(Click here for bottom)

San Francisco. Be forewarned: the locals consider ``Frisco'' pejorative.

I was first rather pointedly informed of this fact in 1975, but it goes back at least a bit further. Here's an item from a novel published in 1946 (set in 1944 or so; details at the BF entry):

   ``Wake up,'' someone was saying. ``We're letting down.'' It was broad daylight in the plane, late morning or early afternoon.
   ``Down where?'' he asked, and he pulled himself together.
   ``Don't call it that,'' Bob Tasmin said. ``Call it San Francisco. The citizens don't like it.''

Oh look, here's something: at one point, the Italian consulate in San Francisco had the domain name <italconsfrisco.org>. I guess they found out that might not be popular.

You know, people from Cincinnati take no offense at ``Cinci'' (also spelled Cincy) and people from Philadelphia don't mind ``Philly.'' A clerk I spoke with at a Turkey Hill store in Wind Gap, PA, called Pennsylvania ``Pennsy.'' (That's pronounced, and less often spelled, Pencey or Pency. You remember that at the beginning of Catcher in the Rye, Holden is flunking out of his latest prep school? That was Pencey Prep.)

Forget all that stuff about going with flowers in your hair and meeting some gentle people there. Don't worry about checking your heart and forgetting the ticket stub. Eric Burdon needed a fact-checker. All that stuff was propaganda. San Franciscans are just plain thin-skinned.

Hold the phone -- this just in! In response to threatening, um, I mean to characteristically polite email from many beautiful San Franciscisciscans, I am prepared to reveal my recent discovery of the true objection to ``Frisco.'' It's to avoid confusion with Frisco, Colorado, and Frisco, Texas. So considerate!

Maybe we should use ``Frisky'' instead of ``Frisco.'' Someone almost tried that, in fact. I'm thinking of Henry Glover (``with'' Morris Levy -- co-writing or maybe just co-collecting royalties), who wrote the words and music for ``California Sun.''

This charted for the Rivieras just as the British Invasion hit and changed everything. ``California Sun'' was a very representative American song of the era that closed then -- almost an instant antique. I think it was released in 1964; it entered the Top 40 on February 1, 1964 and stayed nine weeks, reaching #5. The Beatles' ``I Want To Hold Your Hand'' had its American release on December 26, 1963, and first appeared on the Top 40 in the January 25, 1964, edition of Billboard. There was a historic mob scene at JFK International Airport when the Beatles landed on February 7, and when they appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show two days later, they could hardly be heard over the screams of their fans. (Eventually, crowd noise was a major factor in the Beatles' decision to stop touring.) ``I Want To Hold Your Hand'' spent 14 weeks in the Top 40, including seven weeks at #1. For the week of April 4, the Beatles owned the top five slots of the Top 40.

(On the web, I've read alternative reports of the chart career of ``California Sun,'' such as that it was held at #2 or toppled from #1 by the Beatles' first American hit. There must be some basis for these reports, but I don't know what it is. I don't think it's the Billboard competitor Cashbox. The #5 ranking and associated dates are from the 7th and 8th editions (which were ready to my hand) of Joel Whitburn's The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits. What has been popularly known as the ``Top 40'' since mid-1958 is the top 40 slots of the Billboard ``Hot 100,'' based on both sales and airplay.)

The Rivieras, you'll want to know, formed when the members were in high school in South Bend, Indiana, and had some success playing clubs in the area. They were variously described as playing surf, garage, teen, and frat rock. ``California Sun'' was their one hit. There were a number of personnel changes, partly caused by the draft, and they broke up in 1966. (Not for good -- they got together again in the 80's.) Anyway, that Glover song includes these lines:

Well the girls are frisky in ol' 'Frisco --
A pretty little chick wherever you go.

{ Science Fiction | Science Fantasy | Speculative Fiction }.

The ECLIPSE website hosts areas for Doom, Dr. Who, Captain Power (Captain Who?), and Babylon 5. In 1998 ECLIPSE won a lot of web awards, but it's getting tougher all the time.

There's an on-line Ultimate Science Fiction Poetry Guide.

Traditionally, a distinction is observed between SF, meaning ``hard-core'' Science Fiction, and sci-fi, which may be more fantasy-oriented, with ``fantasy'' often in the sense of wish fulfillment. However, non-SF sci-fi enthusiasts by and large do not cooperate in maintaining this (sometimes loose) distinction.

Signal Frequency.

Small Forward. Basketball position. Seems to me, if you're gonna shoot, forward is the safest way. Oh wait, that was small forward, not shooting forward. I was thinking of SG. Small forwards are often as short as 6'7". Regular old forwards are often that short too. I guess that's not what they mean by small. They're probably referring to hand span -- yeah, that's it.

Square Foot. Not a physical deformity, just a unit of area.

Stacking Fault.


Switching Fabric.

Sales Force Automation.

Scottish Football Association. The taupe giverrrning buddy o' Scottish soccerrr.

Snack Food Association. Has separate customer site and industry (member) site. A great friend of the Sugar Association.

SFA ``is the international trade association of the snack food industry representing snack manufacturers and suppliers. Founded in 1937, SFA represents over 800 companies worldwide. SFA business membership includes, but is not limited to, manufacturers of potato chips, tortilla chips, cereal snacks, pretzels, popcorn, cheese snacks, snack crackers, meat snacks, pork rinds, snack nuts, party mix, corn snacks, pellet snacks [I think they mean M&M's and similar foods, and not bird food], fruit snacks, snackbars, granola, snack cakes, cookies and various other snacks.''

The italics on the not-limited clause serve to highlight the differences of opinion that necessarily exist on the question of what exactly qualifies as a ``snack food.'' The book Snack Food (1990), edited by R. Gordon Booth, includes in the category of snack foods pickles, sauces, and salted jellyfish. Somewhat at the opposite extreme is Snack Food Technology (1993) by Samuel A. Matz, (details at the snack food entry). Matz prefers to exclude the three aforementioned items as well as candy, although he concedes in his preface that ``a good case could be made for including all such materials in the wider category `snacks'.''

Matz's laudable fastidiousness leads to admirable caution in the case of granola, but also to excessive indecision. For example, the introduction of chapter 18, on ``Meat-Based Snacks,'' begins

      There are several snacks composed primarily of raw materials derived from animals [he's not thinking of milk-chocolate-coated caramel here]. Almost every consumer would agree that fried puffed bacon rinds are snacks [hadn't we better take a survey?], because their texture, appearance, and flavor resemble those characteristics of puffed or fried cereal snacks [he must be thinking mouthfeel here; I don't recall pork rinds tasting like cocoa puffs], and they are sold in portion-size pouches for eating mostly between regularly scheduled meals. ...
(Emphasis added.)

From various fortune files, here's

Karlson's Theorem of Snack Food Packages
For all P, where P is a package of snack food, P is a SINGLE-SERVING package of snack food.

What's this ``regularly scheduled meals'' business? I take my food item when I'm hungry. As the French say: Consume mass quantities!

Stuttering Foundation of America.

Sonderforschungsbereich[e]. German, `Special Research Area[s].' Defined and promoted by the DFG. Various listings are given here.

SF Ballet
San Francisco BALLET.

Scottish Federation of Baton Twirling. For similar organizations, see the majorette entry.

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Picture (and eventually an explanation) here.

Singapore Federation of the Computer Industry.

Society for the Furtherance of Critical Philosophy. They could have used ``advanced'' and had a vowel to work with, but I take this philosophically: if you insist on ``Critical Philosophy'' as part of your name, you're not likely to get a pronounceable acronym with less than two syllables (``SACPhil,'' say).

Shear-Force Diagram. A graph of shear force (i.e., of force perpendicular to the beam axis) as a function of position along a beam. Of course, ``force perpendicular to the beam axis'' is locally two-dimensional. Also, the shear force bends the axis a bit (see BMD for no clarification), making the shear force three-dimensional overall. These things make it difficult to represent the shear force in a mere two-dimensional diagram, sure, but I'm sure you can handle it. What are you, a mathematician? Use your tough engineer's skull to hammer through a solution.

Société Française de Dentisterie Esthétique. `French Society of Esthetic Dentistry.'

Spurious Free Dynamics Range.

Stacking-Fault Energy.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction. See 70's work by Zosel et al.. See this online.

Society of Freelance Editors and Proofreaders. Most of the ~1400 members are in the UK.

Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror.

Single-Family Home.

Society for French Historical Studies. Since this is a North American organization, and since the official name is in English, it's fair to reason that it's a society for studies of French history, rather than one for somehow-French studies of history. The SFHS was founded in 1956; it's been a constituent society of the ACLS since 1993. The ACLS has an overview.

There is membership for individuals, students (who get a discount relative to individuals), and institutions. The principal (and only testable) criterion for membership is subscription to the quarterly journal French Historical Studies (FHS). It's pretty inexpensive, but if you're homeless, where would they deliver? I guess they're just not interested in serving the French Historical Studies needs of the North American homeless community.

The similar British organization is the Society for the Study of French History (SSFH).

I jest halve this entrée hear sow I can fine it when I cant spell it. If you're spelling is bad, you look stupid even thought your a genius. Spell-checkers dissolve that problem.

Scottish Football League.

Scanning Force Microscopy. New name for AFM, q.v..

Stepped Frequency Method.

Sum Frequency Mixing.

Synchronous Flow Manufacturing.

Single Frequency Network. (Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) usage here.)

Société française de Neuroradiologie.

When I saw the headline ``Rolls-Royce in Talks with SFO over Bribery Concerns,'' I supposed SFO stood for ``Senior Financial Officer,'' in parallel with CFO. But no, it stands for the UK's Serious Fraud Office. Perhaps it also stands for the UK's Silly Fraud Office. Her Majesty's government often seems Monty Pythonesque.

Apparently there have been ``allegations of malpractice'' in Indonesia and China. There might be fraud and there might not, but judging from what I know of Latin America, the fact of bribery does not imply fraud. I mean, at least in Latin America, everyone knows what the deal is, so no one is really deceived. So bribery isn't fraudulent -- at worst it's just a little bit coy.

Stimulus-Frequency OtoAcoustic Emmission[s] (OAE). [Component of] OAE's evoked by sinusoidal stimulus, at the applied frequency. Can be detected by varying the stimulus frequency and probing for a response at earlier frequency.

Stabilization FORce. Comprised of NATO troops mostly, about 1/4 US, deployed to enforce some parts of the 1996 Dayton Accords that ended the Bosnian war.

Initially deployed for a nominal one-year mission, they're digging in for the long haul. Gilligan's Island was a sitcom launched by a three-hour tour.

San Francisco Partnership. Welcome Wagon and booster for businesses in San Francisco.

Science For Professionals, Inc. A legal group; their old site is defunct.

Scanning Fabry-Pérot Interferometer.

Structure-Function Relationship.

Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (part of Georgetown University). They award a BSFS degree.

Science For The People. Boston-based journal ``for antiwar analysis and activity.'' Founded in the 1960's by the now-defunct SESPA (Scientists and Engineers for Social and Political Action) to oppose the Vietnam War, it continues (well, continued, at least into the late 1980's) to ``challenge military applications of science and technology.''

While a lot of the leftist ``underground'' newspapers disappeared along with the antiwar movement when active US involvement ended, many academic journals of the left, founded in a similar spirit, have survived as alternatives to the perceived orthodoxy when their disciplines. Examples besides the SftP (which suggests soft porn to my filthy mind) are Radical Teacher, Insurgent Sociologist (a newsletter turned journal which dumped the activism and became Critical Sociology in 1988), Issues in Radical Therapy (like, what kind of prosthesis should I get after radical mastectomy?), Conspiracy, Madness Network News, Radical Philosopher's Newsjournal, and Sipapu.

Among major history journals, Radical America, Radical History Review (see MARHO), and Socialist Revolution survived into the late 1980's, but the last renamed itself Socialist Review.

Well, you used to shake 'em down, but
now you stop and think about your dignity!

SFTP, sftp
Secure File Transfer Protocol.

San Fernando Valley. You've heard of ``Valley Girls''; this is the one they come from.

Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America.

Sound eFfeCtS. Of course, that can also be Sound efFeCtS. Record it however you like; we'll fix it in the mixer.

Special eFfeCtS.

A small two-engine commuter plane made by Saab. In the usual configuration, most of the seating is in three-seat rows: one on the left side of the aisle, two on the right. The flight attendant explains that in the event of a sudden loss of cabin pressure or other emergency, it may be necessary to use the oxygen masks located under the aisle seats. The masks' tubes are to be connected to the outlets above the seats. Strikingly, there is only one outlet on each side, as if no provision had been made for the window passenger on the right. It turns out that under the right-hand aisle seat, there is a pair of masks whose common inlet tube connects to the outlet over the right-hand seats. ``I get asked that a lot,'' says the flight attendant. Now everyone can experience the intimacy of conjoined twins.

``Even though oxygen is flowing, the bag may not inflate.''

Please bring your tray tables and seat backs to their locked and upright positions, and not vice versa.

If you are traveling with or seated next to a child, put your own mask on first and then assist the child.

If this is your final destination, may God have mercy on your soul.

Insert the metal tip into the buckle, then pull on the loose end to tighten the belt. To release the belt, simply pull forward on the buckle. Here, let me help you with that.

This is your last and final boarding call. The one before was just your last boarding call. Yeah, it can get confusing.

Because of the short duration of this flight, we will not have beverage service; however, if I can help in any way, please do not hesitate to call me by pressing the yellow button above your seat.

``Yes, could I have a warm soda, and some peanuts and small pretzels in a steel-reinforced, rip-stop kevlar bag, please?''

This concludes the entertainment portion of our flight.

Do not inflate life vest while you are inside the aircraft.

SinGular. Also sing. Cf. pl.

(Domain name code for) Singapore.

Scharfetter-Gummel. Semiconductor transport simulations using Slotboom variables.

Seaborgium. Atomic number 106.

Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.

Secretary General. A multilingual shorthand specialist who takes the minutes at Security Council meetings, I guess. The one before Kofi Annan was Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Boutros is the form of `Peter' used by Coptic (Egyptian) Christians. (From the Greek Petros. Also, Ghali is an Arabic word that means `expensive,' but in this context I imagine it means or meant either something like `worthy, valued' or `rich.') Boutros-Ghali tried to win a second term as SG, against the opposition of the US, which -- as a permanent member of the Security Council -- has veto power over the selection. Originally, Boutros promised not to run for a second term, but this is the kind of promise rarely held against politicians. Under his leadership, the UN staff achieved notorious new heights of bureaucratic fear and sycophancy. Well, we gave Kurt Waldheim two terms, what the hey!

If it seems odd to you that the Coptic form of Peter should begin in a b sound rather than a p sound, see the BATA Shoe Museum entry.

Semiconductor-Grade (semiconductor material).

Shooting Guard. Basketball position that sounds like something happened at the bank. The other guards get to shoot too.

Silicate Glass.

Simon and Garfunkel. Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel originally performed as Tom and Jerry. They broke up in 1970 reportedly amicably and have done some reunion performances. It is widely reported that they can barely stand each other, and therefore almost equally widely believed that their claims to the contrary are only for show. Still crazy after all these years. There's an enormous S&G FAQ, a legacy of alt.music.paul-simon in the days when writing newsgroup FAQ's was popular. Unfortunately, and quite surprisingly, as of August 2007 I can't find any copy of it on the web. To judge from the number of links to now-defunct websites for Paul Simon, Art Garfunkel, or both, it seems there's been a severe fall-off in interest in them or their music in the twenty-first century. Here are a few certified live (by me) as of this month:

Sorghum Grain.

Spin Glass. A disordered system of spins. The typical experimental realization is a nonmagnetic metal with a small concentration (1-5%) of magnetic ion impurity. A typical theoretical model considers a system of spins with a random distribution of spin couplings. (This substitutes for the more physical RKKY model.)

The Net Advance of Physics site has some entries in this category.

State Graph.


Symbolic Gray Code.

Simple Gateway Control Protocol.

Sustainable Gross Domestic Expenditure.

Sustainable Gross Domestic Product.

Synchronous Graphics DRAM. A single-ported video Random Access Memory (RAM, q.v.).

Store Global Descriptor Table. Cf. SLDT.

Sagittae. Official IAU abbreviation for the constellation Sagitta.

Suspended-Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

Silicon Graphics Inc.

Society for German Idealism. ``The primary purpose of the Society for German Idealism is to stimulate interdisciplinary scholarship on the philosophies of the German idealists - chiefly but not exclusively: Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Schelling - and to afford an opportunity for international exchange of research on German idealism.''

A common question posed by the name of any society ``for <foobar>'' is whether the society promotes <foobar> or studies it -- i.e., is really a society ``for the study of <foobar>.'' (Vide UDI.) Often common sense will resolve the ambiguity. In the case of philosophies, one expects both meanings to be intended to some degree. That is, most philosophers are disinclined to study a philosophical system unless they find some element of truth in it or at least clever argumentation, so they might be expected to promote it as well.

Conversely, you can't honestly promote a philosophy you don't study. I mean, you could promote a combination dustmop-plunger without studying it -- you might just use it in the living room or bathroom. It's good for something (there's that word again) if it's any good at all. In contrast with Swiss-Army plumbers' helpers, philosophies (probably especially idealist philosophies) don't do anything. They don't have any moving parts, but they're too soft to use as hammers and too thin for pillows. Navel-gazing is the paradigmatic dog that don't hunt. Again, people: common sense.

Common sense is not something one associates with Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Naturally, he developed a cult of slavish followers. The joke went that if the post coach was late from Koenigsberg, the Kantians wouldn't know what to think that day. (Kant, as I'm sure you remember now, spent all of his life within a few miles of his hometown of Koenigsberg. He was only intellectually wide-ranging. Late in life, he decided to take a trip abroad, but he aborted the trip after a few minutes' riding.)

Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association.

SeGmentation Message.

Standard Generalized Mark-up Language. It's a general grammar for descriptive mark-up. Each version of HTML is one of the markup languages defined using SGML. Cf. XML.

This links to a randomly selected page with some stuff about SGML.

Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol. Described in RFC 1028. Network management protocol that evolved into SNMP.

SeGMenTS. Airline fare abbreviation.

The Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc.

Society of Gynecologic Oncologists.

Sagittarius. Official IAU abbreviation for the constellation.

Soft Gamma[-ray] Repeater.

Société Générale de Surveillance. ``World leader in verification, testing and certification.''

Society of Gynecologic Surgeons. First organized as an independent society in 1974, as the Vaginal Surgeons Society (VSS). Took its present name when it was restructured in 1982.

SGS-Thomson Microelectronics
Hmmm. I never found out what the SGS stood for. It must be pretty frustrating for people who look things up.

Oh, great: in May 1998 they changed their name to STMicroelectronics. With rebus names like this, it's no wonder the old acronym/initialism distinction broke down. Now I'll never find out what it stood for. Part of the SGS Group of companies.

SGT, SigmaGammaT
Sigma Gamma Tau. The National Aerospace Engineering Honor Society.

Surrounding Gate Transistor.

Second Generation FLIR Thermal Imaging System.

Sputter gun. Using a conical magnetron, say. Produces higher deposition rates than evaporation produced by electron beam (E-beam) or RF induction.

(Domain name code for) Saint Helena.


Sandy Hook Beach. On the New Jersey coast, really quite unnecessarily close to New York.

Postal code for Schleswig-Holstein, one of the sixteen states (Länder) of the German Federal Republic (FRG). [Like most of the country information in this glossary, Germany's is at the domain code .de.]

The state's area is 15,771 sq. km. Its population was 2,554,000 by the census of 1987, estimated at 2,759,000 for 1997.


Semester Hour[s].

Shakespeare. The abbreviation is reserved for only this meaning, because of its salience and utility in all fields of endeavor.

Shipping and Handling. Seems to me it ought to be ``H&S.'' In the Chicago dialect of Mexican, for example, it's Manejo y Envio.

Shit Happens. Internet usage.

Southern Hemisphere. Climatological usage.

Thomas Alexander Sperry and Shelley B. Hutchinson. S&H Green Stamps were a promotional gimmick intended to build customer loyalty to the stores that distributed them. It was like coupon-clipping in reverse. You got a little booklet (for free!) to stick them in, and with every purchase you received a few green stamps, about 25mm high by 15 mm wide. Scraping in the darker corners of my memory, I think I remember that there were also some yellow stamps, double-wide, that you could use to fill two rectangles in the (free!) booklet. Once you filled a booklet (1200 stamps) you could redeem the booklet for stuff, or you could accumulate a few booklets-full for stuff that you would actually want. The stuff was in the S&H catalog. The past is a foreign country. (Especially if emigrate.) As recently as the late 1960's or early 1970's, the local A&P supermarket distributed them. We only ever went there to buy coffee beans and have them fine-ground at the checkout counter, so over the years we might have accumulated stamps enough to redeem for two eight-track cassettes or a paper cup.

Green Stamps were introduced in 1896 by the Sperry and Hutchinson Company, and originally used by Merchants Supply Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut. Green stamps are not as popular as they once were. In fact, they've completely disappeared. Unfortunately, the S&H Co. survived, and now markets ``S&H greenpoints: The Next Generation of Loyalty Marketing.'' According to the greenpoints site, the year 1964 was milestone:

The S&H catalog becomes the largest single publication in the US. S&H prints 3 times as many stamps as the US Post Office, and enough catalogs to circle the earth 1 1/2 times!

Also ``by the 1960's, S&H was the largest purchaser of consumer products in the world.''

Spherical Harmonic[s] (n.) or Spherical-Harmonic (adj.).

Once, ``Tesseral Harmonic'' was a common name as well.

Secondary Heads Association. A UK organization for heads of secondary schools, rather than for the secondary heads of schools.

SBF Hall of Acronym Fame

Simple Hands-free Add-on Circuit.

Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry. Their journal, AMBIX, is published thrice annually, and their newsletter, Chemical Intelligence, is published twice annual.

shacked up
A term intermediate in connotation between ``living in sin,'' and ``roommates.''

You know, boys and girls, there was a time when a certain natural biological phenomenon, consequent to the one not actually described in any of the preceding three terms, was considered too indelicate to name directly. To be blunt, by the standards of that time, the word pregnant was considered coarse, even obscene. As recently as the 1890's, I think, the standard term was ``in a family way.'' In the fifties, polite incoherent references to rabbit fatality were standard, and ``with child'' was still a bit, mmm, direct. (Sex education was conducted entirely in Morse Code. That's why boys learned Morse Code. It's no coincidence that codeless licensing has become the norm as the moral fiber of our nation has gone to hell.) Intransitive ``expecting'' was a common expression. Depends where you lived, of course. Did you notice the comment on embarazo near the end of the TP entry?

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces.

Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. Founded in 1976, about 1900 members in 1998.

Japanese: `society.' Borrowed from European root; first attested 1877. Cf. seken.

  1. An opaque, highly non-Newtonian fluid. Available in restaurants.
  2. [Among the old Los Alamos `device' makers] a convenient unit of time equal to 10-8 seconds. An eternity to modern pulsed laser.

Shania Twain and Buddy Holly
Two exponents of hiccup singing. Hear, for example, ``Man! I Feel Like A Woman!'' and anything, respectively.

When I'm trying to figure out which door to take, I always have to remember this fact about concrete nouns named on doors: in other cases the signs name what you can get inside, on a public restroom it names what you can take inside.

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. NATO headquarters.

Shaquille O'Neal. If we were a bit more focused on basketball, we'd have more than just these few entries mentioning him -- -- and they would be about basketball.

Super Harvard ARchitecture Computer. DSP family from Analog Devices (AD).

Society for the History of Authorship, Reading & Publishing. There's a mailing list, too.

SHAreware Search Engine. You want to go to its current location, where it's known as Virtual Software Library (VSL).

Shave and a haircut, two bits.
Name for a metrical pattern, rarely associated any more with those words.

I always assumed that two bits (25 cents) had covered both the shave and the haircut. Maybe it once did, but here's a relevant item from The Niles Daily Star (of Niles, Michigan). It was front-page news on Saturday, August 12, 1933: ``Many Niles Barbers Revise Price Charge'':

Many Niles barber shops have adopted a price schedule of 25 cents for shaves and 35 cents for haircuts. The Master Barbers' association has submitted a code calling for a 25 cent shave and a 50 cent haircut, which the local barbers had agreed to adopt. But many have found that 50 cents for a haircut is considered exorbitant by old customers, and have reduced the price.

In the same newspaper on the same day, ``Cleaners Raise Prices'' only made page 2:

The wearing apparel cleaners of Niles have made a slight increase in their prices to correspond with increases in overhead costs of boxes, bags, and other supplies [no mention of soap!] ... Cleaners in South Bend, Benton Harbor, St. Joseph and other surrounding towns have already advanced their prices. The National Industrial Recovery Act [NIRA, q.v., which was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1935] code for cleaners has not yet been put into effect but with the increase in prices the cleaners will observe the NRA blanket code for wages and hours.

Solomon's wisdom, Hercules strength, Atlas um... maps? -- hard to read -- Zeus power, Achilles courage, Mercury's speed! Apostrophes as in the image! I read it off of this defunct site before I got my glasses! Tough luck for you, huh?!

Oh --it's Atlas's stamina! When Billy Batson shouts this powerful incantatory acronym, he is transformed into red tights and white cape with gold trim, becoming The World's Mightiest Mortal! (Captain Marvel!)

When his sister Mary shouts SHAZAM!, it stands for Selene (grace), Hippolyta (strength), Ariadne (skill), Zephyr (speed), Aurora (beauty), and Minerva (wisdom)! (Mary Marvel!)

Spectral Hole Burning.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin. Also called steroid-binding protein (SBP). Found in both males and females. Seems to depend on body fat. Regulates metabolic clearance rate of steroid hormones from blood plasma by controlling their effective concentration. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone.

Single-Heterostructure Bipolar Transistor. Term equivalent to HBT in conventional sense, but used to distinguish from (exclude) Double-Heterostructure BJT's.

Spontaneous Human Combustion. It would not have been beneath my dignity to invent this abbreviation myself, but that was not necessary. I have a book that's full of proof. It might have been more convincing had the authors used a decent camera. Then again maybe not. The folks at CSICOP probably have an opinion on the subject.

Supplemental Health Care Program.

The Society for Hindu-Christian Studies. Here's a switch: it was ``founded in November, 1994 as a logical extension to the dialogue and scholarship being carried on in the Hindu-Christian Studies Bulletin, which first appeared in 1988 under its founding editor, Dr. Harold Coward.''

Quiz question:
``Howard Coward'' would be a () good or ( ) bad idea for a name?
Now back to the entry.

The Society is dedicated to the study of Hinduism and Christianity and their interrelationships. It seeks to create a forum for the presentation of historical research and studies of contemporary practice, for the fostering of dialogue and interreligious conversation, carried forward in a spirit of openness, respect and true inquiry.

State Higher Education Executive Officers. (The ``state'' is Colorado.)

Scottish Higher Education Funding Council.

A Ford Mustang with racing stripes and other improvements installed by Carrol Shelby, back in the sixties.

shell model
A mannequin bust for displaying a top that might go with a skirt or pant.

This overview page of nucleus models has a link to an extended technical description (dvi).

Single-channel High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT).

For your convenience, this is explained at the entry for the fanciful abbreviation hp for hot pudding.

Shergold, Craig, or Sherfold or Schergold
If you've received a plea to send mail him something, WAIT! Read this first.

Super-High Frequency. 3-30 GHz (a microwave range). I did my Masters experimental project in the late Dr. Carver's microwave lab, working around 9 GHz.

Second-Harmonic Generation.

shikata ganai
Japanese, `it can't be helped.'

One twentieth of a pound sterling, and a coin with that value. Twelve old pence or five new pence. Cf. bob. There's some interesting information in Webster's 1828 dictionary on the continued use of this unit in the US.

In the colorful old nondecimal British system, a pound was divided into shillings and pence as described above, and these were abbreviated s. and d., for solidus and denarius, the Latin equivalents. (I have no idea how justified these equivalences might have been initially, but since few Roman solidi or denarii were in circulation, it can't ever have been much of an issue.) Anyway, prices were commonly stated using expressions like ``4 shillings 11,'' meaning 4s.11d. The s. was necessary to separate the numbers, while the written d., like the spoken ``pence,'' was implicit. A long ess (for an explanation see esh) was originally common. As the long ess glyph went out of use, it was replaced either by the now-standard short ess glyph or by a forward slash, which also came to be called ``solidus.''

In most of the German states, the cognate word Schilling was used with same sense (solidus, 12 Pfennig). In Bavaria and Austria the situation was more complicated.

RelationSHIPPER. Someone who is more interested in the relationship between the main characters than in the plot. A term used among fans of the X-Files, for fans who were more interested in the relationship between Mulder and Scully than they were in the aliens.

shipping ton
A volume unit equal to 100 cubic feet or roughly 2.83 cubic meters, and yet another proof of the inconvenience of metric units. A shipping ton is also called a registered ton.

A few years ago, I lived in a rented house with a number of graduate students and other genteel poor. One day I had a conversation with a housemate from a historically seafaring nation, on what to do about the back yard, where despite our diligent neglect, the grass had thrived to the point that it required cutting. The conversation had already become -- shall we say -- speculative, when suddenly the conversation took an unexpected turn.

Swedish Housemate: We could use ships!
Me (a landlubber): Ships?
SH: Yes! Maybe could rent them. Probably one would be enough.
Me: What would we do with ships?
SH: The ships would eat the grass!
Me: Ships?
SH: Yes, ships! You know, ``bah-bah''! Wool!
Me: Sheeps? Sheep! You #%#%!*-ing *@&^#%-ous *$%@^#*! The plural of sheep is sheep!

``A few years ago'' above refers to 1981. An article in the 24 July 2004 New Scientist (pp. 52-3 of the North American edition) is entitled ``The sheep that launched 1000 ships.'' It seems that Norse ships had woolen sails. They recommend visiting the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde.

An article in the November 2, 2011, New York Times is entitled ``Sheep Lawn Mowers, and Other Go-Getters.'' http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/03/garden/sheep-lawn-mowers-and-other-go-getters.html?pagewanted=2 [column] Japanese sheep go `boo, boo.' As a consequence of drift in the pronunciation of the Greek alphabet, ancient Greek sheep now go `vee, vee.' (For more on this, kindly proceed to the entry on the letter ni.)

At the beginning of Ivanhoe, Scott explains that after the Norman conquest the Saxons still herded the sheep and cattle, but the Normans ate the mutton and beef. Hence Germanic words for the animal names, and Romance names for the food names. Linguists are not convinced.

For more on sheep, see the OPT entry.

Structural Health Monitoring. Periodic testing of buildings to assure their structural integrity and stability.

Social Health Maintenance Organization. I know what you're thinking, you filthy-minded person, because it takes one to know one. No, it's apparently not an HMO for people with social diseases.

You want to know what it really means? I'm not sure I should tell you. You might lose respect for me. I'll tell you what: I'll pass along the definition at the Medicare glossary, but I won't endorse it.

A special type of health plan that provides the full range of Medicare benefits offered by standard Medicare HMOs, plus other services that include the following:
(Prescription drug and chronic care benefits, respite care, and short-term nursing home care; homemaker, personal care services, and medical transportation; eyeglasses, hearing aids, and dental benefits.)

Simple Hysteresis Network.

SHOwtime. CATV station.

Simple Harmonic Oscillator.

Super High Output. As in Ford Taurus SHO.

The standard misspelling of shoo-in.

A chain started by Alex Schoenbaum. Details in his obit, NYT 1996.12.15 pg. 37.

shooting method
In numerical analysis, ``shooting methods'' is the technically correct term for `marching methods' applied to one-dimensional problems.

I foresee that this could cause problems when budget-line 6.1 is explained to the top military brass.

One thing that I learned from the Moonies is that you don't try to sell the the Brooklyn Bridge to someone from Brooklyn. [When I was over 'their place on Bush street in San Francisco in '79, and they were dissembling their true identity, my minder tried to explain their putatively independent group with a ``flow chart.'' It amazed me that they got any recruits at all. (Well, okay, they had this young woman guarding the door, and when I was down there putting my shoes back on to leave, she tried to persuade me to stay or come back. She was really beautiful; I guess their recruitment efforts weren't totally inept.) More about that experience at the Washington entry.]

Shop Talk
The short title of Shop Talk: a Writer and His Colleagues and Their Work (Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2001). A book of encounters of various sorts between Philip Roth and other artists (writers, with the exception of Philip Guston). Most are conversations that have been summarized or recalled in interview form. I have quoted bits of this at half a dozen places in this glossary. Following is the T.O.C. (beginning page number in square brackets) with my comments to be interleaved.

Conversation in Turin with Primo Levi [1]
See the entries for writers in the paint industry and Arbeit Macht Frei.
Conversation in Jerusalem with Aharon Appelfeld [18]
Conversation in Prague with Ivan Klíma [40]
Conversation in New York with Isaac Bashevis Singer about Bruno Schulz [78]
Conversation in London and Connecticut with Milan Kundera [90]
Conversation in London with Edna O'Brien [101]
There's a sample of her judgment at the journalistic balance entry, and she's quoted at the entry on the importance of literature.
An exchange with Mary McCarthy [113]
Pictures of Malamud [120]
Pictures by Guston [131]
A recollection of the beginning of the friendship between two Philips, written about ten years after Philip Guston died. I milk this chapter for the TTBOMKAB entry, and skim off more for this research entry. ask
Rereading Saul Bellow [139]

shop till you drop
It's NOT ``materialistic.'' It's all about dropping. It's a particularly masochistic form of exercise, is all. Women live longer because shopping is such good exercise.

SHORt-range Air Defense Missile Engagement Zone. See differential definition at the weapon engagement zone entry of the DOD's online Dictionary of Military Terms.

Short Twentieth Century
A name for the period 1914-1991. That is, for the period beginning with the the Great War and ending with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Cf. Long Nineteenth Century and periodization. The name was proposed by the Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm in his The Age of Extremes, and it had the evident advantage of allowing him to cover an entire twentieth-centuryish period in a book that he published in 1995.

Society for the History Of Technology. ``[F]ormed in 1958 to encourage the study of the development of technology and its relations with society and culture.
An interdisciplinary organization, SHOT is concerned not only with the history of technological devices and processes, but also with the relations of technology to science, politics, social change, the arts and humanities, and economics.''

A constituent society of the ACLS since 1973. ACLS has an overview.

Love the acronym. The year of SHOT's founding, 1958, is not exactly some random year that it all happened to finally come together. Rather, 1958 was the year following Sputnik -- start of the Soviet space program that first put man and dog (not in that order) in orbit around our little planet. It sent the US into panic, in fear that we were quickly falling behind the Rooskies in various important military and industrial technologies, and the government gave a big SHOT in the arm to academic science and technology research, in large part via NSF. Funding grew about exponentially, right through the Vietnam war, until 1970, when someone turned off the spigot, but that's another story. At the beginning, the NSF didn't invest much in social science. If some money was going to the social science for appearances' sake, though, you can imagine that history of science and technology (HST) were bound to be favored.

shot noise
White noise in current of all conductors, associated with the discreteness of charge.

This is not yet the entry for the modal should. I mean -- it is, or will be, but it's, like, under construction. I'll probably write the shall entry first anyway. I've already written the shoulds entry. Why don't you read that? It's coming up shortly.

Eye dialect for the nonstandard contraction of ``should have,'' or a loose pronunciation of ``should've.'' This and similar pronunciation of other 've contractions've probably contributed to new, near-homophone formulas like ``should of,'' ``could of,'' and ``would of.'' Of course, shoulda might of been a fat-finger for shoulds. Looks like in error n e way.

Not the third-person singular conjugation of the modal should, but the plural form of the noun should.

Nouning the parts of speech most reluctant to be nouned seems to be a habit peculiar to psychiatrists and psychologists. Freud did it with singular personal pronouns (vide id). (You know, it's nothing but sheer declensional luck that it construes out properly here in Latin too.)

Wayne W. Dyer, a doctor of psychology, wrote a book called Your Erroneous Zones (details at the F.O.O.L. entry). In a section entitled ``The Folly of Shoulds, Musts and Oughts,'' he gasps that ``Karen Horney, the brilliant psychiatrist, has devoted an entire chapter of Neurosis and Human Growth to this topic [please, please tell me that she also wrote about frustrated sexual desire], and she titles it `The Tyranny of the Should.' She comments:

The shoulds always produce a feeling of strain, which is all the greater the more a person tries to actualize his shoulds in his behavior. . . . Furthermore, because of externalizations, the shoulds always contribute to disturbance in human relations in one way or another.*
    Do shoulds determine much of your life? Do you feel you should [sic] be kind to your colleagues, supportive of your spouse, helpful to your children and always work hard? [Then you're a Calvinist! Oh, sorry--got carried away, I guess. I didn't mean to interrupt. Dyer continues...] And if at any time you fail in one of these shoulds do you berate yourself [Jewish? Catholic?] and hence take on that strain and disturbance [flagellant?] to which Karen Horney alludes above? But perhaps these are not your shoulds. If, in fact, they belong to others [give them back! stealing is wrong!] and you have merely borrowed them [oh sure], then you are musterbating. [Bad boy!]''

* Karen Horney, Neurosis and Human Growth (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1950), p. 81.

Shaft HorsePower.

The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers.

Hey, I just [96.10.31] attended the ND SHPE/MAES meeting, and it was impressive: newbie self-introductions, new business, old business, four speakers, a social chairman appointed by default, pizza before and after, chatting before and after, all in a half hour!

The line is attributed to JFK, that Washington DC, has northern hospitality and southern efficiency.

Southern Humanities Review. ISSN 0038-4186. Publishes fiction, poetry, and critical essays on the arts, literature, philosophy, religion, and history.

Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat[s]. Convenient for research purposes.

You're probably thinking of SHRCC. It's a somewhat common typo.

What was I thinking when I wrote this entry?

Society for Human Resource Management. An association for Human Resources professionals.

Step One: stack 'em up like cord wood and wait for them to dry.

Social History Society. Founded in 1976. ``The Society is based in Lancaster'' (at Lancaster University in England), but the web pages are served from Nottingham Trent University, for some reason.

Since this is one of the few social history entries in the glossary, it's a good place to mention one of the few social history observations I have made. It has to do with the NTU homepage linked above. It shows one guy with a fake grin in the foreground and another guy half-heartedly stretching a grimace in the background. They have their hands in their pockets, which is apparently all they can do to keep from folding their arms across their chests. This isn't personal, this is social. In American society, smiling is not frowned upon. People are not assumed to be stupid just because they are happy. Optimism is good. In personals ads (I admit that I have looked at personals ads, okay?) the women are usually smiling, and they're not doing it to look clueless. European women in personals ads look irritated or at best serious. They're sophisticated to death. Cool like a gravedigger's ass. When they smile, they often wear that fake smile of the guy on the NTU page: lips pried or curled apart, eyes uninvolved or angry. They've forgotten what a happy smile feels like, so they don't realize that they're practically sneering. I don't need to read what the studies say about how happy Europeans tell posters they are -- I know: these people demand to be disappointed. Crack a real smile, FCOL! It won't kill you. Read the .dk entry. Now. See also my comments on the look at the english entry.

(Incidentally, I recognize that the, um, candid student shots are posed and need not reflect the personalities of the models. This makes it worse: the poses reflect what a photographer's experience accepts as normal and acceptable.)

(ANSI) Safety and Health Standards Board.

Secular HomeSchool Support Group. Fifty or so families in the area of Pikes Peak, Colorado.

Studia Humaniora Tartuensia. ``[A]n on-line journal of the Humanities. Its purpose is to publish scholarly papers, notes and reviews embodying original research in all areas of the Humanities.'' [Its Latin title means `Tartu Humanistic Studies.' Tartu is the capital of Estonia; the journal is published by the Classics department of the University of Tartu.

When begun in 2000 the journal was intended as a local Estonian project, but international contributions have been invited since May 2002.

ISSN 1406-6203.

``Shuffle Off To Buffalo''
Title lyric in a song from the movie ``42nd Street'' (1933). More at this site.

Safe High Voltage. A kind of bayonet-action coax connector with recessed center contacts to prevent shock hazard. Also, the ground connection is made before the center connection, and openned after the center connection. Cf. Miniature High Voltage (MHV) coax connectors. Both MHV and SHV are intended to operate up to 50 MHz, but they have non-constant impedance structure.

Safe High Voltage - Bakeable. Coax operable to higher temperatures than ordinary SHV. Check the voltage rating.

Safe High Voltage (SHV) - 15kV.

Safe High Voltage - 5kV. What is usually meant by ``SHV'' not further characterized.

(Click here for top) Previous section: S&E (top) to sez (bottom)

Next section: .si (top) to size matters (bottom)

[ Thumb tabs and search tool] [ SBF Homepage ]

Space above was intentionally left free of glossary definitions so that links to bottom of document can appear at the top of the screen display.

© Alfred M. Kriman 1995-2012 (c)