Founded in 1974 by the American Academy of Religion (AAR and the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL).
A distinct organization, the Scholars Press Consortium, was founded by the AAR, SBL, American Philological Association (APA), and American Society of Papyrologists (ASP) to provide publishing, membership, accounting and information services to the founding associations and about seventeen additional scholarly organizations in the academic fields of religion, biblical studies and classical antiquity.
Both organizations were abruptly dissolved at the end of 1999.
Species is taxonomists' Latin for `species.' In fact, it's anybody's Latin for species. Beyond that, things get complicated. The word species was a fifth-declension noun. If that is completely, but I mean completely, meaningless to you, then you should probably go back to the A.M. entry for a little orientation.
Back? Good. Fifth-declension nouns, like res, dies, and species, have identical singular and plural forms in the nominative case. (You probably thought that the point of declensions was to communicate information such as grammatical number and case (the word's function in a phrase). That is incorrect; the purpose of declensions is to be cool.) You think identical singular and plural forms are strange? There are languages, like Chinese and Japanese, that don't even distinguish grammatical number. Different languages tend to give different kinds of information by default. German, like Latin, usually allows you to distinguish singular from plural, but some nouns have the same form, and the number information is in the article. For example, der Koffer is `the suitcase' and die Koffer is `the suitcases' (both in the nominative).
To be fair, for some uncountable nouns one rarely needs a plural form, and res (`thing') and species (`form, appearance') lean toward the uncountable. (This argument doesn't work so well with dies, which means day. Just for good measure, in the singular dies was sometimes construed feminine rather than its usual masculine. The devil is in the details. The devil revels in the details.) I should at least mention duals. There.
In English, we tend to use the nominative forms of Latin nouns. Since we don't decline nouns by case, we just throw the other forms away. There's a big pile of them accumulating in a county in northern Nevada, where the US government is trying to convince the three people who live there to allow the waste to be buried at a depth of 10,000 stadia. They object: ``what's a stadia?''
Actually, we sometimes save the odd declined form for a phrase. Also, the genitive forms have been found useful for scientific experrrrrrrimentation! Or for science, anyway -- particularly astronomy and biological taxonomy. Fifth-declension nouns normally have genitive singulars ending in -ei, like rei. As you've probably figured out by now, the sentence adverb normally is a red flag of danger. Sure enough, -iei (I wanna say -iei ee! oh!; there, I said it) was too much even for the stoic Romans, and specie and specii were used as genitive forms of species. (Similar stuff happened with dies, and also acies, facies, and pernicies. Eventually things got so confusing that in Rome people switched to Italian.)
You might say that species has a defective declension, and you might be right, but not for that reason. A word is said to be defective when it is missing some of its inflected forms. According to Lewis and Short, in the time of Cicero the genitive and dative plurals of species were not in use, and formarum and formis took their respective places. How do they know? Maybe they just meant formarum instead of specierum! Okay, that's enough, let's do a different entry.
Spurius means `illegitimate'; its 0.7% frequency in CIL vol. I (see the tria nomina entry) likely underestimates the actual frequency of bastards in the subject population, however that was defined, if only because two children of one woman would probably not get the same name.
Full disclosure: for a long time, I thought S.p.A was the Italian version of S.A.
For what it's worth, the part of Will Robinson in the original ``Lost in Space'' was played by Bill Mumy. The surname is pronounced MOO-me.
Texas no longer leads the nation in Fortune 500 companies headquartered there. In fact, the state comes in third, with 51 major companies headquartered in Texas compared with 57 last year. Some of that is the result of mergers, like Fort Worth-based Burlington Northern Santa Fe being acquired by Nebraska-based Berkshire Hathaway spacer, and Houston-based Continental Airlines spacer merging with Illinois-based United.
Emphasis added (for, um, emphasis). Those look to me like strange places to place ``spacer'' -- or spacer either. Cf. KOMING.
Some years ago I met an interesting single woman on the internet who seemed nice, and we progressed to a phone conversation. We decided to get together, but she wanted to know my birthdate and where I was born. She needed these inputs for her astrology software. She was becoming more interesting than I had bargained for. And the program was acting balky. Maybe the fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but PIFOK. Maybe she was misspelling ``Buenos Aires.'' Anyway, the problem seemed to get ironed out, and we set a, ahem, date.
I guess it was fated that one of us would call and call it off. She beat me to it. I guess she got the program working.
Another technical acronym that has (less surprisingly) entered common usage in Britain and been verbed is TUPE.
The company had a brilliant start, introducing a number of innovations (see, for example, the Dep control entry). In early August 1913, however, Armand Deperdussin was arrested for fraud, and the company was soon put into receivership. Deperdussin was never again involved with aviation in any significant way. More information about him (but not much yet) can be found at or linked from the Deperdussin entry.
In August 1914, as France went to war (WWI), a consortium led by the famous aviator Louis Blériot purchased the company assets. The operation of the company was put in the hands of Louis Béchereau, the engineer responsible for the company's plane designs under Deperdussin. Given the scandal of l'affaire Deperdussin, a new name was deemed advisable. Alfred Leblanc, Blériot's right-hand man and a successful plane racer himself, suggested that the company retain the four letters S-P-A-D, at least partly to be justified by the fact that in Volapük, the word means `speed.' An acronym expansion was also adopted, however: Société pour l'Aviation et ses Dérivés. (I've seen both pour and Pour versions; I'm agnostic on the issue.)
A word about Volapük. This was an artificial international language created by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest of Baden, Germany. In the 1880's it was immensely successful by the standards of such projects, with at least a couple of hundred clubs, a couple of dozen periodicals, etc. It was overtaken at the end of the nineteenth century by easier languages like Esperanto. Especially Esperanto. (On the other hand, my father taught Esperanto in his youth, yet though I don't own any books in Esperanto, I do own a mathematics book in Latino Sine Flexione, written by the mathematician Peano, who invented the language. At first I thought it was some odd dialect of Italian. It reminds me of Enrico Fermi's experience as a boy, reading a wonderful mechanics book that had been written in the nineteenth century by a Jesuit priest. As he worked his way through it, he would regale his older sister with his discoveries. She did not wish to be so regaled; she was interested in the so-called humanities, and not in science. When he finished the book, he remarked to his sister: ``you know, it's written in Latin. I hadn't noticed.'' This is from memory. I read the story in an early chapter of Atoms in the Family; that's in English, so you won't find it verbatim there either.) Anyway, the root vocabulary of Volapük is taken largely from English, though the roots are almost randomly deformed, apparently with the intention of giving no one an unfair advantage in learning the language. So the word spad is very probably derived from the English word speed.
One thing I did not give above is the original expansion of S.P.A.D. in 1912. I'm not sure what it is. There are a number of contenders, which I list here with the number of ghits on French pages as of Groundhog Day, 2009:
The version with the greatest number of French ghits has the following further thing to be said for it that is not immediately obvious: the company was also producing motor boats at the time, and while appareils is understood as `airplanes' in the appropriate context, in general it means something more general, like `machine' or `device,' and such ambiguity may have been attractive and preferable to something like `Deperdussin Airplanes.'
The version with provisoire has in its favor the fact that it's not very plausible French. That is, it's not an expansion a French-speaker would be likely to come up with accidentally, merely by misremembering a more correct form (as the avions forms might be), so maybe it is the correct form. The provisoire form is the one given by Jay P. Spenser in The Airplane: How Ideas Gave Us Wings, (Smithsonian, Nov. 2008).
More detail regarding the oddity of ``provisoire'': one is tempted to translate Société Provisoire des Aéroplanes Deperdussin as `Deperdussin Airplane Supply [or Manufacturing] Company.' On its face it doesn't make much sense in French, as provisoire has the sense of `provisional, temporary,' and the TLFi gives no indication that it was ever used in the requisite sense. (Likewise Le Grand Robert.) The word is cognate, of course, with English words like provide, provident, and provision. The French word provision has principal senses similar to the English: supply, stock. If provisoire was used in the sense of `that provides,' then it would be something like the use of provident in the same sense in English: strange, but not impossible.
Here's an informative caption from Conquerors of the Air: The Evolution of Aircraft 1903-1945 (New York: Viking Press, 1968), p. 47:
The Spad S 13 came from a firm with a long tradition: S.P.A.D. (Société pour l'Aviation et ses Dérivés). This factory, owned by Armand Deperdussin [actually, there were a number of factories, and a société could not consist of a single investor], held all the absolute speed records in 1912 and 1913. The aircraft, produced between 1914 and 1916, after the take-over of the business by Louis Blériot, were not exceptionally successful. But in the summer of 1916 the picture changed completely, and the Spad S 13 rapidly became one of the Allies' outstanding aircraft. What it lacked in maneuverability it more than made up for in speed. Its maximum of 142 m.p.h. was produced by a 220 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. Eddie Rickenbacker, whose 26 victories made him America's most successful pilot in World War I, was one of the best known S 13 aces.
The illustration (pp. 46-47) shows a single-seater biplane with green and brown camo; the rudder has a scalloped trailing edge and various bits of information superimposed on what I would regard as a French tricolor. There's a curious symbol on the middle of the fuselage that looks like Uncle Sam's hat flying through a vertical hoop.
According to the stats accompanying the illustration, in 1917 its engine was a Hispano-Suiza 8BA V-8, and in 1918 a Hispano-Suiza 8BEc V-8. The second engine apparently produced 235 h.p.
(The book was illustrated by Carlo Demand. The text of the German original was by Heiner Emde; the translator is not identified, but he is criticized in a copyright-page erratum: ``The use of `Kaiser' instead of `Emperor' in the title of the section beginning on page 164 is an error of the German translator which the American publishers unaccountably overlooked and for which they apologize.'' It seems that some error was made, but without the original it's not clear what mistake was made by whom. The section in question bears the title ``The Kaiser's new bird of prey: Japan's most famous hunter of World War II.'' The last Kaiser so-called abdicated after Germany's defeat in WWI, and the Third Reich had no ``Kaiser'' or quite equivalent title. FWIW, Führer means `leader.')
In 1903, of course, the US was the world leader in aviation. And the US still had the greatest number of pilots in 1908, when Deperdussin first became interested in aviation. Around 1910, the Wrights apparently felt they had a good enough product and turned more of their attention to other things, including marketing their planes, certifying pilots, and defending their patents. Other countries started catching up in participation and technology. By 1911, when Aéroplanes Deperdussin was founded, France had more pilots than any country in the world. This was accompanied by a parallel surge to world leadership in aviation technology. What happened afterwards? Here's the answer of William Winter, on page 208 of his War Planes of all Nations (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1943). The book is divided into eight national sections -- US, UK, Russia, France, Holland, Germany, Italy, and Japan -- and this introduces the French section:
The story of modern French aviation is the tragic story of France herself. The pity of it all is that the French were capable of putting on a much better ``show'' than they did. French designers and fliers have always ranked at the top; their ideas often were brilliant and had tangible effects on the course of aviation. French Spads and Nieuports performed a mighty part in the aerial fighting of World War I.
And even in this war the French did not lack ideas. Many fine prototypes were on hand and ready for production. The people who guided her aviation industry felt the approaching storm long before it struck, but their hands were tied so that the best airplanes were never produced in quantity. Politics and labor troubles hamstrung the French air force, just as they did her entire war effort. Indeed, the labor situation was so bad before the war that the government took control of virtually the entire manufacturing setup. Under Pierre Cot the French plane builders were grouped geographically into what was called the nationalized industry. Unfortunately, results were worse than ever, if such a thing were possible. During the so-called Sitzkrieg her airplane production was only a trickle, a trickle that evaporated in some months.
At the Paris Salon air show in 1938 a line-up of impressive French fighting planes was revealed. Bombers such as her Leo 45 were exquisite aerodynamically. But of perhaps a dozen worth-while new types, only a few got into the manufacturing stage before that fateful June in 1940. France was a pioneer of the low-wing fighter monoplanes. Her then strange bimotored fighter-bombers anticipated a trend that all nations are following today. The Potez 63 and Breguet 690 are examples. Indeed, the French always claimed that the Germans got their inspiration for the Messerschmitt Me-110 from the agile twin-engined Potez 63. Of course, the French machines mentioned would not be in the same league with the Douglas Boston, but they were first. And speaking of the Boston, it is a fact that the French ordered that machine before the British did. When France fell the British took over her contracts. France always was a keen student of design. Her Mercier low-drag cowlings and the flexibly mounted cannon on her prewar bombers were other noteworthy examples. Hispano-Suiza ``moteur'' hub-firing cannon for fighters were commonplace in France at least twelve years ago.
My cousin Jonathan, who lived a few blocks away, was a Yankees fan, adding to the rivalry with which we played slug and Chinese with a spaldeen on the sidewalk. (You won't find it in any dictionary, but there wasn't a New York boy in those years who could not have told you that a spaldeen, made by the same Spalding Company that manufactured baseballs, was the pink core of a tennis ball and the regulation playing ball of the city's streets.)
Halkin apparently didn't check at OneLook, where (at least until this entry is indexed) three dictionaries, including the 1997 Random House Unabridged, offer two or three definitions.
Has been creatively assigned an acronym expansion: Stupid People's AdvertiseMent.
According to the great fillosofer Discardes --
For US$700 you can buy a CD-ROM with over eight million data records including ``contact name or title, company name where applicable, address, telephone number and fax number when available, .com, .net or .org URL, and email address.'' Finding and emailing you is cheaper than dirt, yet filthier. (Prices for such email collections have come down susbtantially since I first wrote this entry with the $700 figure.)
Is it meaningful to say that something might go wrong with spam?
Now, I am sure that the scholars of this marketing genre -- spamaesthesiologists, or whatever they're called -- have found a number of distinctive features of spam to study, but one that intrigues me is a kind of statistical personalization. To be clear: if the radio talent says ``good luck!'' I may reasonably suspect that this wish is not intentionally directed to me personally. In other words, I know that it's meaningless. If the same expression is conveyed in email, I may not realize that others have received the same message, and so I might consider the possibility that it wasn't meaningless. Taking this one step further, a spammer may send a highly personalized message to millions of victims (what are we -- spamees? electronic toast?). Most who receive this message will realize it is spam, but some of the tiny fraction for whom it is spot-on may be drawn in. These thoughts were prompted by a spam message yesterday that asserted incorrectly (and with an Italian accent) --
There are endless other versions of this, of course. Sometimes it happens inadvertently. Etexts of fine literature are being mined or sampled for camouflage to defeat spam detectors. On the classics list there are threads from time to time asking whether a current high frequency of references to classical antiquity demonstrates highly accurate spam targeting. (Apparently it doesn't.)
A related trick is the fractionated stock prediction. In the simplest version, the artist sends out a free newsletter in different versions, making different predictions, to very large numbers of virgin recipients. To those that received versions of the first newsletter with good predictions, a second round of newsletters is sent out, similarly variable. Some of the second-round recipients will thus receive two accurate newsletters. By iteration, and with no great knowledge of the market, the artist can winnow an exponentially small target audience of newsletter subscribers who have reason to be impressed by the consistent accuracy of the newsletter. This trust can then be manipulated to the artist's profit. That's the theory anyway, and computerized deception management would seem to make it feasible, but I don't know if this has really been tried.
n. A pressed pink pork product marketed by Hormel since 1937. It was distributed as a food supplement in the US during the Great Depression, and to British civilians during WWII. The long-time butt (sorry about that) of jokes, subject of a skit and song on the Monty Python TV series, and inspiration of Haiku (see our entry for homogeneous) and pink spirituality. We have a rather dated page of Spam Religion sites, and Yahoo has indexed a few items, but probably not as many as Josh Warnick.
Hormel reports that Spam is consumed at the rate of 3.8 cans per minute, and they should know, but they couldn't know what fraction of that goes into the kitchen bit bucket.
I just got around to reading SubStance #82, 1997 (i.e., vol. XXVI, no. 1, 1997). SubStance is subtitled A Review of Theory and Literary Criticism and is extremely boring. I don't know why I punish myself, but let's get it over with. This special issue, guest editor Renée Riese Hubert, was on ``Metamorphoses of the Book.'' Paul Zelevansky has an article entitled ``Attention SPAM®'' (pp. 135-159). He asserts (p. 156) that the ``ingredients of SPAM® are pork and ham, salt, water, sugar, sodium nitrate.'' The article doesn't really have much to do with Spam or spam. It's about emerging patterns of inattentive reading or viewing.
The initial sp- in foreign loans typically becomes esp-. For example, smoking (q.v.) became esmoquin and [aother example TK]. I've known some quite well-educated Spanish speakers for who, either reflexively or because they never quite mastered this bit of pronunciation, would call Spanish ``Espanish'' when speaking English. I suppose the traditional pattern was not followed in this case because the initial-consonant cluster has become more familiar to Spanish-speakers in recent years, due to the widespread use of English words. (I say English words advisedly. The Spanish Sprachraum is comfortably large, and most native Spanish-speakers do not learn much English. Certainly as recently as thirty years ago, but it seems to me still today, the most-studied modern foreign language in Spanish-medium secondary schools has been French. The study of Latin also remains popular (with the schools; I won't say it's popular with the students).
The verb spamear seems to be regularly conjugated. Hence, in the simple present tense one has yo spameo, tú spameas, él/ella spamea, nosotros/nosotras spameamos, etc. There is thus a subjunctive form spamee (que spamee means `that [I/he/she/it] spam'). It's something to keep in mind if you're counting ghits to determine the popular English-speakers' consensus on whether the recipient of spam is a ``spamee'' or a ``spammee.'' (The corresponding French verb apparently yields false positives for the spammee form.) I've decided to go with spammee.
nameDeleteThisBit@domain.name>. This strategy (mung) is seen in newsgroups and mailing lists, since in such discussion groups replies are generally sent to the electronic forum rather than to the individual poster. Here's a July 16, 2002 article on spam traps from <poynter.org>.
My cousin Victoria teaches bilingual kindergarten in California, and reports that her students' Spanglish is grammatically correct as Spanish. I didn't ask her for details, but in my immigrant community, fluent Spanglish use makes most borrowed nouns male and avoids English verbs. The mixed morphology of English verbs or even adjectives with Spanish inflections is usually so distasteful that in practice one simply alternates between sentences or clauses entirely in one language or the other (which Human Communication researchers call ``code-switching''). For the most part, true Spanglish is used only by those who are not very bilingual. (But see the RU entry for a counterexample.)
You will have noticed that Spanglish is a blend of English words, whereas franglais and italiese are French and Italian, respectively. That probably reflects the places where these language mixes are an issue. One does not encounter very much franglais and italiese, at least in the US. Spanish-speakers tend to refer to anglicismos, but if a Spanish word for Spanglish is required, the word is very appropriately borrowed from English, with the usual modifications. In particular, since word-initial sp does not occur in Spanish, and since some Spanish speakers have difficulty pronouncing it, the word is sometimes translated into Spanish as espanglish (no, standard Spanish no longer has the esh sound either). More rarely, one encounters the calque espanglés (from español and inglés).
Like most national and local languages in what used to be the western half of the Roman empire, Spanish is a Romance language (i.e., an evolution of Vulgar Latin), and has a fair admixture of Germanic terms. Like English, it has absorbed a lot of words from French during the many centuries when France was culturally dominant.
There's a lot to say about the local evolutions of Vulgar Latin into Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Italian, etc., but for now I just want to point out that in Castilian the initial eff of many Latin words became an aitch (called hache in Spanish). One example: the standard (i.e. ``unmarked'') verb meaning `to talk,' hablar, comes from the Latin fabula, the same root as fable in English. This is very apt.
To be fair, in classical Latin, fabula was a noun meaning `talk, conversation,' as well as one particular kind of talk -- an untrue story, a myth -- or a play. The deponent verb fabulari meant `talk' in the sense of chatter -- ``just talk'' or ``all talk'' or ``telling tales.'') Portuguese uses the cognate falar (no f --> h).
For another example of the sound shift, see the hidalgo entry. Japanese provides a good illustration of the similarity of the two sounds (eff and aitch). This, along with other examples comparing Spanish words with their Latin etymons, is at the higo entry.
I can't believe I link to this entry from all over the glossary, and the only content I have is on this negligible little sound shift! Okay, here are some links to other somewhat general things about Spanish. (For the list items with multiple links, you don't have to return here for the rest. Follow the first one and other relevant entries will be linked from there.)
There's an online Spanish encyclopedia, a kind of wiki effort called la Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español. As of May 2005, it had over 28000 articles. On February 28, 2006, it had 30478 articles; on the same day, Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre, had 97518 articles in Spanish. (I haven't attempted any very meaningful comparison of their contents.)
WordReference.com, with pop-ups and animated banners, has Spanish-English and English-Spanish dictionaries that are, so to speak, free. They offer Spanish definitions of English words and vice versa. They're based in large part on dictionaries published by Espasa Calpe, which is pretty classy. (Espasa Calpe also publishes the Diccionario de la Lengua Española (DLE) of the Real Academia Española. That's the accepted authority on spelling and a widely aped source of definitions, but Spanish dictionaries of Spanish are not part of the WordReference.com site as of this writing, May 2005.) There are useful links at the definitions, evidently generated automatically by reverse lookup, and the site has associated language discussion forums which can be searched via links from the entries.
SpanishDICT is a smaller resource, also with animated banners, that offers various single-word translations for words entered in Spanish or English. Unlike WordReference.com, which gives phonetic transcriptions, SpanishDICT has lots of clickable audio files for pronunciation. This site also has animated banners. Ditto <freedict.com>, which has a similar pair of English-Spanish word-translation tools, apparently based on a still smaller word stock than SpanishDICT's. (On the positive side, freedict has tools for many more languages.)
I used to reference a couple of small English to Spanish and Spanish to English vocabularies that had been on the net since early in the life of this glossary. They have become part of the Internet Dictionary Project (IDP). Note that the Files page hasn't been updated in a while. To download the English-Spanish Dictionary File, which is linked to <http://www.aracnet.com/~tyler/IDP/files/Spanish.txt>, use <http://www.june29.com/IDP/files/Spanish.txt>.
For quick'n'dirty results using machine translation, try your luck on the text-entry forms at Altavista's Babel Fish Translation, <freetranslation.com>, or Google Language Tools.
I liked <diccionarios.com> for a while, but now they want you to buy the service after two look-ups.
Adrián Gonzalez, who offers Spanish instruction in New York City, maintains a very comprehensive list of dictionaries. The yourDictionary.com site has a long page listing Romance language dictionaries, including a useful list of Spanish and Spanish translation dictionaries.
It's a good thing each table doesn't require one member from each of the NBO's. ABF and NZCBA have about 32 and 15 thousand members, respectively. The other two NBO's have, uh, more than 100 members each.
I have a little book entitled The SPC Troubleshooting Guide, though I have no actual SPC trouble to shoot at. In the introduction, the author makes this emphatic point: ``It is important to understand that SPC does not control processes. People control processes.'' [Italics in original.] You wonder if the author wouldn't really rather have been writing about gun control. [Italics mine.] Especially when you notice that the author's name is Ronald Blank. For more about gun control, see this fire hazard entry.
If animal abuse excites you, then you might care to read Edmund Leach's ``Anthropological Aspects of Language: Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse,'' in Eric. H. Lenneberg (ed.), New Directions in the Study of Language (MIT Press, 1964) pp. 23-63. It's reprinted in Mythology: Selected Readings, ed. Pierre Miranda (Penguin Books, 1972) pp. 39-67.
Here's some possibly related news. In an interview that aired on LBC TV on February 23, 2007, Lebanese Druze Leader Walid Jumblatt was asked whether he regretted his remarks of February 14, 2007. He replied ``No, but the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty against [sic, in the translation by MEMRI TV] Animals contacted me, and said that they reject the comparison of snakes, whales, and wild beasts to [Syrian dictator] Bashar Al-Assad. [Somewhere along about this point, the respectful interviewer lowers his head and cups his forehead in his hand.] I apologize to that society. But I don't regret anything else I said.'' Jumblatt smiles very slightly. (The apology comes at the end of this video clip.)
In 1906, when Fiorello H. La Guardia returned to the US after twenty-one years in Europe, he worked for the SPCC in New York City, translating the juvenile sections of the French penal code into English.
For some inexplicable reason, they also publish scholarly books on New Testament studies.
The original SPCK continues to be based in London. The Indian and New Zealand SPCK's are based in Delhi and (oh so appropriately) Christchurch. The SPCK-A is based in Adelaide, South Australia. SPCK/USA was established in 1983 at the School of Theology of the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee.
One of their hot tips: Check that the facility that does your work has hot and cold running water.
The documents are from Emory University, which is described as being at Oxford, Georgia. When I first visited Atlanta in 1975, I heard that the joke around Emory University was that ``Harvard is the Emory of the North.'' The joke arises from the conceit among alumni that Emory is the ``Harvard of the South.'' I'm sure the claim and the joke (or both of whichever) are older than that but I figured the bidding ought to start somewhere. The same thing is said respecting so many other southern schools that we've milked the idea shamelessly for content in a number of other entries:
John Harvard was born at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1607. (William Shakespeare retired to his home there in 1610.) In his short life, John Harvard inherited a lot of money and bought a bunch of books. Immigrating to the religiously congenial (to Puritans) Massachusetts Bay Colony, he died (1638) and left all his books and half his estate toward a new school. His bequest was the main contribution to the creation of a school planned for the colony, and in 1639 it was decided to call the new school Harvard College. In those days, and still for many years to come, there were only two universities in England -- Cambridge and Oxford. At the time, Oxford was more High Church and Cambridge more Puritan. Things were soon to get a bit bloody, but in any case, the Puritans of Massachusetts built Harvard College in Cambridge (formerly Newtown). (We have a Harvard architecture entry.)
In 1835, almost two hundred years after John Harvard died in Massachusetts, Methodist Bishop John Emory died in Georgia. The Georgia Methodist Conference, which had established a Manual Labor School near Covington in 1834, decided to expand the school in 1836, chartering it as Emory College. Land was purchased for a college town, and the town was named Oxford in honor of the Wesley brothers' alma mater.
In 1915, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, chartered an Emory University in Atlanta. In 1919, Emory College of Oxford, Ga., moved to Atlanta (near Buford!) (I have to check) and became the College of Arts and Sciences of Emory University. Back in Oxford, a junior college was founded in 1929; today it is the Oxford College of Emory University.
After 16 years out of power, they won a strong victory in the September 27, 1998 general elections (allocated 293 out of 669 seats in the Bundestag for 40.9% of the vote, up from 36.4 per cent in the previous elections of 1994). Party leader Gerhard Schröder became chancellor, forming a government coalition with the Greens (47 seats, 6.7% of the vote). The CDU was the big loser. In elections in 2002, the red-green coalition stayed in power.
For some reason, I think this may be an outdated expression.
The terminology is said to represent the characteristics of the atomic transition line spectra originally studied: s--sharp, p--principal, d--diffuse, f--fine, g--next letter after f. I've also seen ``fundamental'' for f, which makes rather less sense. Even with these hints, the nomenclature is still mysterious.
It's been suggested to me in email that the letters originally represented German words, although I can't find much evidence of this on the Internet. I'm not going to jinx myself by writing that it shouldn't be hard to chase this thing down. It could be hard. What I have found so far is that in 1913 (the year Bohr first published his revolutionary quantum theory of the atom), astronomers were using ``sharp,'' ``principal,'' and ``diffuse'' to describe various series of spectroscopic lines, mostly in the solar spectrum.
So the terminology originally had to do primarily with hydrogen lines, and the ``principal'' series of lines were those of the Balmer series. (Another p series was probably the Pickering lines found in discharge tubes, which had about the same frequency ratios and which Bohr in 1913 correctly reassigned to helium.) The ``sharp'' lines corresponded to the Lyman series, and the ``diffuse'' to the Paschen series. Thus, the letters s, p, and d were originally assigned to transitions whose lower-energy state had principal quantum number n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In the Old Quantum Theory, the orbits (computed first Bohr, and later by Sommerfeld and many others) had angular momentum equal to nħ (ħ is my best hbar in HTML). In the later quantum mechanics, the energies of states for n>1 were found to be degenerate, with different states taking all non-negative values of total angular momentum quantum number (l) up to n. Thus, the meanings of s, p, d, etc. were again reassigned, so now s represented l=0, etc., as described in the first paragraph.
You might as well know that this entry is rather more under construction than most other entries in this glossary. Let's hope I don't wax too philosophical.
S.P.E.C.T.R.E. was a fictional terrorist organization led by Ernst Stavro Blofeld. It plays the role in James Bond movies that the nonfictional, or at least once-existent, SMERSH does in various James Bond novels. However, S.P.E.C.T.R.E. made its first appearance in Ian Fleming's novel Thunderball. (Mmmm, you're supposed to already know that Ian Fleming created the James Bond character in a series of novels, the first published in 1953, that were made into movies. After Fleming died in 1964, the franchise was continued by a number of authors, many of whom can hardly have needed the money.)
Jim Mansfield keeps a page of spectroscopy links. Virginia Tech once offered some introductory material on spectroscopy, about which see LASE.
Here's some instructional material from UCSD.
There's a newsgroup.
Some parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are rather densely assigned.
One of the fad fights in K-12 education today is the tracking war. One camp in this war has an obvious solution to the problems that the word sped is a token of. They would mainstream all children. That way, instead of being stigmatized for taking slow classes, they'd be stigmatized for failing regular classes. No wait, that wouldn't happen: the classes would be challenging -- standards would not suffer -- but at the same time no one would fail. ``Leave no child behind.'' Force that knowledge into them! If it's a little bit harder, fine, let them study a little longer -- ten, twelve, twenty hours every evening.
... And order to insured that the english way of life, they appointed Reverend James Blair as president. In my opinion the college was established to revile Harvard. ...
Self-described as ``a professional organization devoted to supporting philosophy inspired by Continental European traditions.'' This is a thought-provoking use of the word professional. That word is derived from the verb profess, as confessional is derived from the verb confess. Not too long ago, one could speak of professing a religion, and one's ``confession'' was one's particular religion, so confession and profession were virtual synonyms.
SPEP explains that it was founded ``in 1962 at Northwestern University, and, as its name suggests, was focused on existentialism and phenomenology. Since that time it has embraced and incorporated other traditions, notably hermeneutics, critical theory, postmodernism or poststructuralism, and feminist theory oriented toward continental writers. In the background there is often the study of German idealism and, for that matter, diverse moments in the history philosophy seen in continental perspective. From time to time it is suggested that the society change its name so as more accurately to represent its activity, but for historical reasons the decision has been to stay with SPEP.''
SPEP is the most numerous society for continental philosophy in North America.
A major source of information on spetsnaz up to the 1980's is the little book Spetsnaz: The Inside Story of the Soviet Special Forces (1987), by Vladimir Rezun, a GRU defector writing under the pseudonym ``Viktor Suvorov.'' (The book occasionally sounds a trifle breathless, but that's a matter of taste. It's pretty meaty in facts and examples. An unrepresentative little bit from the book is misquoted at the razvedka entry.)
SPF factor is defined as the ratio of the exposure time required to get sunburned without protection to the exposure time required with protection. (Therefore, wearing a pair of typical tee shirts, one over the other, should result in an SPF of over 36.) Evidently, this is not just a property of the sunscreen substance but also of the thickness applied. Moreover, since different sunscreens are filters with different wavelength dependences, determination of SPF requires some model of the skin. And of course, skin varies. Stay inside.
A distinction is made between ``chemical'' sunscreens, which absorb UV light, and ``physical'' sunscreens, which reflect it (actually scatter diffusely, unless you wear little bits of mirror). Despite the name, ``chemical'' sunscreens do not generally undergo a chemical reaction. They absorb light into electronic excitations, and the electrons cascade down and reemit longer-wavelength radiation. Much of this radiation is absorbed by the body, so for a given SPF, you probably get hotter wearing chemical sunscreen than wearing physical sunscreen. Some products work by both mechanisms. You can probably use this information to meet chicks at the beach. Just walk up to a supine female and explain this. But then, Walter Mitty, stand back, because nowadays girls weight-train too.
I've been accused of putting a lot of irrelevant information into these glossary entries. Falso.
Tallulah Bankhead once commented that ``they used to photograph Shirley Temple through gauze. They ought to photograph me through linoleum.''
The most common term for this kind of fuel cell, as explained at the PEFC entry, is PEMFC. Oddly enough, most of our information on this kind of fuel cell, if we have any, will be deposited at the PEMFC entry.
Most of the municipalities in the area were formed by secession from a previous larger entity -- Springfield (1793), Westfield (1794), Rahway (1804), Union (1808), and New Providence (1809) seceding in turn from Elizabeth (then called Elizabethtown), Plainfield seceding from Westfield in 1847, those seven townships separating from Newark-dominated Essex County to form Union County in 1857. (There were other shifts -- part of Rahway, for example, was part of the original Westfield.) Many of the town names were names of villages or areas dating back to the colonial era (in particular, [Queen] Elizabeth town, the spring fields, the west fields, the plain fields). In 1877, the village of Scotch plains (known as the Scotsplains when it was homesteaded by Scots in East Jersey colony) seceded from Westfield and became Fanwood Township. It's not certain why it was called Fanwood, but one story is related to the fact that the area long resisted expansion by the Central Jersey Railroad. The story goes that when the Jersey Central finally managed to put a depot there, it was named for spite after the daughter of the President of the railroad, ``Fanny.'' Maybe. In 1895, the same year that farmers in the northern part of Westfield seceded to form the Borough of Mountainside, a part of Fanwood Township seceded to form Fanwood Borough. In 1917, the rump Fanwood Township changed its name back to Scotch Plains.
Probably the greatest degree of integration remaining between Fanwood and Scotch Plains is in the educational system. Fanwood has never had its own high school, and has sent its high-school age children to schools in Plainfield, Westfield, or Scotch Plains. There is currently a single Scotch Plains-Fanwood School District, and Scotch Plains and Fanwood share a common SPFW High School.
Although Fanny Wood Day celebrates Fanwood Borough specifically, the Miss Fanny Wood contest is open to girls between the ages of 3 and 12 from both Fanwood and Scotch Plains.
Princeton, like Fanwood between 1895 and 1917, consists of a governmentally distinct Borough (downtown) and Township. Princeton was originally named for Frederick, Prince of Wales. Frederick was son of King George II and heir presumptive until he died on 20 March (O.S.) or 31 March (N.S.) 1751 at Leicester House in London. George II was succeeded as King by his grandson (and Frederick's son), George III, in October 1760. There's a dismissive squib about Frederick that ends
As it's only poor Fred Who was alive and is dead, There's no more to be said.
In researching this particular glossary item, I chanced upon Monk on Records: a Discography of Thelonious Monk compiled by Leen Bijl and F. Canté (2nd. edn. 1985). A testimonial, from a letter to the compilers, 1982.08.30, is Baroness Pannonica de Koenigswarter's declaration that
I think this is an absolutely monumental work, and there is certainly not another one like it in existence . . . (The look and the feel of it are also a tremendous gas!!!)
The second the occurring in the parallel structure in the parenthetical is grammatically acceptable, but inconsistent with the mood or style of ``tremendous gas!!!'' It looks like a translation error.
I'm losing my mind. At least I have a mind to lose.
At an appearance before the UNCF, then-Vice President of the United States of America J. Danforth Quayle mangled the group's famous slogan (``A mind is a terrible thing to waste''):
Only in 1997, George Herbert Walker Bush finally came out and admitted that he ``blew it'' in choosing Quayle as a running mate. Well, probably so (unless it prevented his assassination), but his timing was interesting: he made this admission just as Texas governor George W. Bush, was being touted as a contender for the Republican presidential nomination, and thus a competitor of JDQ.
Cf. the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (SPRS).
Amongst is a Commonwealth English word for among that is also often used in US English (unlike whilst).
Here's a bit on Carnatic music (southern Indian music). This link was down when last I checked.
See, for example, C. Iaconis and I. A. Wamsley, ``Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,'' IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, pp. 500-509, 1999.
A similar previous experiment, BICEP, which used observations at a single microwave wavelength, claimed to have detected the polarization, and here's where the ``dust'' comes in. Doubt was cast on the positive BICEP results when it was suggested that the measured polarization pattern might have been caused by interstellar dust. SPIDER uses two wavelengths in order to measure gravitational lensing along the line of sight, and thus control for the effects of interstellar dust.
The project is led by physicists at Caltech and Princeton, but as is usual for large projects it is a collaboration involving researchers at many universities. The author of a blog called Dropping BallAst wrote ``I am a graduate student in Physics at the University of Toronto. I work on the balloon-borne telescopes SPIDER (Suborbital Polarimeter for Inflation, Dust, and the Epoch of Reionization--my first scientific acronym creation!) and BLASTpol (Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for polarization). This is a place for photographs that I, and others, take along the way.''
Entries for BICEP (and BLASTpol, whatever that stands for) KOMING, but right now I'm under deadline pressure.
There doesn't seem to be a common or established term for initialisms like SPIE, whose expansions have been, so to speak, compressed. We recommend sealed acronyms (q.v.).
Spin seems to accumulate British/American lexical differences. See, for another instance, the english entry.
In British varieties, a spin-out is what in North America is usually called a ``spin-off.'' That is, the equivalent in human activity of a child in biology: a continuing venture separated off from an earlier activity: a TV serial based on characters from an earlier series (which usually continues also); a commercial product originally developed for internal research or support purposes of an academic or business project, that is pursued as a separate business venture, etc.
200 g Zhiguli beer 150 g alcohol varnish 50 g white-lilac cologne 50 g athlete's foot remedyThis is rated in a New Yorker magazine ``Talk of the Town'' review as ``a heady blend.'' However, the fact that the components are combined in small-integer proportions strongly suggests that -- like a circuit with all 100 and 1000 ohm resistors -- it has not been optimized. Nevertheless, Yerofeyev stresses that the key is using only White Lilac. Apparently Lily of the Valley Silver makes you think sad thoughts and cry (at least if drunk straight). Jasmine and Sweetbrier
The Yerofeyev book had been Englished by H. William Tjalsma and given the title Moscow to the End of the Line. (That publication spells the author's name as Venedikt Erofeev, but you realize that the surname with wyes is more phonetically accurate, since the E-like character in the Russian name is ``soft'' (palatalized). But they all transliterate with final v's these days, even though Russian like German devoices v (spelled with a B-like character) into f when it occurs in final postion. Tjalsma also translated Tears of a Komsomol Girl (see below) in the singular (Tear of a).
Some others of the beverages described by Yerofeyev are Tears of a Komsomol Girl, Balsam of Canaan, and Bitches' Brew. A list of less interesting oral anesthetics is available here.
Occasionally a tinner, particularly one of the old school, may be heard to tell about soldering with ``spirits of salt.'' When hearing this dealer in would-be mysteries thus setting forth his supposed superior knowledge one may smile to himself because he knows that the fellow really means hydrochloric acid. Common salt is chloride of sodium and hydrochloric acid is simply water which absorbed chlorine gas [absorbed HCl, actually], as noted previously. Hydrochloric acid may be made by the action of sulphuric acid on common salt. [It's your typical strong-acid-to-weak-acid reaction, helped along by the fact that the reaction is conducted at high temperature, reducing the solubility of HCl.] The result is a large quantity of chlorine [again: HCl -- hydrogen chloride] in the form of gas, which may be caught by water until the latter becomes saturated. The remainder of the salt is changed into a carbonate [actually a sulfate: Na2SO4] instead of a chloride by action of the acid and becomes [with further processing] washing soda or salsoda, and by refinement bicarbonate of soda, or cooking soda, such as is used for household purposes.
The tinner sometimes calls muriatic acid ``spirits of salt,'' because of the manner in which it may be obtained, as above described. When he speaks of ``killed spirits of salt'' he means hydrochloric or muriatic acid in which has been dissolved all the zinc it will take up or ``cut.''
What Hobart had in mind here was the Leblanc process. The sodium sulfate from the first reaction is burned with limestone (mostly CaCO3) and coal (C; you might even say C++), outgassing CO2 and leaving behind calcium sulfide (CaS) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The sulfide is insoluble, so the carbonate can be recovered by washing the ashes. Sodium carbonate is known by various names (depending on its application), including washing soda. The Leblanc process was patented by Nicolas Leblanc in 1791 and was in widespread use for most of the nineteenth century. Perhaps it was still common when Hobart went to school. In 1861 Ernest Solvay developed a more efficient alternative method of manufacturing sodium carbonate, and by the time of this book's first edition (1912), the Solvay method was dominant. In 1938, however, large deposits of trona [Na3(HCO3)(CO3)·2H2O -- hydrated sodium bicarbonate carbonate] were discovered in the US, and since then the mining of this material has made the Solvay process obsolete as well, in North America. (If you see this text, you're probably using a text-based browser and it's likely that the character immediately preceding 2H2O above -- a middle dot -- is not displayed properly.)
Here's the abstract of one paper (scroll down for it) describing research in which SPME is useful:
Putative Alarm Pheromones of the Ant Species Formica obscuripes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
Warren J. Wood
Alarm pheromones of the ant species Formica obscuripes were investigated. Volatile compounds in the headspace above aggravated worker ants were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis revealed the presence of the suspected alarm pheromones decane, undecane, tridecane, 4-tridecene, pentadecane, and heptadecane, as well as several unidentified components. The identities of the straight-chain hydrocarbons were confirmed by comparison with mass spectra of authentic samples. The location of the double bond in 4-tridecene was determined by a standard methylthiolation derivatization technique.
In Spanish, one sees both portavoz and vocero used.
The argument has been made that the Q stands for Quirites, rather than simply representing an earlier stage of orthography in which the que was regarded as a separate word. (At the time, word spacing was not used, so the distinction is not easy to discover. Try to imagine how one could determine from literature whether non in words like noncupative is just a separate syllable or a separate word, ifEnglishwerewrittenwithoutwordspacing.
Also the name of an online game.
Incidentally, S.P.Q.R. was revived again as late as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. According to Robert Brentano, Rome Before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth-Century Rome (Basic Books, 1974), p. 94:
[Rome] had its own money, the denari provisini senatus, of the type of Champagne (which had been used in Rome particularly between 1154 and 1184), issued by the senate after 1184, with `Roma caput mundi' inscribed on its obverse and `Senatus P.Q.R.' on its reverse.
Boundary stones with the inscription S.P.Q.R. were used as late as 1234, during a failed effort to throw off papal dominion.
Holy cloth! It turns out that some of the details above are slightly off! I'm going to have to research this further. Okay, I think I've got it now. SPR is a special religious ceremony (hence the archaic `raiment' terminology) for divine intercession on behalf of clothing, to prevent holey cloth, say. It works equally well against wool moths and color-fast ketchup. (Nevertheless, you should also use napkins and mothballs too, to demonstrate the sincerity of your religious convictions and the intensity of your longing for immaculate clothing made from whole cloth.) Responsive reading will begin on page one of Sartor Resartus (the Book of Thomas Carlyle).
For an accurate translation of SPR, visit the entry for the French CEA. Cf. OPRI.
Shhh! I hear ... tapping! Morse code from the other side! Spirit: if you read me reply ``e''!
The Roman Society's main journal publications are Britannia (on Roman Britain) and JRS, which appear in November or December each year.
Among the various potential problems contemplated were ohmic heating of the ionosphere; health effects on humans of foreseeable submilliwatt/sq.cm. chronic exposures and larger intermittent exposures; chemical toxicity from large amounts of fuel and exhaust needed to put the systems in orbit (using heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV's)]; climatological effects; electromagnetic interference (EMI), mostly to military systems -- we're talking Mojave desert here, remember; and occupational hazards to earthbound and astronaut workers.
The idea never got off the ground, as they say, but it did generate a publicity buzz. People tend to worry a lot about being microwaved -- it's probably a primal fear, along with fear of snakes, spiders, and falling on one's face. A year or two after the ozone hole was discovered in Antarctica, shepherds in southern Argentina (.ar) started reporting blind sheep. [For all I know, this is how cigarette pushers got the idea of marketing to the cartoon-receptive with a camel that wore dark glasses.] It took years to convince residents of Clarence (near Buffalo, NY) that they would not be harmed by Doppler radar the National Weather Service was trying to install there.
The Japanese are always on the lookout for out-of-this-world ways to get power, since they have negligible domestic energy resources. After the Pons-Fleischmann thing was widely discredited, the Japanese government continued to fund research along those lines -- what the heck: very low probability of success, very high potential return if it works. Zero times infinity, could be something. I thought of this when I learned that in FY1998-2000, the Japanese Space Agency (NASDA) funded research (literature-survey, theoretical, and simulation) into SPS. They considered both the microwave scheme usually considered and laser power transmission using fiber-array lasers. [See M. Mori, H. Nagayama, Y. Saito and H. Matsumoto, ``Summary of studies on space solar power systems of the National Space Development Agency of Japan,'' Acta Astronautica, vol. 54, #5, pp. 337-345 (2004).]
An idea related to satellite power systems, but without the conversion losses and difficulties, is direct use of satellite-redirected solar light -- you know, deploy enormous mylar sheets oriented to illuminate the Arctic night/winter. The Russian Space Agency tried this once.
Eventually the perpetrators of SPSS realized that there are others who have a poor understanding of and correspondingly great respect for statistics. They could derive similar benefits from this kind of software. The current line of SPSS products is marketed mostly to business, under the new acronym expansion ``Statistical Product and Service Solutions.''
SPSS was originally created by Stanford University graduate students Norman H. Nie (now Chairman of the Board of SPSS, Inc.), C. Hadlai (Tex) Hull and Dale Bent. (It was originally written in FORTRAN 66.)
(For the punctuationally astute, I note that yes, indeed, there is no comma before the with phrase in the description of Charleston.) The SPT publishes a peer-reviewed journal called Futilité. No wait -- it's called Techné. And a newsletter.
As part of my own research for the insulation entry, I acquired a matched pair (2) of frosted strawberry Kellogg's Pop-Tarts. The microwave cooking instructions call for three seconds at a ``high'' setting. An important safety instruction: ``Do not leave toasting appliance unattended due to risk of fire.''
1s, 1p, 1d, 2s, 1f, 2p, 1g, 2d, 3s, 1h, 2f, 3p, 1i, 2g, ...
The order given ignores spin-orbit coupling, which is sufficiently important that ignoring it yields mostly wrong magic numbers (2, 8, 20, 28, 40, 58, 70, 92, 112 and 138). When spin-orbit coupling is taken account of, a level with orbital angular momenum L (and spin 1/2), having degeneracy (2L+1)×(2½+1) = 2(2L+1), is split into J = L+½ and J = L-½ levels with degeneracies 2J+1. The spin-orbit splitting is comparable to the unsplit-level separation, leading to a different set of magic numbers, viz., the correct values 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 and 184.
Lubek Jastrzebski, Worth Henley and Charles Nuese have an article ``Surface Photovoltage Monitoring of Heavy Metal Contamination in IC Manufacturing'' in the trade glossy Solid State Technology, pp. 27ff (December 1992).
P. Vogl, Harold P. Hjalmarson and John D. Dow, J. Phys. Chem. Solids v. 44, p. 365 (1983).
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