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SI-approved standard symbol and abbreviation for the SI-approved energy unit -- joule. A joule is 8.86 inch-pounds, in universal American units.

In the boring system, a joule is a newton meter. In terms of the earlier boring system, a joule would have been 107 erg. Because metric units ignored Thomas Jefferson's (and others') wise suggestion and were not selected to make the acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface unity, one joule is 0.10972 kg-f × m, to reflect the conventional value of 9.80665 m/s2 for the acceleration of gravity (that's gn -- the standard acceleration of free fall). [kg-f is the weight of one kilogram of mass.]

One joule is also 1 Wh/3600, but that's the fault of Sumerians, who bequeathed us (they're all dead now -- perhaps that's significant) a time-system that uses base 60.

If you believe in a calorie that is 4.1868 J, then 1 J = 0.238846 cal. You could have figured that out, I'm sure, but who could figure out the real calorie?

All my life, I've pronounced joule with an initial zh. Eventually I noticed that the eponym was James Prescott Joule, an Englishman, and that dictionaries give pronunciations of his name only with an ordinary j. I guess my pronunciation is an error due to phonetic bleed-through from the French name Jules, but I decided to stay with my solecism. If I have to keep hearing ``rih-JEEM'' (for regime) from newsfaces, I figure I've earned the right.

Jahwist. German spelling of Yahwist. Refers to a component of the Pentateuch, and its supposed author. The three other major components, to the extent that agreement exists, are E (Elohist), D (Deuteronomist) and P (Psalmist). E and J texts are concentrated in the early books, particularly Genesis, and distinguished by the use of JHWH (tetragrammaton for His unspeakable name) and Elohim (an alternate designation, literally `gods'). The Deuteronomist uses both names. It was one of the great nineteenth-century innovations of the Biblical text criticism (begun in Germany then) to suppose that stories with two tellings in the Bible are typically due to two different authors (a heresy, of course).

In The Book of J, Harold Bloom speculated that the Jahwist was a woman in King Solomon's court.


Juliette. Not an abbreviation here, just the FCC-recommended ``phonetic alphabet.'' I.e., a set of words chosen to represent alphabetic characters by their initials. You know, ``Alpha Bravo Charlie ... .'' The idea behind the choice is to have words that the listener will be able to guess at or reconstruct accurately even through noise (or narrow bandwidth, like a telephone). Even though there are not as many words beginning in jay as there are beginning in some more popular alphabetic characters (like you-know-who and we-can-keep-a-secret), there are nevertheless quite enough thank you.

The recommendation for R is ``Romeo.''

A Scrabble tile worth eight points (or more, on a double- or triple- letter or word space, or if it's used in multiple words) (or negative eight, to the holder, if someone else uses up his or her tiles first). Therefore, it behooves you to study this important resource (words in the OSPD that contain the letter J).

In every Scrabble set, exactly one of the 100 tiles is a J. The other high-value letters (one tile each) are X (also 8 pts.), and Q and Z (ten points each).

Job Approval.

Junior Achievement.

Japanese Archaeological Association. Being a Japanese archaeologist must be a little bit like being the cherished daughter of a dictator. The Japanese government spends over a billion dollars annually on archaeological digs. (Why -- do you realize that's over a tenth of a trillion yen!?!) However, the most interesting archaeological sites, and the most controversial, are some 250 grave sites of the imperial family. These are guarded and regularly inspected by personnel of the Imperial Household Agency, and mostly off limits to everyone else.

It gives one a different perspective on the dog in the manger. Who knows what's hidden under that hay?

And in case you're wondering: after a number of marriages and countries, Svetlana Alliluyeva settled in England in the 1990's.

Japanese Association of Anatomists. From the inclusion of this entry, you can see just how hard up we were for entries in J.

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. A JAAC subscription is free with membership in the American Society for Aesthetics (ASA).

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Journal of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists.

Dutch form of the name Jacob.

Joint Airborne Advance Party. A joint (J) ground party that prepares for an airlift operation at the objective area.

A Hutt.

Back in the 1980's and 1990's, there was a fad among Toyota light truck owners of personalizing their trucks by painting over one or some letters of the logo on the tailgate, so they would read

  O Y     A
or any of the 60 other possibilities.

In April 2001, some Hooters restaurants owned by Gulf Coast Wings Inc. in Florida held a motivational contest for their employees. The names of the ten waitresses who sold the most beer in April at each of the area Hooters were entered in a drawing for a Toyota. The drawing was won by Jodee Berry, 26, a top-selling waitress at the Panama City Beach Hooters. Her boss, restaurant manager Jared Blair, had told his waitresses that he didn't know what kind of Toyota it would be -- a car, truck or van -- but the winner would be responsible for the tax on the vehicle.

Jodee learned in May that she had won the drawing. She was blindfolded and led to the restaurant parking lot, where the blindfold was removed and she saw that she had won a toy Yoda doll worth $40. The manager was inside laughing.

She quit the next week.

The above information was provided to the AP by Jodee Berry and her lawyer Stephen West. If I had been the source, you can be sure I would have called the waitresses ``waitpersons.'' I mean, just because you serve drinks at a place whose name and promotional campaigns imply that its servers are sexy ``girls'' (I used scare quotes!) doesn't give people the right to make assumptions about you. After all, the advertising might not be accurate.

As of April 2002, the case was on its way to trial, and a local newspaper published an update with a demoralizing overview of the course of the typical lawsuit. The next month a settlement was announced. According to David Noll, an attorney for Berry, she could go to a local car dealership and ``pick out whatever type of Toyota she wants.'' Full details were not released, which is not unusual. What is unusual is that any details were released; a sweeping confidentiality agreement is a standard part of out-of-court settlements. Noll said he thought it was ``a recognition of the fact that there's been such an amazing amount of attention focused on this case.... There's not a whole lot of reason to try to hide its existence.'' Here's a legal analysis of the case by Keith A. Rowley, published in the NLJ.

Yeah, yeah -- a Yoda is not a Hutt.

This webpage has a review by ``Yoda'' of some aftermarket products for Toyotas. The Toyota Company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda. Akio Toyoda, his grandson, became the youngest member of Toyota's board of directors in Summer 2000 (age 43 or so). The Sakichi Toyoda Memorial House is a part of the Toyota Automobile Museum. The Toyoda Model AA was Toyota's first vehicle. It was a stylish vehicle, but it was designed for city driving and didn't have a bra. Anyway, AA is a small bra size, certainly not appropriate for hooters.

If you want more (alleged) instances of someone named J. Blair who commits a fraud and then laughs over the discovery of his triumph, here's something from the Jayson Blair interview mentioned at the CSPI entry. Blair had described the home of rescued POW Pvt. Jessica Lynch as overlooking ``tobacco fields and cattle pastures.'' As a New York Times self-investigation reported, though he filed with a Palestine, W.Va. dateline, Blair never visited. Blair is quoted in the Observer interview:

``That's my favorite, just because the description was so far off from the reality. And the way they described it in The Times story -- someone read a portion of it to me -- I couldn't stop laughing.'

Japan Assessment Center.


Journal of Ancient Civilizations. Published annually since about 1985 by the Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations (Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin province, The People's Republic of China). JAC is the only academic journal in the People's Republic which specializes in the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean area and the Near East.

A bird that can be found wading in the shallow waters along the shores of the Scrabble tablelands.

Joyce ACC.

Just an inexperienced ranch hand, learning his trade in some rural corner of the Scrabble tablelands. Sounds like he might be named after the jackalope. Cf. jackleg.

One of the more effective tools for removing soapy build-up on shower stalls. Also effective in removing shower stalls. Visit the hard water entry.

Jackie O.
Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. See this Ari entry.

A semi tractor-trailer rig is said to jack-knife when the tractor rig turns too sharply, and the inertia of the forward-moving trailer turns the trailer around so the tractor and trailer make an acute angle. This is not a good thing to have happen.

An unskilled worker, earning the minimum wage as a day laborer, or maybe collecting firewood in the Scrabble forest.

This fellow Jack has a pretty bad rep -- master of none and all that. Cf. jackeroo.

J. D. Jackson's classic Classical Electrodynamics.

Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). ``[P]rovides coverage of the most significant work going on in computer science, broadly construed. It is a peer-reviewed journal, published six times a year by ACM.''

Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. Published by the American College of Medical Physics (ACMP).

Journal of The American Chemical Society (ACS). LC call number QD1.J826.


Joint Association of Classical Teachers (of the UK). Publishes classics textbooks. Their Greek primer, at least, is weak on grammar. JACT offices keep a file of Latin and Greek tutors available by region.

A synonym of the verb throw. For reasons that I can only guess at, this word is not at all common outside the dialects of the Scrabble tablelands.

Japanese Association of Dental Research.

Japan Academy of Esthetic Dentistry.

Java Access For Electronic Resources. Intended to be an easy-to-use ``visual toolkit to protect those building portals and information sources from the intricate technical details of the protocols involved [especially Z39.50], and allow them to concentrate on the actual content.'' An Oxford University LAS project funded under the DNER development program of JISC.

Judge Advocate General. Part of the US military justice system and a popular television series. It stars a Canadian, David James Elliott, born in Toronto. I don't think this qualifies as Canadian content, though.

Journal of American History. Published quarterly (June, September, December, March) by the Organization of American Historians. Most of the contributions and roughly half of the pages are book reviews.

The journal was formerly originally published as The Mississippi Valley Historical Review [Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 1914)-v. 50, no. 4 (March 1964)]. The volume numbering was continued (not restarted) through the name change.

German: `anniversary.'

German: `annual meeting, annual convention.'

Abbreviation of German Jahrhundert, `century.'

Joint Applications in Instrumentation Process and Computer Control.

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research.

ja ja
Spanish onomatopoeia with the same sense and about the same pronunciation as English `ha ha.' Cf. jua jua.

Japan Air Lines. Pronounced `Jal' to rhyme with `Hal.'

Journal of the Asynchronous Learning Networks. A publication of the Sloan Consortium (``Sloan-C''). I have a hunch that it's about ALN, but all the articles seem to be about online learning.

Japanese Association for Language Teaching. Mostly teaching English.

Jamaat al Muslimeen.

US Army slang acronym for Jaysh al Mahdi, the Iraqi Shi'ite militia of Moqtada al Sadr, which is typically described in news reports as the Mahdi Army. The words radical, Shia, and militia may be sprinkled in as well.

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. See also JAMA's Tokyo website (in English).

Pointless detail:
A column by George F. Will in the Washington Post (``What Ails GM,'' May 1, 2005) ends with the following:

Full, and pointless, disclosure: Mrs. Will is a consultant to the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. She drives a Cadillac.

In a November 18, 2008, column (``In Detroit, Failure's a Done Deal''), he includes the following parenthetical: ``Disclosure: Mrs. Will, who drives a GM product, is a public relations consultant for the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association.'' I'm not a regular reader of his columns, so I imagine he must mention this all the time.

Journal of the American Medical Association (AMA). The official name of journal is now just JAMA, pronounced ``JAM-uh.'' Try the old URL if the new one doesn't work.

The second part of that timeless phrase, ``rama-jama.''

Spanish, `never.' Sounds like ``Hamas'' in English.

Joint Analogue Microelectronics Initiative of Europe. Cf. jammie.

JApanese Society of Medical Imaging Technology. Really, why didn't they just translate it as Japanese Association...?

Cutsy-ese for pyjama or pajama, a word of Hindi origin.

Having to do with jam or jams.

Spanish for `ham,' in the common food sense. See also Jamón, jamón.

A slangy Spanish word for a woman who is not too young and not too thin. The word is formed as the feminine form of jamón. The term is usually not complimentary. In Puerto Rico it has the specific sense of `old maid.' But connotations drift, and words may be used ironically. On the set for the filming of Jamón, jamón, the sexy older actresses and young Penélope Cruz were all refered to jokingly as jamonas.

Jamón, jamón
Spanish for ``Ham, ham,'' and the title of a Spanish film that climaxed in a fight between the two male leads (Jordi Mollà and Javier Bardem) wielding hams as weapons. Actually, the hams used in the movie were made of latex. One of them has most of the ersatz meat off and is basically a bone. Raúl (played by Bardem) has the bigger ham (nudge nudge, wink wink) and he wins. You might say he slaughtered the other guy, but the other guy (``José Luis, played by Mollà) got (to keep) the girl, and the girl was played by young Penélope Cruz. [I thought of punning here on Pyrrhic and pyre (to cook the ham, you know), but I figured it would be too rebuscado.]

I think that's how it turned out, but I'm not sure. I'm basing myself on a quick skim of a book entitled El poderoso influjo de Jamón jamón [`The Powerful Influence of Jamón jamón'], and also a fast-forward viewing of the DVD, which had a slightly ambiguous straining-for-artsiness ending. The ham fight scene starts in the storage building for hams (Raúl's day job is there), and there are other connections with ham. Ham smell even gets a mention during a love scene. According to a storyboard frame, ``Se besan -- es exageradamente largo y ruidoso'' [`They kiss -- it is exaggeratedly long and noisy.'] This would be a good place to point out that in Spanish, the word jamón is not associated with overacting, as ham is in English. Still, the movie only runs 95 minutes, so the exaggerated length of the kiss may be another one of those artistic efforts that was left on the cutting-room floor.

Or maybe it was never filmed. Judging from other sections of storyboard reproduced in the book, in this scene one of protagonists (``Raúl,'' who was interpretado, as they often say in Spanish, by Javier Bardem) was originally supposed to be clad only in cotton briefs, but he wore jeans in the film. Underpants play an unusually prominent role in the movie. José Luis is an executive in his parents' underpants factory and Silvia (played by Penélope Cruz Sánchez, sixteen years old when the movie was filmed -- so it's not child porn if the nudity is above the waist?) is a worker in the plant. José Luis gets her pregnant and promises to marry her. His mother (played by Stefania Sandrelli) hires Raúl to seduce Silvia and break up the prospective marriage. Raúl is a prospective underpants model and aspiring bullfighter. In answer to the obvious question: it's not exploitation because it's art, see? Heck, those scenes in which the character brought to life by Jordi Mollà munches on the breasts of the character brought to life by Penélope Cruz? Inspired by ``La Caritá romana'' of Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644). So there: art.

The movie features both male and female frontal nudity and bull testicles. That's male mountain oysters, not ``male and female'' ones. The ``male and female'' only modifies ``frontal nudity.'' My apologies to those readers who were able to figure this out on their own. The bull testicles are not featured as food. They belong to a giant bull profile (about 12 or 13 meters high) on a hilltop (``el toro de Osborne en Candasnos''; there's a photo of it facing page 128 in the book). Another of the plates in the book shows the authentic iron cojones of the bull next to the wooden ones that were substituted for them in the movie. I didn't notice why a substitution was needed.

In case you were thinking of acquiring the book, it was written by Javier Angulo Barturen and published in 2007 by El Tercer Nombre and all you really need to know is that it begins with three dictionary definitions. The significance of the last fact is the same for a book written in Spanish as for one written in English and probably in any other language. An author who begins a book with dictionary definitions is not intentionally insulting his readers; he is merely indicating that he is a very simple person who does not mind or is unmindful of stating the obvious and ignoring shades of meaning.

(On the subject of meaning... Angulo -- the first surname in the preceding paragraph -- means `angle' in English. I'd like to make a joke about, but I can't come up with the right angle.)

I've seen a number of books that begin with one definition. This one begins with definitions of influjo, influir, and jamón. At least it didn't involve turning lots of pages. Evidently, influir is in there because it occurs in the definition of influjo. The definitions were excerpted from the DLE, which is better than some random ``Webster's.'' But three (3) definitions?! The back cover blurbiage includes the following statement: ``Se trata de un libro de lectura fácil y amena.'' Loosely: `this book is easy to read and the unpleasant task of reading actual words is broken up by pictures.' Maybe the definitions are meant as an insult.

For those of you who followed the link here from the jamón entry and are still reading, here's the short definition for jamón: ``carne curada de la pierna de cerdo'' (`cured meat of hog leg'). Isn't it only the back leg?

Mollà was born in Barcelona, which probably accounts for the grave accent. In the book (as in the Castilian language generally), his Catalonian surname is naturalized by the use of an acute accent (Mollá).

Joint Automated Mapping Project.

jam sandwich
Mnemonics for the order of planets (in order of average distance to the sun [Ftnt. 28]) are typically sentences about jam sandwiches (Jupiter Saturn). E.g.:
Mother very thoughtfully made a jam sandwich under no protest.
[column] ``[T]houghtfully'' here stands for Terrarium, the Latin name for the Earth. Another example of the use of this word is in the famous encyclical letter issued by Pope John XXIII, entitled Pacem In Terrarium, which urged all animals living in a confined space with limited resources to please calm down. Something like that, anyway.

I was going to mention that the pope issued a papal encyclical, but it seems that's the only kind he issues, and he seems to have a monopoly on the practice, at least for the last few centuries (c.).


Most volcanoes erupt mouldy jam sandwich under normal pressure.

There is a certain balancing act in this glossary -- in order to create a certain level of amusement, I find it useful, even necessary, to introduce certain ... inaccuracies ... into the definitions. On the other hand, in order to preserve the fiction of utility of this ``resource'' (hah!) it is somewhat desirable that the inaccuracies so introduced be of a blatant, easily identified sort. This entry contains an inaccuracy that does not satisfy this last criterion. For the benefit of some (idiots) I must note explicitly that the Latin for Earth is Terra (nominative case) and that the Pope's encyclical letter, of April 11, 1963, was entitled Pacem in Terris. It is available in English as publication No. 342-6 (ISBN 1-55586-342-6) from the Office for Publishing and Promotion Services, United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. I was going to write ``Washington, DC, zip code unknown,'' but I thought better of it. Someone would probably write out ``zip code unknown'' as part of the address.

JApanese Marine Science and TEchnology Center.

A given name or two or three.

As a man's given name, Jan is common in Holland. That name is pronounced roughly like the English word yon, but with a vowel of shorter duration (say half that of the ah sound in the English word).

Jan has been a common nickname for Janice, pronounced like the first syllable of the longer name. I imagine you knew that, so I'm not going to do a long song and dance explaining the pronunciation, etc., blah, blah, blah, and so forth. That would just be wasting your time.

William Jan Berry was half of the surfer-rock duo Jan and Dean. You can learn a lot about them on the web, much of it true, and much more than I care to repeat. I will mention that Jan Berry graduated UCLA in 1964 and enrolled in California Medical College, because that gives me a chance to link to two (2) other moderately meaty entries in the glossary, see?

There's an official Jan-and-Dean site; as I write this in May 2004, it doesn't yet mention that Jan died late last March, age 62. My condolences to his life-long musical collaborator Dean O. Torrence. Their official site was evidently designed by Dean, who got a BFA (1964) from USC. It is one of the most asinine sites on the web. From the slow-loading start page, you click to a kiosk window of fixed dimensions and no normal controls. Most of the text content is served as heavy graphics (which are also hard to keep up to date). The British Library won awards for doing this in its Turning the Pages project. But sometimes what works for the Diamond Sutra or the Luttrell Psalter does not work so well for Immortal Mispellings of And Dean. To save yourself some grief, click to index2 instead. Better yet, just read the excerpt below, which contains all you need to know. The biography section on the site (written by Dean) begins

Jan Berry and I both attended University High School in West Los Angeles, California. We met while playing for the University High School Football Team "The Warriors". Jan played tight end and I played wide receiver on offense and free safety on defense. Did you ever read that before?........ didn't think so. Our coach, Milton "Uncle Milty" Anisman who later when asked about what it was like to have Jan and Dean on his football team, he said who? gee I don't remember having a girl on any of my football teams.

After practice, a bunch of us teammates would all get together and harmonize some of the hit platters of the day while taking a shower. ...

Jan and Dean had their first hit as a duo in 1959. The surfer thing came a little later. They were very successful and bought cool new cars. On April 12, 1966, Jan drove his new Stingray into the back of a parked truck (at a high rate of speed). When he regained consciousness a few weeks later, he couldn't walk or talk. Dean put his degree to use, founding Kittyhawk Graphics. Jan presumably put some of his medical training to use over a decade of rehab. After CBS aired the television movie ``Deadman's Curve'' (1978) based on their story, they started touring and recording again. As everyone used to say, Jan could sing again pretty well ``considering.'' It's inspiring and very interesting for, uh, die-hard fans, I'm sure. Oh yeah -- Jan got into drugs and derailed the comeback, and Dean teamed up with Mike Love of the Beach Boys for some commercial gigs as Mike and Dean. Dennis Wilson had a fatal diving accident before he could get himself cleaned up, but Jan graduated from rehab, and Jan and Dean spent the next couple of decades on the nostalgia circuit.

Japanese Adopted Name. Official Japanese generic drug name.

Joint (J) Army-Navy (military standard).

Jane E.
Women whose first name is Jane seem to have about a fifty percent chance of having a middle name beginning in E. Often the E stands for Emily or Elizabeth, but more research is needed.

Read on.

A Jane Austen enthusiast. The word Janean is also used, though primarily as an adjective. Austenian, now much rarer, seems to have been more common in the past. FWIW, in 1927 the TLS recommended a new edition of JEAL's Memoir (for editor Robert Chapman's enumeration of JA's letters and manuscripts) as ``mak[ing] it necessary to the complete Austenian....''


Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society.

Jane's Fighting Ships
Nowadays it's Jane's Information Group, Ltd., and it comprises that I am aware of, anyway.

Joint Academic NETwork (U.K.). (An alternative/equivalent address: <http://www.ja.net/>. See also <http://www.ukerna.ac.uk/>) You might have this confused with JUNET.


Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.


An ancient-mythical Roman god with two faces (also for that reason known as Bifrons). The god of beginnings, or gates or other entries, and the fellow after whom the month of January is named. Janus was unusual among the gods venerated by the Romans: an old Italic god, he had no counterpart in the Greek pantheon.

I knew that, but for some reason a Greek restaurant opened in Buffalo and took Janus as its name, and that threw me off. In order to avoid making a similar mistake, you want to review this information at the Bijani subentry.

Joint (J) Army-Navy Uniform Simulation.

Joint (J) Air Operations Center. DOD term.


Journal of the American Oriental Society. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. I have a hunch it's related to the American Oriental Society (AOS).

Journal of Applied Physics. The associated letters journal is APL.

Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.


Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.


Journal of Archaeological Science. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

An evergreen tree that grows in the Scrabble forest.

A Mexican brand of sodas, and the only such widely available in the US. The word jarritos means `little jars' where I come from (Argentina), and little bottles are ``botellitas.'' I'll have to check with my Mexican ``informants,'' as we linguistic anthropologists call them, to find out how jarritos is construed in Mexico.

Okay, back from research. It turns out that yes, it has the same meaning in Mexican Spanish, and there are even some other people who have noticed the oddity of the name and are bothered by it.

I've only ever seen Jarritos in fruit flavors, but one informant informs me that they sell a nonalcoholic sangría-flavored soda. That's one of the exciting things about field work: the unexpected insights! I neglected to ask if he's ever seen any diet sodas from Jarritos.

Java Applet Rating Service.


Jane Austen Society. See also the Australian and North American Societies.

Jane Austen Society of Australia. See also the North American and British Societies.

And now a word from our sponsor...


Select from our complete line of bicycle ashtrays!

We now return you to your regularly scheduled glossary entry.

Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Published by ASIS.

Jane Austen Society of North America. See also the British and Australian Societies.

If you want some real resources, however, instead of club dues information, try the Jane Austen Info Page.

Journal of American Studies of Turkey. ISSN 1300-6606. ``A print and on-line publication of the American Studies Association of Turkey (ASAT), the Journal of American Studies of Turkey publishes work in English by scholars of any nationality on American literature, history, art, music, film, popular culture, institutions, politics, economics, geography and related subjects.''

Jet-Assisted Take-Off. More at the RATO entry.

Not a journal. The initials of J.A.T. Robinson, an HJ researcher who wanted to believe that the gospels were all written before the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE. He argued that an event of that magnitude would surely have gotten bigger play in the gospels, at a time when Christianity and Judaism were not completely resolved as distinct religions, if it had occurred before these were written. It's hard to credit this, since some, at least, of the Christian scriptures were written after the destruction and none mention it explicitly.

Usually, GMark 13 is taken as referring to the second Temple destruction; this is taken as one of the most important among the few guides, none very reliable, for dating the Christian scriptures.

Japanese Association for Toothfriendly Sweets. See also the heavy in the good-cop/bad-cop routine: JADR (Dental Research). There's an international umbrella organization for tooth-friendly sweets: TSI.

Japanese Anti-Vivisection Association.

Object-oriented (OO) programming language and environment. Originally called Oak. Omar Patiño maintained a Virtual Library (W3VL) page for Java that appears to have expired. This page allows you to suffer Java in French.

Try the Digital Cats' Java Resource Center. They probably already have something like this animation utility.

The following paragraph is what I thought back in 1996 or so, after writing my first long Java program. These thoughts are now more than a decade out of date, but I don't have any new ones. (Either that or I'm older, and less disposed to credit my own opinions.)

On the whole, although all its compilers are pre-beta-level buggy, and it displays security-inspired obstacles at every turn, handles strings obscenely clumsily, handles complex numbers not at all, makes most easy things strenuous, is not at all platform-independent as advertised, and though its design incorporates more really bone-headed choices than there is space in this vast glossary to describe, and even though object-orientedness is mostly hype, and even though C++ sucks but is much better, after all Java cannot be said, in the strictest sense of the word, to be utterly evil, probably. It should find utility as the ultimate punishment in countries that permit torture. In a country whose main export commodity was once coffee, but is now white, how appropriate to make Java fit the crime. Traffickers will beg for extradition to the US, where the highest punishment is merely capital.

For a taste of Java, try Michael Neumann's extensive list of sample short programs in different programming languages. As of now, it has five Java programs.

You can find out a lot about JavaScript on the web. Locally, we serve a short page about JavaScript comments and browser compatibility.

Michael Neumann's extensive list of sample short programs in different programming languages includes three JavaScript programs.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. The journal ``began publication in 1915 and is the most widely distributed veterinary medical journal. The mission of the JAVMA is to promote the science and art of veterinary medicine and to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of ideas important to the profession.'' The AVMA also publishes the American Journal of Veterinary Research (AJVR).


Here's something from Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (from the 54th printing, 1957) by the influential Dale Carnegie (author of How to Win Friends and Influence People). On page 227, Review Exercise.

1. Surrender your jaw, let it fall like a dead weight from your head. Take in a deep breath, feel as if you were sucking the air down into your stomach, and chant ``ah'' with ease, without one tiny trace of effort.

Why didn't he do any books on yoga? He was a natural!


Journal of Ancient War Studies. Earlier proposal for a new journal. Now AMW (Ancient and Medieval Warfare) is being considered.

A nickname of NFL analyst and former American football quarterback Ron JAWorSki.

Japan Aerospace EXploration Agency.

Name derived from original initialism: JC for Junior Chamber (of Commerce).

Buffalo was a big Jazz venue once, but few if any of the greats are from here. Even New York City was not the birthplace of too many. A Stammtisch investigation lends strong statistical support to the hypothesis that Pittsburgh and other Pennsylvania cities have been the birthplaces of Jazz greats. The Chicago era was nourished by local talent, Detroit, etc. John Coltrane was from Philadelphia.

I couldn't think of anything less relevant to write about Jazz. What did you expect, I should explain soul and tell you where to get some?

Oh, I thought of something else: if you want to be simultaneously pretentious and multi-culti, Jazz is the ticket.

Jean-Baptiste. French name meaning `John the Baptist' (Jo. Bapt.). I was going to write that it's a common name in French, but I remember when I told Sabine about a woman I met named Bernadette (I think that was it) and she laughed because it was such an old-fashioned name. Of course, I thought it was pretty remarkable that someone could be named Sabine and survive childhood without major psychological scars, but if this glossary ever becomes popular reading I'm probably going to catch hell for that remark, so I really should edit this bit out, instead of repeating it in the Jennifer Jones entry.

Being beautiful has psychic benefits. Sabine suffered no apparent psychological trauma on account of her name.

Jurum Baccalaureus. `Bachelor of Laws.'

John the BAPtist. This is the guy who lost his mind, isn't it?

Jahrbücher für preußisch-brandenburgische Geschichte. A German journal that might have been named `Yearbooks of Prussian-Brandenburg History' in English. Notice the letter-doubling (bb) to indicate plural (Bücher, `books,' instead of Buch, `book'). See Stuart Jenks's page of Tables of Contents of Historical Journals and Monographic Series in German for a partial table of contents (deutsche Seite: Zeitschriftenfreihandmagazin Inhaltsverzeichnisse geschichtswissenschaftlicher Zeitschriften in deutscher Sprache).

Journal of Biological Chemistry.

James Bullough Lansing. Founder of the company that makes JBL speakers. Lansing was born James Martini in 1902, but when he was 25, he changed his name to James Lansing at the suggestion of the woman who would become his wife. You might say he took his wife's name, even though his wife's name was Glenna Peterson. When he changed his last name, he also adopted the middle name Bullough from the name of a family he lived with for a short time as a child.

He adopted the new name shortly before registering a company called the Lansing Manufacturing Company (on March 9, 1927) with his partner Ken Decker. That company manufactured loudspeakers, but it was not exactly the forerunner of JBL, Inc. Lansing Manufacturing went downhill after Decker died in a 1939 plane crash, and in 1941 Altec Service Corporation bought it for the parts. That is, as components manufacturer for its own loudspeakers. They also hired Lansing himself as VP of Engineering with a five-year contract.

When his contract with Altec Lansing expired in 1946, J.B. Lansing left and began a new loudspeaker company initially called Lansing Sound, Inc. Altec Lansing thought that infringed their trademark, and the name was lengthened to James B. Lansing Sound, Inc. Lansing designed new loudspeakers initially very similar to ones he had designed for Altec Lansing, and at first tried to sell them under the ``Iconic'' brand name that he had come up with for, and that was used by, Altec Lansing. As this suggests, and as the decline of his first company after Decker's death is also supposed to show, he was a much better engineer than businessman; for this reason, or simply because of poor economic conditions, the new company did not prosper in its first three years. This contributed to the despair that led to Lansing's suicide in September of 1949. The company survived, however. I think the company name is still legally James B. Lansing Sound, Inc., but it sells its speakers under the JBL brand and does business as the JBL Company.

Other very very important details: James was the ninth of fourteen children, many of whom changed their last name to Martin. A couple of his brothers named Martin went to California to work for Lansing at some point. Be careful what you say to your coworkers about the boss -- you never know.

Steve Martin, well-known as a comedian and actor, wrote a best-selling novella called The Shopgirl (2001). (It was made into a movie, 2005.) At the start of the story, Jeremy (a vertex of the central romantic triangle) works stenciling logos for a struggling Los Angeles-based amplifier manufacturer. (When Jeremy proposes to go on the road to promote sales, his boss Chet is thinking of hiring a nephew to replace him.) The author, who grew up in the Los Angeles area, was born Stephen Glenn Martin in Waco, Texas, in 1945; he is the son of Glenn Vernon Martin, who was probably too young to be a brother of James Lansing. I can find no indication on the Internet that Steve Martin is related to Lansing, and I guess he isn't. And the fictional manufacturer has the rather lame name of ``The Doggone Amplifier Company.''


Journal of Biblical Literature. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Jamaica Bureau of Standards. The JBS has a range of laboratories for standards development and testing in textiles, paints, microbiology, chemicals, food, metallurgy, paper, furniture and packaging.

You call this ganja, mon? Weak! We put you in jail fa dis.

Journal of Biblical Studies. ``[A]n electronic journal dedicated to the field of Biblical Studies in general. Articles on any aspect of Biblical Studies (including: archaeology, linguistics, exegesis, history, and textual issues) are welcome, and contributions that challenge the traditional boundaries of Biblical Studies are encouraged. We would also like to see articles that discuss the relationship between Biblical Studies and other disciplines.''

Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. And existentialism. Throw some onions in the soup too -- that usually improves the flavor. From the ``NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS'':

The JBSP publishes papers on phenomenology and existential philosophy as well as contributions from other fields of philosophy. Papers from workers in the humanities and the human sciences interested in the philosophy of their subject will be welcome too. Space will be given to research in progress, to book reviews, and to bibliographies of use to students. The journal will also provide a forum for interdisciplinary discussion.

JBSP was founded in 1970 by the late Wolfe Mays. A subscription to JBSP is included in the price of membership in the BSP. JBSP is published in three issues per year -- January, May, and October. [Unlike some such journals, they really seem to mean it: I received announcements of the January and May 2006 issues (vol. 37, Nos. 1 and 2) in January and May, respectively, of 2006.]

Jewish believers in Yeshua. Christian proselytizers among Jews like this term, evidently because it emphasizes the Jewish origin of Jesus. Yeshua is the original Hebrew or Aramic name that we translate Jesus. (For more on this, see the His entry.)

Just Be Yourself.

Jakob-Creutzfeldt. A nasty virus which infects oligodendrocytes in the brain. Oligodendrocytes wrap around nerve processes and produce myelin, a fatty substance that provides electrical insulation. As this tissue is destroyed, neurological dysfunction follows. Kidneys harbor inactive JC virus in healthy individuals. When immune response is suppressed by HIV, JC virus migrates in some way to the bone marrow, from which it makes its way to the brain within B lymphocytes. This virus does not cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD, q.v.).

See Jaycees.

Jean Chrétien. A possible answer to a tough trivia question in the US: name a twentieth-century Canadian prime minister other than Pierre Trudeau.

If you can't remember, you might get away with ``oh, it's on the tip of my tongue -- the initials are Jay, uh, Cee -- it's uhh....'' J and C have been a popular pair of initials for Canadian PM's. An interesting borderline case is John Turner. After serving in a few Liberal governments, in 1975 he resigned in protest from a Pierre Trudeau government and went to work in the private sector. He returned to full-time politics in 1984 when Pierre Trudeau retired. That June he defeated Jean Chrétien (remember him?) to be elected leader of the Liberal Party, and so became PM. How did he defeat Jean Chrétien? Well, a number of unsatisfactory theories have been proposed, but I think the name is key. Even though he was apparently born John Napier Turner (in Sussex, England), he was also known as John Christopher Turner. Perhaps that provided the margin of victory.

You could hardly believe it, but in just a few short months, Turner was engulfed in scandal, and the next September he was replaced as PM by Progressive Conservative Party leader Brian Mulroney. (So Turner was PM ``1984-1984.'' Parliamentary systems have their lighter side.) It should have been obvious that Mulroney's successor in June 1993, Kim Campbell, had to use the nickname Jane when she faced Jean Chrétien the following November. PM ``1993-1993.'' She was overwhelmed because her opponent was Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien. It was overdetermined.

What we see here is that a partial JC may sometimes be able to defeat a full JC, probably not a replete JC, while a BM may defeat a partial JC. Probably a BM wouldn't stand a chance against a full JC. (Oh, of course Pierre Trudeau defeated Joe Clark. Get real.) With Paul Martin, it seems the Grits were experimenting with PM for PM (it might explain BM).

Hmmm. After less than a year, it didn't seem to be working out very well. He was replaced in 2006 by another partial JC (Steven Joseph Harper). However, since most people just think of him as Stephen Harper, he had to form a minority government. On the other hand, he's an evangelical Christian, so he won reelection handily in 2011.

In 2015, the Liberals were led by Justin Trudeau. Since it was a contest of partial JC's, it looked to be a close race, with the winner expected to be forced to form a minority government. In the closing days of the campaign, however, Justin Trudeau promised to use deficit spending to reform Question Period by replacing it with new daily Doonesbury strips, and his party won in a plurality rout.

The JC effect is equally effective in US elections. When Ronald W. Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in 1980, it was the first time that a major-party candidate with initials J.C. was defeated by someone with neither a J nor a C since 1920, when Warren G. Harding defeated James M. Cox. Both elections were won in landslides, which just goes to show how strong a candidacy has to be to overcome the JC effect.

JC, J.C.
Jesus Christ. In the same way that (okay not really in the same way that) J.R. have been popular initials in the US lately, it seems that around the first century BCE (if only you knew it), if you wanted to be an important personage J.C. were the initials to have.

Jesus is essentially the Latin transliteration of the Greek name Iêsoûs. (The circumflex on the e is to indicate that it's a Greek letter eta; the second circumflex is just a circumflex accent. Sorry. For what it's worth, accents weren't indicated graphically in Greek until centuries later.) The Greek name, in turn, comes from the Aramaic name Yeshua used among Jews (and which therefore may be regarded as a Hebrew name of that time). That name, in turn, is a version of the older Hebrew name, in use to this day, Y'hoshua. This is normally rendered as Joshua in English. Interestingly, coincidentally, suspiciously, providentially, or significantly, depending on your POV, Joshua means something along the lines of `[the Lord] saves.' The first famous Joshua, of course, was the son of Nun, and that makes a good pun (pone?) in English, when you consider that Mary was a virgin when she was inseminated or whatever by a holy ghost, so she was as celibate as a nun. Nancy Freedman had some fun with Joshua, Son of None, which she used as the title of a 1973 novel. In her book, some cells are saved from the dying JFK and cloned. The resulting child is named Joshua. The idolatry surrounding that guy is astounding.

From Hellenistic times, Greek (more precisely Koine) had been the widely used lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean from Egypt to Greece. The Greek name Iesus (the borrowed version of Joshua, remember?) was adopted into Latin (as a fourth-declension noun, I'm sure you wanted to know). In the usual way, consonantal I came to be written J after that letter was invented, and pronounced as a voiced fricative in English. While there are many versions of Latin pronunciation, Church Latin coincides with (our reconstruction of) Classical Latin for this name, pronounced YEH-soos (the oo is the oo of Sue; for vowel quantities you're on your own).

Christ means messiah. The English word messiah is derived from the Hebrew word meshiah (or maybe the Aramaic, I'll check details later). The Semitic word means `annointed [person],' a term with an interesting Biblical history. The word was readily translated into the Greek christos, etymon of the English word Christ.

Gaius Julius Caesar. This and other Classical Latin names explained at the tria nomina entry.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

Journal of CANnabis Therapeutics. Published by Haworth Press starting in 2001, it went up in smoke at the beginning of 2004.

These days, when you publish an article in a Haworth Press journal, along with your offprints they send you a little packet of chochkes to help you promote their journals. These include a notepad and a ballpoint pen with their URL on it and ... a foil-wrapped chocolate medallion imprinted with their logo. The chocolate is something new; maybe if they'd started providing munchies earlier, JCANT jmightve.

``Joseph Cyril Bamford launched the construction and agricultural equipment manufacturing company that bears his initials, in 1945.'' The company is also in materials handling equipment these days, but in the UK the initialism has come to be used as an antonomasia for backhoe-equipped digger, which the company pioneered.

On page 10 of Harm Done, an Inspector Wexford Mystery by Ruth Rendell, the inspector is driving his grandsons to school. One of them expresses his pleasure about some road-building work. ``I liked the diggers. I'm going to drive a JCB when I'm grown up and then I'll dig up the whole world.''

Boys, as Ruth Rendell has observed through Wexford's thoughts, take longer to reach an age where they are able to appreciate pretty landscapes. (Wexford is a wuss.) Incidentally, this novel is not recommended. At various points the writing is confusing, possibly for effect, but the immediate effects are confusion and irritation. Also, it is drearily obsessed with what bad people men are to women. (Only some men! Don't want to appear insensitively sensitive. And not any more often than once every page or so.) As you can imagine, correctly, the book is almost excruciatingly politically correct. Of course, for the sort of people who like to read that sort of book, this is the sort of book they would like to read. To help you decide if that's you, here is some of Inspector Wexford's thought from page 4:

    If she had been, well, a different sort of girl, Wexford wouldn't have paid so much attention. If she had been more like her friends. He hesitated about the phrase he used even in his own mind, for he liked to keep to his personal brand of political correctness in his thoughts as well as his speech. Not to be absurd about it, not to use ridiculous expressions like intellectually challenged, but not to be insensitive either and call a girl such as Lizzie Cromwell mentally handicapped or retarded. ...

Stupid. That will do.

Jewish Community Center.

Job Control Command. Like ``get to work, you,'' and ``we'll do it my way,'' but in words a computer can understand. I only remember this as a term in the context of IBM-mainframe JCL.

Joint (J) Communications Control Center. DOD term. Hey, man -- come on over and get high.

Junction Charge-Coupled Devices. Whereas ordinary charge-coupled devices (CCD) use MOS capacitors (MOS-C), JCCD's use the capacitance of reverse-biased pn junctions.

Journal of Cancer Education. The official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education (AACE) and the European Association for Cancer Education (EACE).

Journal of Chemical Education. LC number QD1.J825.

Jewish Council for Education & Research. A political action committee that no one ever heard of until 2008. The website doesn't indicate when the organization was founded, but is worded in a way that seems to try to suggest that it is a long-established organization. (That is, it emphasizes that the issues it addresses are of long standing, and mentions the experience -- in other organizations -- of JCER's leaders.)

JCER is basically a nominally (and no doubt by the letter of the law) independent organization campaigning for Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama ``and six other [sic] Congressional candidates.'' I suppose that if JCER were only supporting a single candidate they couldn't register as an independent PAC.

Obama is apparently relatively unpopular among Jews, polling at around 65%. Jews have for decades been among the most loyally Democratic voters, and 65% in the general would be a poor showing, comparable in recent decades only to the support received by unsuccessful Democratic presidential candidates like Michael Dukakis (who lost in 1988).

JCER has churned out a number of pro-Obama, er, heavily researched educational videos. As I write this, on October 6, 2008, the one featured on its website is ``Israel's Generals Speak.'' In the same day's edition of Israel Hayom (`Israel Today'), Dan Lavi reports that ``misrepresents several former Israeli security officials by claiming that they back Obama.'' [All English quotes are translations by Aaron Lerner of IMRA.]

Former IDF Deputy Chief of Staff Uzi Dayan complained that ``the announcement of my support for Obama is a lie and deception. I never supported him or his positions. I demand that the organization drop me from the video and I will consider legal action.''

Former Mossad chief Ephraim Halevy, who also appeared in the video, said that ``there is a complete misrepresentation of what I said. I said nothing that could be interpreted as support for Obama in the US presidential elections.''

It would be very hard to produce an honest video showing substantial Israeli support for Obama. Because Israel is heavily dependent on the US for its security, and because there is a strong possibility that Israeli government will have to deal with an Obama administration, people in the Israeli government (and even in parties that have any hope of forming part of the government in the future) are diplomatically ambivalent in expressing opinions on the US presidential contest. Polling of the Israeli public, however, reveals what Israeli politicians concede privately: Israeli support is strongly for John McCain. One idiosyncratic reason for this support is McCain's history as a prisoner of war. This is a condition Israelis have regular occasion to think about and sympathize with, and a survivor of the experience is naturally respected.

More programmatically, McCain benefits from his association with George Bush. Bush 43 has been the US president most supportive of Israel since Richard Nixon's emergency airlift of arms in 1974 saved Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Israelis, like Kurds and other groups the US MSM are less likely to think of when assessing Bush's effect on the international standing of the US, generally respect and like George W. Bush. Properly speaking, of course, McCain benefits very little from Israeli satisfaction with Bush. There are a few thousand American Jews living in Israel, though, and they are expected to cast a majority of their votes for McCain.

Palestinian leaders and elites generally expect or claim that the Palestinian public (presumably including Arab Israelis) support Obama. You'd imagine that someone with a middle name of Hussein would start with a natural advantage. Reports from the ground, however, suggest that this support is tepid if it exists.

Journal of Crystal Growth. LC number QD921.J6.

Just Classical Guitar. An old site that now forwards immediately to a ``Classical Guitar Internet Resource Site!'' with a focus on the greater (I don't know how much greater) Savannah area. We also have a bare-bones CG (classical guitar) entry.

Japan Center for Intercultural Communications.

Job Control Language. Probably IBM JCL, operating system for a mainframe.


Junior Classical League. A conspiracy to promote Latin, classical Greek, and other dusty classical learning among impressionable youth (US and Canadian high school students). A membership organization for unwitting US and Canadian high school students, manipulated (``sponsored'') behind the scenes (as we reveal here on your computer screen for the first time) by the American Classical League (ACL). Longer alternate name is National Junior Classical League (NJCL). If a distinction is made between the terms JCL and NJCL, it seems to be that students belong to the NJCL and student chapters in a high school belong to the JCL. Five students who've studied a classical subject with a teacher suffice to form a chapter.

The JCL cosponsors competitive national exams with the ACL -- in Latin (NLE), Classical Greek (NGE) and mythology -- but they still don't get to look at the answers beforehand.

JCLers who experience separation anxiety when they graduate high school can join the SCL.

Joint (J) Captured Materiel Exploitation Center.

Joint Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) logic. Another name for JMOS (q.v.).

Journal of Crystal and Molecular Structure. LC number QD901.J62 . Volume 1 in 1971, volume 11 in 1981; continued as JCSR.

Japan Corporate News. See JCNN. Newswire.

Jewish Communication Network.

Japan Corporate News Network. In principle, JCN Newswire (as opposed to JCN Network) carries company press releases and JCNN carries business news, but it's hard to see the distinction in practice.

Journal of Clinical Oncology. ASCO's peer reviewed journal.

Japanese Communist Party. In a new platform adopted at the end of a party convention on January 17, 2004, the JCP toned down its revolution rhetoric and accepted the emperor system as something temporarily acceptable. I thought that was worth a chuckle.

Jewish Council for Public Affairs. An umbrella group of 125 Jewish communal relations councils (JCRC's) across the United States, plus two dozen or so national organizations.

Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. We don't explain ``Privy Council'' at its abbreviation PC either. Who knows what we might find if we looked?

Journal Citation Reports. An annual publication that provides information about academic journals in the sciences and social sciences. It's the source of a widely used ``impact factor'' for each journal.

Jewish Communal Relations Council. A generic term; see JCPA.

Job Control Statement.

Joint Chiefs of Staff. At one time this was the body through which the separate activities of the four US military services were coordinated. Since the Goldwater-Nichols DOD Reorganization Act of 1986, its role is firmly advisory. This law resolved an ambiguous situation that had been evolving since WWII, when the the JCS exercised direct executive authority. The National Security Act of 1947 treated the JCS as a planning and advisory group, but its members had continued to exercise executive power in their separate roles as chiefs of military services. Since 1986, their status as military advisors -- i.e., as members of the JCS, takes precedence over their other duties to the exclusion of an executive role specifically in the direction of combatant forces (though not in other management tasks).

You can read some relevant history, oddly enough, at the LSJ entry. What, I don't mention Napoleon or the Prussian innovations? This is pretty incomplete.


Journal of Cuneiform Studies. An annual publication of the American Schools of Oriental Research. See AASOR for other publications.

Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. Published by CSCSR, it ``is a scholarly refereed quarterly journal. The volume year publication date is October (1), January (2), April (3), July (4). Subscription is for a volume year.'' Quoting from the same informative page (text harvested September 2004):

Current U.S. retention figures have not improved over time, even with large amounts of money expended by colleges and universities on programs and services to retain students. In spite of these programs and services, retention figures have not improved. [Why does the content of this sentence sound familiar?] In fact, only about 66% of high school graduates attend college and about 50% of those who attend college earn a bachelor degrees. [Sic. I just cut and paste, okay?] Put in real numbers [is that with the natural topology?], about 2,800,000 students will graduate from high school this year, 1,850,000 will attend college and only 925,000 of these students will earn a bachelor [sic; it's not some funny font glitch, afaik] degree. Colleges are looking for ways to keep the students that they recruit. The Journal will provide the educational community with current theoretical foundations, research and practice results, which will help educators and institutions to retain students.

Let me add a note here, since there is something not mentioned that needs to be explained. The fact that ``retention figures have not improved over time'' despite ``large amounts of money expended'' on ``programs and services'' does not reflect poorly on the trained professionals who run the programs and provide the services.

Based on Department of Education statistics, I think ``college'' in the quoted text excludes junior colleges. Roughly half as many associate's degrees are granted per year as bachelor's degrees. Most AA's are awarded by junior colleges, and about one third of these are university-parallel or general humanities degrees, designed to allow immediate transfer into the junior year of a four-year college. The remaining two thirds are business, technical, professional associate degrees and the like, for students planning to work immediately afterwards.

The abbreviation JCSR isn't all that common, which might be just as well. An alternative short form is Retention Journal.

Journal of Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Research. LC number QD901.J62 . Volume 12 in 1982; continues JCMS, which reached vol. 11 in 1981.

JISC Committee for the Support of Research. (That's the UK

JunCTion. In place names, it typically refers to rail spurs. Like Princeton Jct. (See NJT entry.)

JC Virus.

Juggalo Championship Wrestling. Misspelled here. The correct spelling makes the hilarious substitution of a letter t in place of the p. We realized that you couldn't stand so much intense and bloody cleverness. A product of ICP.

Jack Daniels. This guy advertises in Scientific American (SciAm). Too hoity-toity. That must be the reason why George Thorogood [unofficial page of rated links; excellent page from Finland, including lyrics; weak official page] doesn't drink with him when he drinks alone, with nobody else.

(His web site seems to have passed out of existence.)

Julian Day. A chronological system apparently invented by the astronomer John F. Herschel, and based on counting days and fractions of days from the first day of the Julian period.

In Herschel's original scheme, dating begins at noon (at the Greenwich meridian) in order that an entire night of observing (at least for Herschel and his European colleagues) occurred on a Julian day.

For Western historians, counting the beginning of a day from noon is inconvenient. Hence historians came to define Julian days that began at midnight. Historians also use the abbreviation JD, but the scheme is distinguished by calling its days ``chronological Julian days,'' as opposed to ``astronomical Julian days.'' As you can imagine, in practice one rarely sees these terms except in explanations of the difference.

To be precise, I should say that chronological Julian days begin at midnight twelve hours before the start of the corresponding astronomical Julian day. Most discussions of Julian days are phrased with the implicit understanding that the twelve hours before the first (astronomical) day of the Julian period are already in the first Julian day. That is, people implicitly think in terms of a day that begins before noon. Surprise.

In the neverending search for convenience and saving two keystrokes, historians have also defined an MJD.

Peter Meyer has a clear exposition of the various Julian Day numbers.


Juris Doctor. Latin, `Doctor of Law[s].' This is a rebranding of what used to be known in the US as the LL.B., the basic law degree. I suppose the name change was justified as reflecting the progressive professionalization of legal practice. People who have been awarded the J.D. traditionally are considered entitled to append ``Esq.'' after their names, but using ``Dr.'' as a title is too brazen for most. On personals websites lawyers generally select ``doctorate'' as their highest level of education completed, but this is perfectly acceptable because personals are supposed to be deceptive.

Joint Duty Assignment. Can be multi-Service, joint or multinational. I'm not going to speculate on the distinction between multi-Service and joint. Maybe this means ``multiservice -- joint or multinational --.''

Joint Duty Assignment List.

Joint (services) Direct-Attack Munitions.

Marshall McLuhan is credited with this prediction (and rather a lot of others): ``World War III will be a guerrilla information war, with no division between military and civilian participation.''

Java DataBase Connection.

Joint Declaration on Cooperation.

Joint Distribution Committee. A Jewish Relief organization.

Joint Document Exploitation Center. Just like JCMEC.

Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International. I think this is a previous name of the JDRF. See also the main diabetes entry DM.

Joint (J) Deployable Intelligence Support System. ``A transportable workstation and communications suite that electronically extends a joint intelligence center to a joint task force or other tactical user.'' In DOD usage, as far as I know, information about the enemy is the only meaning of the word intelligence.

Java Development Kit.

Jewish Defense League.

The organization formerly known as the ``Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.'' I guess ``Type-1 Diabetes Research Foundation'' just doesn't have the same ring. I'm just glad they didn't rename it TOFKAJDRF.

J. D. Salinger
Jerome David Salinger. Known as Jerry. But really, you shouldn't ask. He doesn't like personal questions like that. Even now that he's in the privacy of the grave, it probably still bothers him.

Jane's Defense Weekly. They've really leveraged the name recognition. Now JDW is part of Jane's Information Group. For a list, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

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