When ASCII was created, the separate actions of carriage return and line feed were given separate codes, but their historic and natural connection led to conflicting conventions. Unix text files indicate the end of a line by a single <LF> (ASCII 10 or CTRL-J; indicated by the escape \n in many programming languages). MS-DOS and Windows indicate the end of a line by <CR><LF>. AIUI, these are the only two options approved by industry standards bodies. Apple text files indicate the end of a line with a single <CR> (ASCII 13 or CTRL-M; indicated by the escape \r in many programming languages).
Even before electronic keyboards, there were key-punch machines. These would perforate standardized data cards, using one column of hole positions per character. At the end of a line, or whenever one was done with data entry on a card, one did not ``return'' to the beginning -- at least not of the same card. The key that released the current card and loaded the next card for data entry was labeled by the word ``enter.'' In that position on the keyboard, it survived as the variously labeled ``return'' or ``enter'' key on electronic keyboards.
Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.
``Founded in 1886, The Classical Review publishes reviews of new work with the literatures and civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome. Over three hundred books are reviewed each year, the full-length reviews being followed by shorter notices of less important works. It can be regarded as a companion to The Classical Quarterly [CQ].'' The CA also publishes a journal abbreviated G&R that even peons such as yourself may aspire to comprehend.
According to a 17 April 2002 article by Norman Lebrecht for This is London (possibly still available online), conductors of classical music have the most fulfilling sex lives.
I thought that maybe C/R referred to an electric power conductor, like a live rail or something. In any profession, people develop their own terminology. We try to bring it all together in one place to confuse you.
One of the courses I took in high school was auto shop. At the beginning of class for a while, the teacher would go around the room (didn't I tell you this story already?) and ask us to call out the next step in doing tune-up work on the distributor. Since we sat in assigned seats and since he always called us in the same order, each one of us always got called for the same step. It wasn't a very effective teaching method, I think. Teaching auto shop was the career fast track at our high school; the next promotion was to assistant principal for discipline. We had a couple of Ph.D. chemists who after many years retired in the position of chemistry teachers. Dr. Hoffman's chemistry classroom and laboratory was above the auto shop. In Dr. Hoffman's Chem II class, I learned, or tried to learn, the rudiments of thermodynamics, and inorganic and organic reactions. Downstairs in Mr. I-forget-his-name's class, I learned, or tried to learn, that the next step was removing the condenser.
I had great difficulty with this. Mr. future-assistant-principal-in-charge-of-discipline would race around the class and get to the guy (me) who was supposed to say ``condenser'' and who would say ``cap,'' and he would say ``CONDENSER!'' It was a regular routine, like an ``I Love Lucy'' rerun. After two years of electronics shop, I just couldn't wrap my head around the idea of calling a capacitor a ``condenser'' (a word that stopped being used in electric technology, by English speakers, not long after the invention of the gasoline-engine distributor). I guess the auto-shop teacher figured that I was just stupid enough to think that the third step after removing the distributor cap was to remove the distributor cap again. All my friends in Calculus class wondered why I didn't get into the National Honor Society (NHS).
A kid I know went to the same school a couple of years after I left; he told me that it had become dangerous to use the bathrooms (except perhaps for dealing drugs). I guess the auto shop teacher got promoted.
I seem to get into a lot of trouble trying to make fine distinctions or give precise definitions of cooked fatty products. For example, as I now explain at the Schmaltz entry, I originally defined that term too narrowly. Similarly, though I had been led to understand that there was some subtle distinction between the mass noun crackling and the plural-form mass noun cracklings, it seems I may have been misinformed. Anyway, read the cracklings entry.
Here's what Snack Food Technology has to say (p. 223; bibl. details at snack food entry) first about POPPED PORK RINDS.
Popped pork rinds, sometimes called bacon skins or ``skeens,'' have been popular as a between-meal snack in the [American] South for many years. They appear to have originated as an improvement on cracklings, or the crisp and somewhat expanded meaty tissue that is found in the kettle after lard has been rendered from pork fat. ``Cracklins'' have been used as a snack by farm people for hundreds of years, and also are used as adjuncts to give variety to corn bread and some other foods.
Popped pork rinds represent a considerable technological advance over the very non-uniform, hard, and often distasteful predecessor snack. [I never imagined that I would live to see the day when the words predecessor and snack would appear together like that outside of a Dadaist restraurant review.] Distribution has spread to other parts of the country and the product can be found in most areas at the present time. In simplest terms, these products are pieces of pork skins that have been [coooooooked] so that they puff to many times their original volume lose most of their moisture. Their flavor is fairly bland and reflects the character of the fat in which they were cooked.
The AFL was originally primarily a craft union organization, while the CIO was the quintessential (and eponymous) national organization for industrial unions.
In Spanish, a necktie is a corbata. That word and cravat come from the French cravate, from Crabate, Cravate, meaning `Croatian.'
Since the launch of the Great Society programs by President Johnson and Congress in the 1960s, many thousands of nonprofit advocacy groups have emerged, often promoting more government welfare programs in areas once considered the domain of families, charities, neighborhood associations, and other voluntary organizations. The growth of government has increasingly supplanted the voluntary action and community-based problem solving that the great observer of early American society, Alexis de Toqueville, recognized as a defining feature of our country.
Capital Research Center is analyzing organizations that promote the growth of the welfare state - now almost universally recognized as a failure - and in identifying viable private alternatives to government welfare programs. Our research forms the basis for a variety of publications.''
It's an antifoundation!
``The Cooperative Research Centres, generally known as CRCs, bring together researchers from universities, CSIRO and other government laboratories, and private industry or public sector agencies, in long-term collaborative arrangements which support research and development and education activities that achieve real outcomes of national economic and social significance.''
(As opposed to imaginary outcomes or real outcomes that have no economic or social significance. I'm glad they made that clear. There's more to say, or unsay, but bureaucratese is easy kills for a thinking reader.)
If they want to do something truly significant they should take the lead of the Carlsberg Research Center.
Back in 1985 or so, when I was working at NRL, I would remind people of our weekly beer meeting by posting a clipping from the Weekly World News, a periodical that I could still afford in those days. Often the clipping would suggest a topic of conversation, such as what we should do about the Martian invasion. One time I posted an item about golfer Greg Norman (at the top of the golf world in those days), who was diagnosed with an allergy to grass, of all things. As he told reporters, however, ``it could be worse -- I might be allergic to beer.''
I've been able to confirm this story on the internet, but I have no evidence that it is true. Here's something, though: on June 15, 1986, when the final round of the US Open began, Greg Norman was in the lead and Raymond Floyd was three strokes back, in a five-way tie for fifth place. At the end of the day (Father's Day, appropriately enough), Floyd had become the oldest player, at 43, ever to win the US Open. (Earlier that year, Jack Nicklaus won the Masters at 46, and Bill Shoemaker rode the Kentucky Derby winner at age 54. I became a ``senior research analyst.'') Here's part of the Thomas Boswell's report in the Washington Post the next day:
Almost nobody gets the sort of Open chance that Norman squandered. At the turn Friday, he led by five shots. Saturday at the turn, he had four in hand. Both times, he'd reached 3 under par. He ended the tournament tied for 12th (behind Nicklaus, whose 68 copped a share of eighth place) as he played the last 27 holes 8 over par.
"I couldn't get the flame going today," Norman said. "I did everything I could possibly do to fire myself up, but I couldn't light the wick . . . This has happened to me a few times, but never when I was in contention . . . all of a sudden, the party was over . . . I had a good margin both days and didn't really capitalize on it . . . There were no hecklers today. I might have done better if there had been . . . I don't know how much more determined I can get . . .
"I lost it and he won it."
Rumors of death threats against both Norman and Trevino buzzed around the course but were not confirmed. Norman heard them and asked Trevino about it, but finally assumed that the day's double security was standard Sunday practice at the Open. "No excuses," said Norman. "Gotta go get a beer."
On June 1, 1984, Boswell described Norman (the ``Great White Shark of Golf'') as ``an Australian who used to take rifle and beer to sea to hunt sharks as a lark...'' Everyone should have a Boswell.
It's not an NGO; it's a government agency.
TNR published an article by Bruce Bliven for June 27, 1927, entitled ``In Dedham Jail: A Visit to Sacco and Vanzetti,'' based on an interview conducted four weeks before the men were to be executed. (Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were eventually executed on August 23, two days after Supreme Court Justice Brandeis refused to hear a request for a stay of execution, exhausting their appeals.) It's a rather atmospheric article, reflective almost to avoid sounding lugubrious. Bliven's description of the prisoners at Dedham includes the following: ``These men wear trousers of gray stuff, uncouthly cylindrical--since they never have been pressed and never will be--and gray-and-white-striped shirts, cheap and coarse.''
Evolution is not a species'
adjustment to a new environment but one's memories'
triumph over reality...
I wish this entry were more preposterous.
Rosario here is the name of an Argentine city. Generally, rosario means `rosary' and Rosario is a woman's name.
High stress and high-stress cycling are said to cause creep behavior even in high-temperature materials (HTM's). I can sympathize, but I don't think this justifies changing physical laws.
CREN supports ListProc, a mailing list program (and certifies that ListProc versions 7.2 and above are Y2K compliant).
FWIW, the King made a movie called King Creole in 1958. If you stare a while at the silhouette background of the poster at the right (i.e., at the r.h.s. of this browser window) you realize that it represents a close-up of crawdaddy.
By extension, crescendo is used to describe a process in which growth is perceived. Again please observe: a crescendo leads to a climax, a climax is the culmination of a crescendo. A crescendo and a climax are different things, and even you are capable of perceiving the distinction.
Cricket is best described as organised loafing.
How better to loaf than browsing the internet? Cricket is played on and around a pitch. Or maybe just on and over the pitch. I really don't have the time to find out.
A cricket bat doesn't makes as good of a shovel as an oar does, but why waste a good oar? (Then again, there are the events of 1919.)
For an interesting discussion on cricket, search on the word in this corner of the archives of the classics list, naturally.
Rosario here is the name of an Argentine city. Generally, rosario means `rosary' and Rosario is a woman's name. Oh wait, I didn't have to mention that -- you already learned it when you read the CREATS entry. Sorry, please unread it. Also, see the LONERS entry to understand why this is a slightly counterintuitive woman's name.
Oh wait, I've got it: it's ostentatious chin-scratching.
too many creatures
both insects and humans
estimate their own value
by the amount of minor irritation
thay are able to cause
to greater personalities than themselves
Center for Research Libraries. [Remember: to quit (Q) you have to return to the new search screen.] Based in Chicago.
``Reproductive rights'' are the rights to prevent oneself from reproducing, and ``reproduction rights'' are the rights to prevent others from reproducing. There ought to be a Center for Abortion and Copyright Law (CACL).
At the ragtop entry, I describe an incident that took place on the westbound side of the intersection of Douglas Road and Route 23, back in 1999, I think. That's not a good place to cross anything. Anyway, just a few hundred feet southwest (along 23) there's a goose crossing. It's sort of disused (by geese). It's at the same latitude as the goose crossing on Main Street in Mishawaka, just a couple of miles east. (More to the point, these crossings are near Juday Creek, a tributary to the St. Joseph River.)
You'd think it wouldn't be so much trouble, they could fly, but I've had to stop for geese a few times there. They looked Canadian; maybe it's a diplomatic immunity thing. (See also the weather entry.) You'd figure that would be an unusual collocation -- ``they-looked-Canadian'' -- and I'd guess you'd be right. As recently as May 2007, we owned the first ghit for the phrase. Weirdly enough, the phrase seems to be catching on. August 2009 we're down to third, and there are 465 ghits, including a 2002 book.
We also have a zebra stripes entry, but the zebra entry is more interesting. The crossing information at Berlin's entry (BE) is perhaps nicht so vernützlich as it once was.
What is really clever, however, is the exploitation of multiple connections to a single region of a device in the silicon. This can increase propagation delays, and take up some extra real estate, but if handled properly it can make tremendous short-cuts. An example of this would occur if contact needed to be made to the base of a BJT transistor and to a terminal beyond it. One way to complete these connects would be to put a trace to the base contact, and make a cross over to get past the transistor. A better way is often to make two base contacts, one on the near and one on the far side of the transistor. The trace extends as before to the base on the near side, but instead of a cross over to get around the transistor, the base material itself, within the transistor, makes a contact to the other side of the BJT, and a trace is continued to the further terminal.
Data cables carry data along multiple channels. For long-distance communication, it is most efficient to encode these channels as multiplexed signals on single physical media. For connecting to in-office peripheral devices, and over longer but still-short distances (as in LAN's) the mux/demux overhead is not worth the cost compared to using multiwire cables with parallel connectors. These cables are available with a range of (male) connectors, identical on each end.
Depending on the way the connectors are wired, the cables are designated ``crossover'' cables or ``straight-through'' cables. In a straight-through cable, the connectors are wired so that lead #1 on one end is connected through the cable to lead #1 on the other end. Lead #2 goes to lead #2, and, well, you probably get the idea. In a crossover cable, the connections cross over: the first lead on one connector is wired to the last lead on the connector at the other end, the second lead is wired to the last but one, etc.
Which kind of connector is used depends on the kind of devices being connected. These also fall into two categories:
Crossover connectors are used to connect ``like to like'' -- that is, one DTE to another DTE, or one DCE to another DCE. Straight-through cables connect unlike -- DTE and DCE on opposite ends. The only exception to this rule is that straight-through cables when connecting like devices through an uplink port.
Strictly speaking, and even in ordinary speech among engineers, the word noise above is incorrect; it is interference. See the noise entry.
Because of the cross-training effect (in humans), it is believed to be possible to accelerate healing of a sports injury -- without straining the injured limb -- by exercising healthy limbs.
Moreover, exercises that strengthen muscles not used in a sport have a spill-over effect on muscles that are used in the sport. Too-frequent exercise is known to be counterproductive in strength training, and this effect is seen as a way to circumvent the problem. Because of this application, the term cross training has increasingly come to refer simply to working out with exercises that work muscles not used in one's primary sport. By a false etymology, ``cross'' is understood to refer to different sports rather than different sides of the body, and cross training is understood as training for one sport by practicing another. Even more loosely, the term is used in business for the practice of training employees for more than one job.
The second annual conference was held on September 23-24, 2005, at Cal State Northridge. ``The purpose of the roundtable is to bring together philosophers of race [Thales: ``the principle of all race is water''], and those working in related fields, in California, and throughout the nation, in a small and congenial setting to share their work and to help further this sub-discipline.''
Totally unrelated to the psychosocial comment: ``critical, resolved: sheer stress.''
Ensuring that Canadians get enough of Canada even when Céline Dion is away singing the US national anthem.
Certification Renewal Units are credits which may be applied toward license renewal only after earning a Master's degree, or after completion of thirty-six semester hours beyond the Bachelor's Degree of approved academic credit. Fifteen CRU's are considered equivalent to one semester hour, and any combination totalling six semester hours (90 CRU's) satisfies the requirement for renewal. A standard license for teaching, school administration, or school services (I don't know what sort of services) must be renewed every five years. A professional license is initially valid for ten years, but afterwards must be renewed every five years (90 CRU's a pop).
There's an exception to this: you can obtain a professional license valid for life (your life). To do this you must complete the requirements to obtain a professional license before September 1, 1990. I guess it's too late.
I'm not going to look up the details for California, but my cousin Vicky, who teaches in the public schools there, tells a similar story: get yourself grandfathered in, or you'll be on a Sisyphean treadmill for life. All so you can accept low wages to teach the stupid children of irresponsible, ungrateful parents. (Not her precise words.)
Oh yeah, back in Indiana -- CRU-land -- if you want the credits to be valid the program had better be pre-approved by the Division of Induction and Continuing Education. ``Induction''?
The Southern Cross is probably the best-known constellation of the far south. Later in the entry, there's more about the constellation proper, but first I want to record some substellar facts. Some signal facts, in fact. More or less stylized versions of the Southern Cross appear on the national flags of Western Samoa, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, and Australia. Likewise the flags of the Australian state of Victoria and of some of the Australian territories that have their own flag.
The Federated States of Micronesia has a flag comprising four five-pointed stars on a light blue background. The four stars are located on the corners of a diamond (an imaginary diamond -- the flag is just white stars and the background), and that diamond, taller than it is wide, looks like it represents the Southern Cross. (The FSM is at a latitude of about 5 degrees north, and the Southern Cross is at a declination of about minus 60 degrees, and so is about 25 degrees above the horizon at its zenith.) Officially, in any case, the four stars of the flag represent only the four states of the federation, and when the FSM had six states its flag bore six stars arranged on the corners of a hexagon.
[The precise interpretation of the stars has varied. The current Micronesia is a rump of the earlier (UN) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (administered by the US), which also included the Northern Marianas, Palau, and the Marshall Islands in addition to the territory of the current federated states. If you do the math, as they say, it doesn't add up, as they say. What happened was that after the Northern Marianas seceded from the federation, a new state was carved out of one of the remaining states, restoring the number to six. Specifically, the Northern Marianas achieved commonwealth status outside the federation on April 1, 1976, leaving five states. In January 1977, the new state of Kosrae was formed from the eastern islands of Ponape. Maybe they decided that creating a new state was cheaper than printing new official stationery and replacing the flags. Palau and the Marshall Islands became independent of the FSM in 1978, and the four-star flag was adopted by 1980.]
The four brightest stars of Crux occur at the four points of the cross in clockwise order, starting from the southern point. The brightest is officially Alpha Crucis, of course, and also is known as Acrux for short. The name Gacrux is also sometimes used for Gamma Crucis (at the top of the cross). A ray from Gacrux through Acrux points approximately to the South Celestial Pole.
Epsilon Crucis is southwest from the center of the cross (i.e., in the lower right to an observer who is not too far south and is not bending over backwards to see it). It's within the diamond defined by the four brighter stars, and makes sort of an attractive dimple on the face of the constellation. Flag representations of the Southern Cross typically show five stars, although a few other stars of the constellation have apparent magnitudes not much less than Epsilon Crucis. The large sixth star of the Australian national flag, centered below the quarter-size Union Jack, is called the Federation Star and is meant to represent the federation of the colonies of Australia on January 1, 1901.
COMMENT: The FAQ reads like an ISO-9000 application that still needs work. ``2. A much-debated source of psychic information - defined as various things. ... Controlled Remote Viewing (CRV) is a very highly controlled set of physical/mental protocols which allow a person to bring something which lies hidden within the subconscious mind to the surface, and objectify it.'' This could give psychoanalysis a bad name.
COMMENT: I agree that ``[t]his is far from being as easy as it sounds.''
The early forms had three strings. Interestingly, it evolved into a six-string version in which four strings were bowed and two were plucked.
There's a newsgroup.
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