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Postal abbreviation for the Canadian (.ca) province of Manitoba. Capital: Winnipeg.

(Mnemonic for capital: ``the Manatee is not a pinniped.'')

Maxwell-Boltzmann. Refers to a Gaussian momentum or velocity distribution assumed by a noninteracting classical gas in equilibrium. The distribution is the classical limit of both the Bose-Einstein (for bosons) and Fermi-Dirac distributions (for fermions). Unlike those quantum distributions, the MB distribution depends on the density or chemical potential only through an overall scale. The MB distribution is isotropic, and perpendicular components of momentum described by it are completely uncorrelated. The class of MB distributions (i.e., the set of MB distributions for all temperatures and chemical potentials) is the set of all distributions having these two properties. In other words, the MB distribution can be derived from isotropy and separability, with a scale fixed by any single nonzero-dimensional, nonzero (in practice: even) moment of the distribution.

Near-equilibrium ensembles of particles with a current may be described by a ``drifted Maxwellian'' -- the usual MB Gaussian distribution translated to have a nonzero average momentum.

The electrons in a nondegenerate semiconductor band, although charged, can be approximated as noninteracting, and satisfy the MB distribution. One thus refers to a ``nondegenerate electron (or hole) gas'' or semiconductor plasma.

Medicaid Bureau.

MegaByte. 220 bytes.

MilliBarn. A unit of cross section equal to 0.001 barn. Popular in nuclear scattering.

MilliBel. The common abbreviation, rarely used, for a rare unit, commonly used. That is, volume is often defined internally in millibels, but the integer that stores it is typically thought of in ``hundredths of decibels'' (dB, which see).

MotherBoard. Also politically correct equivalent MainBoard.

Mushroom Body. A structure found in insect brains that seems to be associated with the chemosensory system.

(deoxy)MyogloBin. An Fe atom chelated to a small protein.

Masters in Business Administration.

The ACBL publishes a Daily Bulletin during the Nationals. For Spring 2003, the Einstein's-birthday edition led with a story entitled ``Forget accounting: bridge is her passion.''

I suppose they should expand MBA as Mistresses in Business Administration when the holder is a woman.

There's more information about -- heck, there's information about -- the MBA at the GMAC entry.

MBA, mba
Michigan Bankers Association.

A popular South African dance music that can played during Scrabble® (according to OSPD4 and SOWPODS, which also agree that the word has a plural mbaqangas; TWL98 is not hip).

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

Molecular Beam Atomic Scattering.

N-(p-methoxybenzylidene)-p-butylaniline. A rod-like molecule that is in a nematic phase between 20 °C and 47 °C.

Minnesota Biomedical Business NETwork.

Merchant Banking Company.

The International Monitoring System (IMS) code for the seismic station at Mould Bay, Canada.

The slight linguistic divergences between the US and the British commonwealth have the effect, in a surprisingly large number of instances, of allowing homonyms to be distinguished in one orthographic tradition and not the other. For example, US usage distinguishes carat and karat, and preservation of the old form gotten as past participle of get allows this to be distinguished from the modal got. On the other side of the ledger, British usage continues to distinguish queane and queen (perhaps a bit more useful distinction in a monarchy) and also distinguishes mold and mould.

Museum of Broadcast Communications.

Model Business Corporations Act.

Carboxylmyoglobin. Carboxyl group (CO) bound to myoglobin (Mb).

Minimal Brain Dysfunction. Just don't throw any big words at me, and I'll be alright.

Minority Business Development Agency.

Minority Business Development Center. Vide MBDA.

MailBoxes, Etc. A one-stop mailroom-for-hire.

MegaBuck Epitaxy. An alternate descriptive name for Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE).

Member of the Order of the British Empire.

When I asked after one in a coin store in Cambridge in 1993, I was told the going rate was fifty quid. The perfect gift for the molecular beam jockey who has everything (or at least no more unused chamber access points).

Queen Elizabeth II awarded the MBE to all four Beatles on June 12, 1965.

Molecular Beam Epitaxy. PVD used for compound semiconductor growth. A number of individual MBE labs have homepages, including

The Epi-Center MBE group at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC).

The unofficial homepage from David Gotthold and the one from Alex Anselm, as well as the official homepage for Dr. Streetman's group's Varian at UT-Austin (visit their university homepage).

There's another Varian GEN II supervised by Prof. Ringel at the Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials Research Laboratories of the EE Dept. at the College of Engineering at Ohio State University (OSU).

When they finish constructing it, the homepage for the MBE group at the College of Engineering at Colorado State University (CSU) will be at this address.

Money Buys Everything. Another name for MegaBuck Epitaxy (MBE).

Multistate Bar Examination. It's multiple choice.

Manuel Bellisco Hernandez. A Spanish publisher of technical books. The publishing house (editorial in Spanish) and the retail bookstores (librerías) together are the Grupo Bellisco.

Editorial Bellisco publishes a Manual del Hormigón Armado (`Manual of Reinforced Concrete'; Manual de Hormigón Armado would be a reinforced concrete manual, and a good deal heavier). It was written by R. Ferreras, but for short, you could think of it as the Manual Bellisco de Hormigón (`Bellisco Manual of Concrete') and then you could recognize it from the MBH colophon. This is useful because the words along the binding are backwards... When an English-language book is lying closed on a horizontal surface, with the front cover on top, the lengthwise writing along the binding is right-side up. This is true in countries with right-hand-side driving and those with left-hand-side driving. (I would mention country where both left- and right-hand-side driving are common, but English is not an important language in West Texas.) A quick check proves that all books published in German, Spanish, Italian, and French follow the opposite convention. The great advantage of this is that if you have a multivolume work stacked on a table in order, with the first volume on top and all the front covers naturally facing down, then you can read the common title right-side-up (of course, the volume numbers are now facing sideways). An important exception to this rule is that books to teach English-speakers German, Spanish, etc., typically adopt the English orientation -- possibly because the books are manufactured by English-language publishers. If you've ever browsed a book-shelf that mixed the two orientations in comparable numbers, you'll probably agree that the greatest value of an orientation standard is not in its orientation but in the fact of its being a standard. Let me tell you, the EU was way ahead of you on this. In fact, they know exactly how much standardization is just right. In simple terms, it is this: globalization is bad; all Europe should be like France. First Brussels has to get the condom-dimension problem hammered down, so those things are not so monstrously large that they slip off Mr. Pencil, they will tackle book bindings. It's natural: they have to have you by the short hairs to get you to surrender sovereignty over your library.

But again to the manual/Manuel thing: Anglophones so frequently misspell the Spanish proper noun Manuel as Manual that at Amazon.com, some books are listed under both names: e.g., A Saint Is Born in Chima [or possibly in China], by the twins Manual Zapata Olivella and Manuel Zapata Olivella, tr. Thomas E. Kooreman; Self and Interpersonal Insight : How People Gain Understanding of Themselves and Others in Organizations, apparently by the father-and-son team of Manuel London and Manual London; Sounding Forth the Trumpet by Peter Marshall, David Manual [not credited on the cover], and David Manuel [no relation, I guess]. The anthology Menopause and the Heart includes Manual Neves-E-Castro among its editors, and has one Manuel Neves-e-Castro among its contributors.

This whole entry is going to be rewritten, but for now I'd just like to add that another way to describe how spine text on English-language books is normally printed is top-to-bottom. In Hebrew, writing is from right-to-left and as one reads, one turns pages on the left over to the right. (That is, books begin at what would be the back of an English book. This can cause confusion. Some years ago, I found a book of Talmud at the main library of UNM that had all the library markings upside down, so if you had no trouble reading Hebrew characters upside-down and from the bottom of the page up, you could open the book from the left and read it all left-to-right. Of course, a page of Talmud is segmented around a central text, so things are a little more complicated than that, but it was a nice thought.) Anyway, the point I wanted to make was that Hebrew books, at least the ones I've looked at, also have sideways text on the spine printed from top to bottom, which means that when you lay a Hebrew book down with the front cover up, you can easily read the spine text (unless you're more comfortable reading it upside down). The situation is more complicated with Japanese.

Max Born Institute.

An African musical instrument. I don't know whether it's a string, wind, or percussion instrument, but no matter what your musical training, I'm sure you can play it in Scrabble® -- you can even play multiple mbiras. (You can play it according to any of the three major Scrabble dictionaries.)

Medications and Bandage Kit.

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Monument Builders of North America. An association of memorial and memorialization companies dealing with creating memorials, tombstones, and markers. I still wonder how they dealt with their Y2K problem. (You know -- the stones pre-engraved ``died 19  .'')

Management Buy-Out. Meaning that the management team buys (a controlling stake in) the company, not that the company buys out the remainder of the management's contract.

Management By Objectives. Usually by conflicting objectives.

MacBook Pro. A line of laptop computers.

Materials and Bulk Processes.

Megabits per second. Note that the bit rate, or data rate, is not the same as baud rate.

Maximum Burst Size. Nothing to do with the Fourth of July.

Modified Barium Swallow.

Mortgage-Backed Security. Sometimes rather backless, more like a mortgage-backed insecurity.

Multiple-Blade Slurry (saw).

Main Battle Tank.

Molecular Beam Technique[s].

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Public transit operator in the greater Boston (MA) area. Once called MTA.

Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator. Sort of like a geek code for nonprogrammers, except that it's not especially informative. Created by Katherine Meyers and Isabel Briggs following the inspiration of Jung (God help us, the Swiss did not). Every person is categorized willy-nilly according to four binary distinctions: Extroverted/Introverted, iNtuitive/Sensing, Feeling/Thinking, and the Judgmental/Perceptive, each of the sixteen groups being labelled according to the four relevant letters -- ENFJ, ISTP, etc. Occasionally appears in personals ads. It's such a speciously plausible and ultimately misguided idea, it's surprising it's not more popular.

Here's one of many (approximately) equally otiose MBTI classifiers on the web. The one by David M. Keirsey seems to be quite popular.

Management by Wandering Around. Lording it over your subordinates. Euphemism devised by Tom Peters, an idol of management theorists and other philosophasters.

MatchBox TWENTY. Their first album came out in 1996. In 2007 they released an album entitled ``Exile on Mainstream.'' In case you're having trouble placing it, that's an allusion to the Rolling Stones' ``Exile on Main St.,'' a platinum double album released in 1972.

Marginal Cost[s]. The derivative of price with respect to quantity, or an equivalent measure (the difference quotient of the same functions, or simply the cost of a single additional unit of a discretely countable good or service).


Master of Ceremonies. More commonly ``emcee.''

An MC is sometimes an accomplished entertainer in his or her own right, and as such may have achieved mastery of some artistic skill. Unlike a Master of Arts, however, one may become an MC without first being a Bachelor of Ceremonies. I think.

Master of Counseling. The National Board for Certified Counselors Examination (NBCCE) handles national and state individual certification in the US. Curricula are usually more specialized: MC/CC -- Community Counseling,
MC/MFCC -- Marriage, Family, and Child Counseling,
MC/MFT -- Marriage and Family Therapy,
MC/MHC -- Mental Health Counseling.

M.C., MC
Medium-Capacity (bomb). WWII RAF designation for a bomb that was 40-50% explosive by weight. Hence, the term is also sometimes expanded ``Medium-Casing.'' MC bombs were made in 500-lb, to 2000-lb. sizes. Continue reading now at the CWR entry or you'll be sorry.

Medium Coeli. Latin, `center of the sky.' The point of the Zodiac which is closest to the zenith.

Member of Congress. That is, a congressman, congresswoman, or congressperson (in the cases of male, female, or other congresspeople, resp.). MC is a rather unusual abbreviation, for obvious reasons too tedious to enumerate.

Michigan City, Indiana. A city on the southeast shore of Lake Michigan, southwest of Michigan.

(Domain code for) Monaco. A principality containing Monte Carlo, and more royal scandals per square meter than London.

MonoChorionic. To understand what this means, see the mo-mo entry.

Monte Carlo.

MotorCycle. In Indiana, riding an MC with improper headgear is a 4-point violation -- as bad as driving 16 to 25 mph over the speed limit. Since most MC drivers don't wear any headgear at all, I guess ``improper headgear'' refers to driving under the influence of Carmen Miranda (CM).

Motorola Chip prefix.

Multiple Choice. A type of test question in which the test-taker must choose answers from among a finite and usually small set. Some or all of the answers offered are wrong. Also known as ``multiple guess.''

Don't know yet what the M C A stand for in MCA Records, but that's no reason why I should withold a link, I suppose.

Micro Channel Architecture (IBM).

Monetary Compensatory Amount. A part of the EU's common agriculture policy (CAP) back when it was the EEC. MCA's were subsidies designed to shelter farmers from exchange-rate movements. They were especially intended to protect German farmers from being undercut by farmers in EEC countries with weaker currencies than the DM (i.e., all other EEC countries). MCA's were phased out after some haggling in 1984-5. (Nowadays, of course, all Euroland has a common currency, so there are no exchange-rate issues and everyone is happy;-)

MultiChannel Access. Super-duper walkie-talkie.

MultiChannel Analy{s|z}er.

Mid-Continent Athletic Conference.

Mechanical (Engineering) Computer-Aided Design (CAD).

Mine-Clearing Armor-Protected. As in ``MCAP dozer.''

Marine Corps Air Station.

Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System. State exams in mathematics and in English and language skills, that a student must pass to be graduated from high school.

Medical College Admission Test. A day-long punishment administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) to students craving admission to medical school.

Mendoza College of Business. Alternate abbreviation for MCoB, q.v. I've seen both initialisms used on the same announcement.

Muslim Council of Britain.


Men's Classical Caucus. A nonexistent organization. (Cf. WCC.) Not to be confused with the Mens Classical Caucus -- the organization dedicated to promoting thoughtfulness within the APA. This organization is also nonexistent.

For more thoughts on mens, see the ASICS entry.

Microelectronics & Computer Consortia.

Mortgage Credit Certificate.

Mott Community College. In nearby Flint, Michigan. The first question on the homepage is ``Why MCC?'' Why indeed. One answer: ``MCC is the only college in the world (have they checked in Pakistan?) with the mission to serve the residents of the 21 schools districts in Genesee County [Michigan].'' Hey -- if you graduated from high school in Genesee -- you're in like Flint!

``In 1950 Charles Stewart Mott gave $1 million to develop Flint Junior College into a four-year institution in collaboration with the University of Michigan...''

Today, MCC is still a two-year college, but for a bunch of years it provided facilities for the University of Michigan -- Flint.

Master of Counseling in Community Counseling.

MultiCarrier Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA). A hybrid of DS/CDMA and OFDMA.

Minnesota Chamber of Commerce Executives. See ACCE.

Malay Chamber of Commerce in Malaysia. Cf. ACCCIM.

MilliCanDela. A unit of light intensity.

Magnetic Circular Dichroism.

Malaysian Central Depository.

Minor Civil Division. The US Census Bureau's concept most closely approximating the civil concept of a township (in its most common North American sense).

Here's some text from Places, Towns and Townships (Lanham, Md.: Bernan, a division of The Kraus Organization Limited [I wonder if they use ``TKO''], 3/e, 2003), ed. Deirdre A. Gaquin and Katherine A. DeBrandt. Specifically, it's from the two-page Appendix A.

The primary political divisions of most states are termed counties. Minor civil divisions (MCDs) are the primary governmental or administrative divisions of a county in many states (parish in Louisiana). MCDs represent many different kinds of legal entities with a variety of governmental and/or administrative functions. MCDs are variously designated as American Indian reservations, assessment districts, boroughs, charter townships, election districts, election precincts, gores, grants, locations, magisterial districts, parish governing authority districts, plantations, precincts, purchases, road districts, supervisors' districts, towns, and townships. [Especially townships, in like 33 states.] In some states, all or some incorporated places are not located in any [state-defined] MCD (independent places) and thus serve as MCDs in their own right [for census purposes]. In other states, incorporated places are part of the MCDs in which they are located (dependent places), or the pattern is mixed--some incorporated places are independent of MCDs and others are included within one or more MCDs. In Maine and New York, there are American Indian reservations and off-reservation trust lands that serve as MCD equivalents; a separate MCD is created in each case where the American Indian area crosses a county boundary. [Exhale.]

If you want to see where the MCD's are on a map, you want to travel to the Lima entry for bibliographic details of Township Atlas of the United States.

Roman numeral for the number 1400.

Thousand (M) Cubic Feet. Abbreviation of unit used for gas fuel consumption. CCF.

Molten-Carbonate Fuel Cell. A fuel cell (FC) in which the electrolyte is molten carbonate. Experimental MCFC's operate around 650°C and the charge carriers are carbonate ions -- (CO3)2-. Like FC's with solid-oxide electrolyte (SOFC), MCFC's can be used to combust carbon monoxide.

MC & G
Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy.

Apparently offers no more than a gopher site on line.

Maternal and Child Health.


Maternal and Child Health Board. Part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Currently charged with administering Title V of the Social Security Act (enacted 1935), which authorized the creation of the Maternal and Child Health Services programs.

For actual information, see the Title V Information System maintained by the NCEMCH.

Movimiento Comunitario para el Hábitat Popular. `Community movement for the people's habitat,' an Argentine organization. Hey, I just translate it; I don't know what it means.

Marion County (Kentucky) High School. Here Internet Explorer is more informative on the status bar than Netscape Navigator. IE reports ``Done, but with errors on the page.''

``The faculty believes that each person is endowed with an intellect;'' -- whoa, stop the press! -- ``hence [logic in action!], the educational process of MCHS students is to develop that individual to the greatest possible degree in the mental, physical, ethical, and social aspects of his or her personality.''

Look, I realize that it's extremely unfair to take what's posted prominently on the MCHS web page and reproduce it here accurately for your amusement. So I want you to know that I'm not holding Kentucky up for special scorn. In the Boston area there's a school principal who has suspended a dozen of his teachers without pay because they've failed the state English competency tests, but he himself has failed them in a number of tries (as of early August 2003). He makes excuses and says it's ``frustrating,'' but I haven't seen the word ``embarrassing'' there yet.

``MCHS has as its philosophy the desire to meet adequately the needs of each individual student.''

Media Control Interface. What the White House Spokesperson tries to be.

MicroPhone Included.

[Phone icon]

Microwave Communications Incorporated. Merged with WorldCom 1997-1998 to become MCI Worldcom, a provider of long-distance telephone service, and later internet service. While WorldCom has been in bankruptcy, they've taken the name MCI as less tainted.

The original name MCI reflects the history of the break-up of Ma Bell: when AT&T was a regulated monopoly, it charged businesses relatively high rates for long-distance service. Microwave links made this service cheap, and discounters competed for the business long-lines service. After years in anti-trust litigation, ATT agreed to be broken up (into seven original baby Bells that provided local service, ATT long lines, Bell Labs -- which last became Lucent -- and I forget what else; some other Bell Labs -- i.e., not in Murray Hill, NJ -- became corporate labs for Western Electric and whatnot). Part of the stated motive for agreeing to the break-up was the perception that increasing competition in long-distance services was draining the profit from ATT's most lucrative business while regulation as a monopoly prevented it from competing in emerging businesses.

Mild Cognitive Impairment. Like having a slight buzz on, but with dimmer prospects for recovery.

Montessori Centre International, based in London. You know, not all of these many Montessori organizations go by an acronym. For example, there's the Montessori Foundation based in Florida, established in 1992 by four leaders of the AMS. You don't think I'm going to put a separate entry in for every one, do you?

Master in Communication and Information Studies.

Maximum Contaminant Level.

MonoCLinic. A crystal lattice; not a clinic specializing in mononucleosis.

Much {C|K}lown Love. Obscene variants (maybe I should write that using the standard illiterate plural form variant's -- nah) exist, such as MMCL or MMFCL.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) Goal.

Microsoft-Certified Latrine Scrubber.

Midwest Collaborative for Library Services. Yeah, ``Collaborative'' is a substantive here. MCLS has a popular Cataloging Certification Program.

Monroe County (Michigan) Library System.

Metropolitan Council of Low Vision Individuals. New York affiliate of the CCLVI, I kid you not.

Mine CounterMeasures.

Molecular Crystal Model. A Hamiltonian for polaron studies, introduced by T. Holstein [Ann. Phys.(N.Y.) 8, 325 (1959)]. Tight-binding electron Hamiltonian with local linear coupling to phonon.

MultiChip Module. A package in which bare chips are bonded and interconnected directly on the substrate. Cf. SCM.

Master of Counseling with a specialization in Marriage, Family, and Child Counseling. Seems to be the most common of the MC's.

Master of Counseling in Marriage and Family Therapy.

Master of Counseling in Mental Health Counseling.

Microelectronics Center of North Carolina.

Master Certified Novell Engineer (CNE).

Mean Cumulative Number of Failures.

{ Magnetically | Magnetic-field }-Controlled Oscillator.

Managed Care Organizations.

Mendoza College Of Business. The B-school of the University of Notre Dame. The acronym is pronounced ``EM cob.'' Alternative initialism: MCB. Previous acronym: COBA.

Machine Control Panel.

Male Chauvinist Pig.

MetaCarpoPhalangeal. I.e., of the metacarpus (or metacarpi) and phalanx (or phalanges). Or maybe instead of `of the phalanx (or phalanges)' that should read phalagis (vel phalangum). Those Romans must have been real anatomy wizards.

(Japanese) Molecular Computation Project.

MultiChip Package. See MCM.

MicroChannel Plate[s].

Multiple Colliding-Pulse Mode-lock{ ing | ed laser }. See, for example, J. F. Martins-Filho, E. A. Avrutin, C. N. Ironside, and J. S. Roberts, ``Monolithic Multiple Colliding Pulse Mode-locked Quantum-Well lasers: Experiment and Theory'' IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 1, pp. 539-551, (1995).

Cf. KLM.

Microstrip CoPlanar Waveguide.

Multiple Choice Question[s].

Minimum Cell Rate.

Material Control System.

Message, Command, Status.

Method of Corresponding { States | Solutions }.

Multicell Convective (storm) System.

MultiChannel Spectrometer.

MultiChannel Scaling. A feature of some optical multichannel analyzers (MCA).

Multiple Chemical Sensitivit{y|ies}. Allergy to many slightly volatile, usually organic (plastic) modern blessings. Also ``environmental illness.'' Controversial. This page is from a group that says it's real.

Multiple Configuration Self-Consistent Field (SCF) calculation. Another name for CASSCF, q.v..

Microsoft-Certified Solution Developer. Why be so negative? Program for fun, not to solve some suit's wretched little ``problem.''

Microsoft-Certified Solution DataBase Administrator.

Microsoft-Certified Systems Engineer. Corresponds to Novell's CNE.

Maricopa County (Arizona) Sheriff's Office.

Manufacturers Council of Small School Buses. An NTEA group formed in 1990 ``to address various small school bus issues and work with federal agencies and other industry groups in revising existing standards and developing new standards that affect the industry.''

Mercury Cadmium Telluride. [Usually called ``Mercadtel'' in colloquial speech.] A common II-VI alloy semiconductor. Mercury telluride (HgTe and cadmium telluride (CdTe) have similar lattice constants (6.373 Å and 6.482 Å, respectively), and form a stable ternary (pseudobinary) at all intermediate concentrations, with zero bandgap at about Hg0.2Cd0.8Te.

MOS-Controlled Thyristor.

Mean Cell Transfer Delay.

Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor.

MicroController Unit.

Multipoint Control Unit.

Magnetic CZochralski. Semiconductor growth method.

Managing Director.

Music Club of Westfield (New Jersey).

MD, Md.
Maryland. USPS state code (capitals, no period) and ordinary abbreviation (mixed case, punctuated).

Maryland Electronic Capital is a good starting point for official information. The Villanova University Law School provides some links to state government web sites for Maryland. USACityLink.com has a page with mostly city and town links for the state.

A clickable map of the state's counties is served by Historic Inns & Famous Homes of Maryland. Another one is served by Maryland Electronic Capital.


One way to categorize business environments is by considering whether their market and technological environments are stable or volatile. Not that these questions always have definite answers, but it might be a useful idealization for puposes of discussion or of writing a speciously convincing business plan.

If both market and technology are stable, then the environment is dull, and the organization that deals with it is ``hierarchical'' or ``bureacratic.'' That doesn't sound very good, but it's a flattering way to describe the challenges faced by the Dusty Ridge, Oklahoma news-stand.

If both market and technology are volatile, you can say the environment is dangerous, and the organization must be ``flexible'' or ``dynamic'' or at least have its résumé up to date.

If either the market or the technology environment is volatile, and the other is stable, then the organization that is supposed to best suited to deal with it is ``mixed.'' Whatever is volatile dominates changes and drives decision-making. Hence `MD mixed'' and ``TD mixed'' organizations.

MD, M.D.
Medical Doctor. As opposed to a Ph.D., say.

Chemical symbol for the element Mendelevium. Atomic number 101. An actinide.

Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.

Ministry of Defence (US spelling Defense.)

Misfit Dislocation[s].

(Domain code for) Moldova.

Molecular Diversity. Affirmative Action for the really little guy.

Muscular Dystrophy. Related entry: MDA.

Magen David Adom. Red Star-of-David. The Israeli organization that corresponds to the Red Cross or the Red Crescent in other countries, but which is essentially blackballed from ordinary membership in the International Red Cross.

Mail Delivery Agent.

Missile Defense Administration. Within the US DoD.

Monochrome Display Adapter. History marches on.

Muscular Dystrophy Association. It's ``a voluntary health agency -- a dedicated partnership between scientists and concerned citizens aimed at conquering neuromuscular diseases that affect more than a million Americans.'' I didn't realize that the word agency still had enough cachet for an NGO to want to use it in self-description.

``MDA was created in 1950 by a group of adults with muscular dystrophy, parents of children with muscular dystrophy, and a physician-scientist studying the disorder. Since its earliest days it has been energized by its number-one volunteer and national chairman, entertainer Jerry Lewis.

The Association's programs are funded almost entirely by individual private contributors. MDA seeks no government grants, United Way funding or fees from those it serves.''

MDA is best known for its annual Labor Day telethon, still hosted in 2005 by Jerry Lewis, age 79. In the telethon context, children suffering from MD are ``Jerry's kids.''

``First broadcast over Labor Day weekend in 1966 by a lone TV station in New York City, the unique event starring popular comedian Jerry Lewis quickly caught the public's attention -- and raised more than $1 million in pledges.''

Momentum Distribution of (electron-positron) Annihilation Pairs. Measured in positron annihilation studies.

Multilateral Development Bank. Like the World Bank (WB).

Microcomputer DataBase System.

Major Diagnostic Category.

Management Document Collection. Something to do with the Special Libraries Association (SLA). What's that, the pile of papers scattered on the boss's desk? That's special.

Movement for Democratic Change. A Zimbabwean movement led by Morgan Tsvangirai, still free (charged with treason, out on bail) as of June 4, 2003.

Media Device Control Protocol. See MAC about ``Media.''

Major Depressive Disorder.

Medium-Doped [MOSFET] Drain.

Spanish, millones de dólares, `millions of dollars.' E.g., in 1997, according to Forbes, the boxer Oscar de la Hoya (``the pride of East LA'') ganó 38 mdd., placing him third among rich athletes.

Go here if you want to find out how much that is in American money. (Short answer: a lot.)

Ministerio de Defensa de España. `Ministry of Defense of Spain.'

Main Distribution Frame.

(South African) Media Defence Fund. An FXI subcommittee that continues some of the work of the earlier MDT (Trust).

Medium-Density Fiberboard. A building construction material. Wood fiber embedded in a binder (typically a synthetic ``resin'' or plastic) under heat and pressure. Density 30-55 lb./cu.ft. (Water has a density of 62 lb./cu.ft.) MDF is available in thicknesses up 2 in. Cf. Particleboard (PB) is made the same way generally, but with wood particles, or a mix of particles and fibers, instead of only wood fibers. Hardboard is denser, and uses only fibers and the naturally occurring lignin as binder. See S1S (hardboard smooth on one side) entry. The LMA's downloadable glossary had more information; it may have migrated to the CPA website after the merger in 2004, but I haven't had time to check.

Medical Doctor Global Assessment. When written out or spoken, this is more likely to be called a `physician global assessment.' However, a related metric is the patient global assessment (PGA); evidently the MD abbreviation is used to maintain a distinction in the initialisms.

Migration Data Host.

Methylene DiIsocyanate. A hard constituent in copolymer polyureas.

{ MultiDocument | Multiple Document } Interface. (MS Windows term.) Cf. SDI.

[MDIP image from http://www.nsc.com/pkg/gifs/mdip.gif]

Molded Dual-In-Line Package. See National Semiconductor's specs. Their illustration is above.


Maryland (MD) chapter of Junior Classical League.

MDJCL sponsors the Medusa Mythology examination.

Method Detection Limit.

Minimum Description Length. See J. Rissannen, ``A universal data compression system,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 29(#5), pp. 656-664 (Sep. 1983).

Medical Decision Making. A journal.

Multidimensional Microscopes and Maize Structures Research Group.

Mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria are one of a small class of cell organelles that function like symbiotes in the cells that contain them, reproducing asexually in a process distinct from the host's reproduction, and carrying their own DNA. Mitochondria generally come from the egg in sexual reproduction, so they are passed strictly along the maternal line. (How that happens is still unclear. For a long time it was claimed that the sperm mitochondria are jettisoned at fertilization, but the direct evidence for that is apparently not so clear.)

The simple genetics of maternal-line heredity makes mDNA an attractive subject for archaeogenetic studies. Another attraction is that the typical human cell has about a thousand mitochondria, so there's more DNA material to work with.

Millennium Democratic Party. One of South Korea's major political parties. In December 2002, human-rights lawyer Roh Moo-hyun won election as president on the MDP ticket. In 2003, MDP split, leaving the part with 62 seats in the 273-member National Assembly, while 46 suporters of Mr. Roh bolted to form the new ``Uri'' party. Roh left the MDP in September 2003, but had not formally joined Uri as of March 2004.

Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

Marina del Rey. Abbreviation in California classified ads. Cf. PdR.

MultiDrug-Resistant (TB). See MDR-TB.

Mark Diamond Research Fund.

MultiDrug-Resistant TB. When it appeared in the 1990's it was defined as TB with resistance to the first-line TB drugs isoniazid and rifampin. Cf. XDR-TB.

MyeloDysplastic Syndrome.


(South African) Media Defence Trust. Founded in 1988 and now defunct. An NGO that served during the apartheid era as a legal defense fund for South African journalists and as a lobbying/research organization during the transition to majority rule. Some of the work of this organization is continued by the MDF (... Fund) of FXI.

Multi-Drug Therapy.

Miami-Dade (formerly Metro Dade) Transit Authority. Miami, FL, is in Dade County.

IATA code for MiDWay Airport in Chicago, IL, USA. Here's its status in real time from the ATCSCC.

Modular Digital eXchange.

Message Digest algorithm #5. It is successor to MD-4, so I don't think the fact that it is based on 32-bit words (32=2^5) has aught to do with the name.

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