kinds would probably be in violation of antitrust law in the US. Most allegations of predatory practices by Keiretsu are never proven. It reminds me of Big Jule in ``Guys and Dolls'': ``Well, I used to be bad when I was a kid, but ever since then I've gone straight, as has been proved by my record: Thirty-three arrests and no convictions!''

The acronym is also used in computer programming. In general it refers to the second stage in certain two-stage compilations. In the first stage, the source code of a stand-alone program or module is ``compiled'' to byte code. In the second stage, which occurs at run time, the byte code is ``JIT compiled'' or ``jitted'' into an executable. This sort of two-stage compilation, and the term JIT, are characteristic of Java in general, and of all programming languages running within Microsoft's .NET framework.

Joint Interoperability Testing Center.

JIT Lieferung
German term meaning `Just In Time delivery.' In other words, it means `JIT.'

International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research.

Josai International University. A new university in Japan, founded 1992. The initialism is (as is fairly standard for romaji acronyms) given using English letter names (i.e., pronounced ``jay eye you'' -- or rather jei ai yu in romaji). You can hear this on the university song (WAV format here).

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe.

When we learned the word ogive in statistics (used as an alternate term for a cumulative distribution function) in high school, somebody observed that it was like, so cool to say ``oh jive!''


June, July, August. Aggregated Summer data. Take your complaints to the MAM entry. Cf. DJF, SON.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

JJ coupling
A procedure for treating the LS coupling in high-Z atoms (and essentially all nuclei), which for some electrons (nucleons) is so strong as to rival the residual Coulomb (internuclear) interaction magnitude. The procedure consists in first treating the LS coupling of individual electrons (nucleons), to define states of definite L, S, J and Jz, and then to treat the residual interaction as a perturbation coupling different J states.

Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.

JoKe. Chatese.

JK Flip-Flop. ``JK'' stands for Jordan and Kelly, the inventors. Or so I've heard. I've also read in various places that in 1919 W. H. Eccles and F. W. Jordan published the first FF circuit design. They called the circuit a ``trigger.''

J. K. Rowling.

J. K. Rowling
Pen name of Joanne Rowling, author of the hugely successful children's book series about the young wizard Harry Potter. It was supposed that boys would be less inclined to buy a book if they thought the author was a woman, hence the use of initials. Since a single initial tends to look unbalanced or inadequate, Rowling used the initials J. and K. The kay honors her late paternal grandmother Kathleen. Rowling, seemingly inappropriately, rhymes with bowling rather than howling.

[column] In college, Rowling read French with a Classics subsid (majored in French and minored in Classics; you could do a Classics subsid at Exeter without studying Latin). In one interview no longer at its old URL she said,

I went to Exeter University straight after school, where I studied French. This was a big mistake. I had listened too hard to my parents, who thought languages would lead to a great career as a bilingual secretary.
Her books are full of Latinate invented words, and she gave Hogwarts school the Latin motto Draco Dormiens Nunquam Titillandus (`Never Tickle a Sleeping Dragon'). As she put it in a March '99 interview at the Mothers Who Think website,
I taught for about four years, mainly teenagers. It is my own memories of childhood that inform my writing, however; I think I have very vivid recall of what it felt like to be 11 years old. The classics part of my degree at Exeter College did furnish me with a lot of good names for characters -- not exactly the use my lecturers expected me to put it to, however.

It was announced in December 2001 that Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, the first book in the Harry Potter series, would be published in Latin (in 2003) and ancient Greek (later). The stated intention is to help children overcome the common dread of studying the two dead languages. (Gives you a whole different take on ``scary stories,'' huh?) Peter Needham, who taught Latin and Greek at Eton College for more than 30 years, was contracted to do the Latin version. Needham is ``calling Harry Harrius Potter. Arrius is a Latin name -- there's an Arrius in a Catullus poem -- and it declines perfectly well so that, for example, we have Harrium Potterum. The literal translation of Potter would be Figulus but I very much hope that Potter will survive.'' (This is a bit of sly humor. In poem 84, Catallus ridicules Arrius for his speech defect: he inserts an aitch -- a rough breathing rather than a sound, as the Greeks and many Romans thought of it -- before words beginning in a vowel. Hence, he'd have pronounced his own name Harrius.)

For more on Roman attitudes to aitch, see comments in the Noctes Atticae (`Attic Nights') of Aulus Gellius, bk. II, iii.1-5, Quintilian, IO 1.5.19. One secondary source that I can think of, just speculation really, is E. S. Sheldon, ``H as a Mute in Latin,'' vol. 5 HSCP (1894), pp. 167-168.

Our small contribution to Harry Potter studies is the Voldemort entry.

For a deeper analysis of the use of initials and other variations in name presentation, see

It turns out the ``J. Rowling'' might have implied, depending on circumstances, that the author was self-derogatory or masochistic. ``J. K. Rowling'' is a form that may (as it does in this case) indicate a desire to avoid revealing oneself. Ezra Pound gave Hilda Doolittle the pen name H.D. I'm not clear whether this was intended to help get her work published; her first three published poems all appeared in the literary magazine Poetry, published by Pound's friend Harriet Monroe.

Other famous authors who have used a pseudonym that concealed the fact that they were women: George Eliot [Mary Ann Evans], George Sand, Collette. (No, ``Collette'' doesn't dissimulate the author's gender, but read on.) Samuel (Erewhon) Butler argued that The Odyssey (yeah, ``Homer's Odyssey'') was written by a woman (the title sort of kills the suspense of the argument: The Authoress of the Odyssey). A somewhat different case is presented by the Pentateuch, redacted from texts written by a number of authors (possibly not all male) and attributed to Moses (see J entry).

Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin (neé Dudevant) co-wrote her first novel with her then-lover Jules Sandeau, published under the single pseudonym Jules Sand. Her second novel, Indiana (my state of residence!), and subsequent novels, she single-authored as George Sand. She was famous not only for her novels but for her sexual iconoclasm -- smoking cigars, affecting male clothing, and engaging in multiple affairs with a lack of secretiveness unusual for women of her class. She had a prodigious output -- she wrote for the money. As Dr. Samuel Johnson said -- ``No man but a blockhead ever wrote except for money.''

Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine first wrote several books published under her husband's name (Henri Gauthier-Villars). After her divorce, she published first under her maiden name and then as Collette. In her memoirs she wrote

Born into an unmonied family, I never learned a métier. I knew how to climb, whistle, and run, but no one ever suggested that I earn my living as a squirrel or a deer. The day necessity put a pen in my hand, and in return for my written pages I was given a little money, I realized that every day thereafter I would slowly, tractably, patiently have to write . . .

(Did I mention Dr. Johnson? Have I pointed out that a major irritant in the long feud between Dostoyevsky and Turgenev was the fact that the latter was better-paid for his work? Dostoyevsky complained that Turgenev was paid five times as much per word. I wouldn't have complained if Fyodor had written shorter novels.)

George Sand, Collette, and J. K. Rowling all had unhappy first marriages, divorced and were poor, and wrote to make money. Mary Ann or Marian Evans, who wrote under the pen name George Eliot, never had a legally sanctioned first marriage -- unhappy or otherwise -- but she lived happily with George Henry Lewes from 1854 until his death in 1878. (He was unable to obtain a divorce from his first wife; his sinful cohabitation with Evans was a scandal.) There must be a pattern or a lesson in all this, but I can't imagine what it is.

Joanne Rowling was married on Friday, October 16, 1992. In Harry Potter and The Prisoner of Azkaban, Professor Trelawney tells Lavender Brown, ``That thing you are dreading -- it will happen on Friday the 16th of October.''

Some of the people who write romance novels are men, but none of the names of authors listed on the covers of romance novels are men's names. If you'll just do the arithmetic, you'll see that this means that there are men writing under female pseudonyms. In the traditional romance novel, the heroine finds happiness in her first marriage. (Although there does now exist a ``second chance'' subgenre.)

I read three romance novels once, almost, and later I thought, ``Hey, I can turn out shlock like this too!'' My cousin Victoria (raking in the big bucks as a schoolteacher) encouraged me in this enterprise, sort of, and came up with a good pen name for me. Eventually, however, I realized that to write what you can't bear to read any more of can really put a damper on your working life, so that project is on hold everlasting.

There's a bound typescript publication by Alice Kahler Marshall, Pen Names of Women Writers from 1600 to the Present (1985). For Laura Riding, the pen names listed are Barbara Rich; Laura Riding (Jackson; Gottschalk). Don't worry if you find this confusing. It was confusing. There was an article on her in TNR many years ago (1980's, probably), and I think the title was Laura Riding Roughshod.

The Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope. A 1.0-meter telescope operated by ING on behalf of the NWO and other scientific do-gooders.


Journal of Late Antiquity. Published twice a year, it ``is the first international English-language journal dedicated to the study of Late Antiquity writ large. The journal provides a venue for multi-disciplinary coverage of all the methodological, geographical, and chronological facets of Late Antiquity, going from AD 250 to 750, ranging from Arabia to the British Isles, and running the gamut from literary and historical studies to the study of material culture. One of the primary goals of the journal is to highlight the status of Late Antiquity as a discrete historical period in its own right.''

Here's something interesting that the whole family can appreciate: a half-page ad (5.5 × 4") costs $206, while a full-page ad (5.5 × 9") costs $275.

Jefferson LAB. Previously, and still informally, known as CEBAF. Known more formally as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Street address: 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia.

Justice League of America: New World Order. Superman (with longer hair than I remember from years ago), Batman, Wonder Woman, and Flash (?), and three lesser heroes including the Green Lantern, a Martian, and somebody else green and super, I think. From DC Marvel Comics.

Superman's parents perished when his home planet was destroyed, and Batman's parents were murdered. They're both very unhappy about these violent demises of course. I don't know about the other superheroes, but I think I see a pattern of childhood fantasy here that would not want to recognize itself. Harry Potter is a sort of boy superwizard; his parents are killed at the beginning of the first Harry Potter book.

Incidentally, you know that according to oral history as handed down and reported by Flavius Josephus (Antiq. Jud. 1.13, 2), Isaac was twenty-five years old when Abraham set out to sacrifice him. Also according to the oral history, they came down Mt. Moriah in silence and never spoke to each other again. I mean, like, what do you expect?

[I think it's just so cool how, by proceeding methodically in alphabetical order, all of these unexpected connections just automatically reveal themselves. (Don't mind the dangle.) There must be something to literacy.]

J. K. Rowling's mother died of MS when the author was twenty-five. Her father moved in with another woman what-many-regarded-as indecently soon after, and due to various other circumstances, relations between Joanne and her father were strained. It seems they talk infrequently, if ever. I'd say more, but recently a Byzantinist I know, and I too, have been criticized for publicizing information about JKR. You know -- personal, private stuff, the kinds of secrets you only learn about if you read newspapers. God forbid if that kind of information were to get into a mailing-list or web site -- everyone would know about it. If I pick up any information in my lonely monitoring of the Tonight Show With Jay Leno, I'll be sure to keep mum about that too.

Java Language Conversion Assistant. The one I know of that is so called is meant to output or yield C# code.

An IC chip carrier lead shaped like the letter J. Typically, the lead comes out of the side of package, goes down along the vertical side of the package and then continues past the bottom in the shape of a semicircle, tucking underneath the package.

J'lem, Jlem

Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor. A theater-based sensor system using deploys tethered aerostats.

The US Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology originally established the JLENS program office in 1996 as the Joint Aerostat Project Management Office. Originally targeted for initial deployment in 2012, the roll-out has been moved up (as of 2005) to 2010.

Japanese-Language Instruction.

According to ACTFL figures mentioned in this report by Kyoko Toriyama (1992), it experienced a surge in the 1980's. By 1985 US high-school enrollments for Japanese had surpassed those for Russian, making Japanese the sixth-most-studied foreign language, with a total enrollment of 8,558. As of 2000, Japanese was still in sixth (at 0.8% of FL enrollments), after Spanish (70.8%, including SNS), French (18.3%), German (4.8%), Latin (2.7%), and Italian (1.2%).

The source for the Y2K percentages in the last paragraph is the ACTFL report quoted at the SNS entry, which does not list Japanese-language enrollments for 1985. It appears that enrollments continued to surge in the early 1990's and then began to stabilize: total public high-school enrollments were 24,123 in 1990, 42,290 in 1994, and 50,884 in 2000. (Yes, the ACTFL does these studies rather irregularly. In my experience, US Education statistics are gathered at haphazard intervals.)

California public high schoools had the most students studying -- about 10,000. Hawaii had 7400, which probably represents the highest percentage of students.

The 1992 study by Toriyama was primarily based on a survey sent to 29 high schools; usable responses were obtained from 17 schools. These schools reported using 11 different textbook series. The most popular textbooks were designed for the college level, and there was evident dissatisfaction with the available texts designed for English-speaking high-school students.

Most schools were allocating 3 to 6 weeks to learn hiragana and an additional 2 to 6 weeks for katakana. There was enormous variation in the rate at which kanji were introduced. The focus was generally on speaking and understanding first.

Joint Level Interface Protocol.

Jennifer LOpez. Hispanic actress and singer who became a star with her portrayal of murdered Hispanic singer Selena. (Is that a stretch, or what?) Lopez (also Lópes) is a common Spanish surname. There's a Jennifer Lopez who works as an announcer on The Weather Channel.

Joint (Military Services) Logistics Over The Shore (LOTS).

Japanese Language Proficiency Test. A particular one set by JEES and administered by JEES in Japan, by the Interchange Association in Taiwan, and by the Japan Foundation elsewhere. (The Japan Foundation is a Japanese government organization that appears to have no other function than to administer the JLPT abroad, at no charge.)

Japanese Livestock Technology Association. I don't really have any information on livestock technology that you could use around the home, Japanese or otherwise, although cattle probes are tempting. Why don't you visit the cow magnet entry? It describes a technological cure for the bovine malady known as hardware disease.

(Domain code for) Jamaica.

James Madison. He signed himself JM.

Johnny Mnemonic. Protagonist of a 1995 movie by the same name. There used to be a pretty good JM-themed pinball machine (from Gottlieb, I think). You probably remember the great Gary Larson comic in which a Neanderthalish fellow in the middle of the class asks to be excused, because ``[his] brain is full.'' That's basically the premise of this movie.

Junge Mädchen. [German: `Young Girls.'] Nazi Brownies (pre-Girl Scouts). Cf. BDM.


Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Jerusalem Media and Communication Centre. An organization that polls Palestinians.

Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. Published by ASIP and AMP.

Journal of MicroElectronic Packaging. They seem to be pretty careful. One of our papers received three peer reviews. It's not like they needed a third to break a tie: all three were positive. Maybe they used three reviewers to be sure they got the paper reviewed within two months (their own target, which they met).

Journal of Modern Greek Studies.

Just My (Honest|Humble} Opinion. Modeled after IMHO.

Journal of Medieval Military History. Published annually by Boydell and Brewer for Deremi. One of the founding editors, and contributor to the first issue (I hope that's not a conflict) commented on Mediev-L that `` one of the reasons for this journal has been the ignoring of military history by Speculum and other so-called mainstream journals.''

The first issue: November 2002.

Just My Opinion. Modeled after IMO.

Joint(-gate) Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS). A realization of CMOS logic in which gates are constructed with PMOS transistors below (typically) and NMOS above a common gate.

Joint Memorand{um|a} Of Understanding (MOU).

JuMP. Assembly-language goto.

Journal of Manufacturing Systems, published by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

If I order now (because I ``belong to a very special group'') I'll receive Passion for Manufacturing absolutely free! Wow. My mouth is secreting enzyme-rich anticipatory saliva.

They list no web site.

John Molson School of Business. Part of Concordia College (in Montreal). Why could't they be ``MSB'' like everybody else?

Japan MIDI Standards Committee.

Journal of Music Theory.

James Madison University.

Jet Navigation Chart.

Well, if the navigation chart is jet, I hope they used a light-colored ink.

Joint National Committee For Languages. ``Since 1976, the Joint National Committee for Languages has provided a forum for cooperation and discussion among language professionals.'' ``JNCL is affiliated with the National Council for Languages and International Studies (NCLIS), an advocacy organization with which it shares a governance structure and staff.

Just-Noticeable Difference. The smallest difference sensible. A famous rather approximate rule says that within a broad range, the JND is a fixed fraction of the stimulus magnitude. From this, if one regards the JND as a perceptual ``measuring unit,'' one concludes that sense is logarithmic. That is, the subjective difference in magnitude between two stimuli is proportional to the absolute ratio of their stimulus intensities. This makes decibels (dB) a natural unit of measure.

Compare Least Publishable Unit (LPU).

Just-Noticeable Distortion. In political speech, any level of honesty beyond this level is known as `martyrdom.'


Japan Numismatic Dealers Association.


Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Jewish National Fund.

Jane's Navy International. See our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Java Native method Interface.

Journal of Nursing Jocularity.

Japanese Neural Network Society. Quite apparently distinct from International and European same, though they publish a thing or two jointly.

John. Although this is used systematically (among those who still bother to abbreviate John) to the exclusion of ``Jo.'' (which is used for Joseph, Joel, and some related names), an exception occurs for John the Baptist (Jo. Bapt.).

Jump if No Overflow. Assembly mnemonic.

Johnson-Noise-Power Thermometer. The power spectral density of noise in a resistor is proportional to the absolute temperature and to the resistance. This discovery, and its theoretical explanation, were presented in back-to-back articles in the Bell System Technical Journal, by Johnson and Nyquist, respectively, in about 1920.

Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages.

Japan National Tourist Organization. Also see Tourism entry.

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