The King James version is a revision of the Bishop's Bible of 1568, which leans heavily on the banned William Tindale (or Tyndale) Translation.
The earliest version of the King James Version included translations of the so-called Apocrypha, which were later deauthorized. So it goes. The first revision of the KJV to be authorized for the Anglican communion was the HBRV.
The ARTFL Project serves a search tool for the KJV.
Oh, don't go breakin' my heart!
I couldn't if I tried!
What's that supposed to mean?
J. Korringa, Physica 13, 392 (1947).
W. Kohn and N. Rostoker, Phys. Rev. 94, 1111 (1954).
In the slang that my apartment mates and I used when I was in college, ``Kuala Lumpur!'' was an expression of amazement, like ``wow!'' I don't know how that usage got started, but it has the multisyllabic advantage that you can really drag it out and put some emotion into it. Obviously, we had no use for the abbreviation. You might want to read the UNITA entry now.
KL is the capital of Malaysia.
So far as I'm aware, the resemblance to the word koala (the bearcub-like eucalyptus-colonizing marsupial of Australia) is completely coincidental.
At one point, we experimented with saying ``The Lab'' in unison (not that kind of unison) with extreme seriousness, but before we got around to thinking up what it should mean, we discovered that the performance was too embarrassing to be of any practical use.
Dannon Yogurt had a series of TV commercials in those days, featuring old people who ate yogurt. There was one that featured what we called ``the dancing dead men of [Soviet] Georgia.'' (These guys were illiterate, and in follow-up studies, researchers asked them how old they were and got answers that were ten years more than they had gotten five years earlier. Something about like that.) We had a gesture we performed frequently to indicate ecstatic joy. With an expression of chloroformed surprise, one would raise his hands above his head at pope speed (I mean, arthritically), then turn the palms back and forth on a vertical axis. We called this the Kaymore V'nacha, after the old guy who performed it in the commercial. Actually, it turns out that his name was Temur Vanacha. One of the Dannon dancing dead men (seated) is featured on the cover of The Best Thing on TV: Commercials, by Jonathan Price (NY: Viking, 1978), and the ad is storyboarded on pp. 154-5 with the caption ``Most fondly remembered commercial.''
Just in case you were wondering, we did all graduate, eventually.
Allowing for the k-to-t correction, Mr. Vanacha's given name sounded (in the ad narrator's pronunciation) like ``Taymore.'' As it happens, one Julie Taymor is a Broadway director. She directed the ``The Lion King'' (a musical based on the Disney movie based on the Japanese movie) and was the original director of ``Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark,'' a musical that she co-wrote with Glen Berger.
When I first encountered the word in the 1970's, the context implied that it was Canadian military usage, and I don't know how far back it goes. I heard a US serviceman say it on TV during the 2003 Iraq war. Wentworth and Flexner's Dictionary of American Slang, first lists it (also with the spelling click) in the 1967 Supplement.
It's amazing to me that I didn't put this entry in earlier. The s,p,d,f,g,... entry has probably been in there since the very beginning, 1995. That was already, gulp, 20 years ago.
There were many articles on it. See, for example, ``The Lost Man'' in the June 16, 1997 issue of The New Yorker, pp. 70-81.
From the remains it is estimated that KM was 5'9'' (175 cm) tall, which was rather tall compared to the prehistoric Amerindians of the Northwest. Also. The shape of the face is intermediate between northern Asian and American Indian (short, broad faces) and southern Pacific and European populations (tall and narrow). (Look in the mirror... ``I'm adopted!'') KM falls into an intermediate group more closely resembling the Clovis and Folsom people, the earliest large human populations known in the New World. The condition of those older remains has prevented DNA analysis, but it might be possible with KM. (But most probably, useful DNA data could not be recovered from the KM remains.) It's been suggested that KM is a descendant of the Clovis people -- a minority survival among a majority population of later immigrants from North Asia. Other possibilities are that he was just an unusually tall, narrow-faced guy, or that his boat got caught in a strong current and he's really from another continent. We won't learn anything further, at least from the KM remains, that might help decide these or any other scientific questions, because pursuant to the terms of NAGPRA, the US DOI determined in September 2001 to turn over the remains (about 350 bone fragments) to a consortium of Native American tribes that claims KM is ``culturally affiliated'' to them. The majority of those tribes wanted to rebury him.
Hey, this seems somewhat interesting. I wonder if it's discussed anywhere on the Internet. Whoa! Okay, here're some good starting points:
Yeah, I've placed this entry out of order for some reason. Also, I made it up out of whole Republican wool cloth.
Sebastian Spering Kresge opened a small five-and-dime store in downtown Detroit in 1899. Five-and-dimes were the dollar stores of that era. He had expanded to 85 stores by 1912. In 1959, Harry B. Cunningham became president of the S. S. Kresge Company. He pushed a plan that led to the launching of the first Kmart in 1962. The first Kmart store opened in Garden City, Michigan; seventeen more Kmart stores opened that year. (Kmart went bankrupt in, I think, 2001, and emerged from Chapter 11 in May 2003.) The Kmart competitors Woolco (now defunct, along with its parent Woolworth's), Target, and Wal-Mart were all also launched in 1962.
People who keep kangaroos as pets have been able to train them to not jump indoors. I figure anyone with a ceiling could do that.
Black is good: black here stands for fertile, Nile-washed soil, like the humus-laden black earth of the fertile triangle of Russia. (The ``fertile crescent'' refers to the Levant-Syria-Mesopotamia region.)
Afrocentric-hypothesis folks probably interpret `black land' to mean `land of people with deep, deep natural tans.' Whatever.
The word chemistry comes from the Greek word chemia. That doesn't seem to be an Indo-European word, and one popular hypothesis is that it simply refers to Egypt. If the etymological guesses are right, then it makes sense to interpret chemistry as `black arts.'
If you read the entry for nmi., the abbreviation of nautical mile, you'll understand why traveling at sixty knots will take you across an angular distance of one degree of the Earth's surface per hour. That's about one time zone every fifteen hours at the equator.
Cf. Dorothy Parker's comment at the SVO entry.
A Japanese given name ending in -ko (a diminutive suffix) is very probably female unless it ends in -hiko, in which case it is probably male. (As pronounced, the -hiko may sound to non-native ears like -hko or -shko.) That diminutive suffix ko is written with a kanji that basically means `child,' and which frequently means `small' or `slight' in compounds. (But it can also mean `child' in compounds: for example, mamako means `stepchild.' For more of that step- stuff, see mama-haha.) Another pronunciation (``reading'') of the same kanji is shi, which occurs in the word shoshika, explained at the rejârando-ka entry.
(An easily recognized use of -ko is in panko, meaning `breadcrumb[s].' Pan, meaning `bread,' is a centuries-old loan of the Portuguese pão. Oops, sorry: that -ko is the kanji meaning `powder.' Grumble, grumble.)
Biologists, particularly geneticists, use a lot of knock-out animals, but that's a different idea, with the violence occurring at the DNA level. The ``KO'' initialism is widely used in the literature, both as such and as part of other initialisms. For example, CTRKO is calcitonin receptor knock-out, DKO is double knock-out. See also TKO.
If you weren't going to use KOH pellets, then it was probably a complete waste of time for you to read not only the above caveat, but also this very sentence, especially now.
Philo of Alexandria, Polybius, and Flavius Josephus wrote in Koine, and the language of the Christian Testament, written in the first centuries of this era, is believed to resemble spoken Koine closely. The Septuagint (LXX), a second-century Alexandrian translation of the Hebrew Bible (based, according to tradition, on a consensus of seventy translators) is written in Koine, although it contains some Egyptian peculiarities. There are some scattered related thoughts at the GJohn entry.
Writers and editors, faced with the need to make even the most banal occurrence seem important, reached always for superlatives or piquant details and, if they couldn't find them in the assembled newsclips and reporters' files, simply inserted the word[Above is from p. 78, op. cit.]
KOMING. KOMINGwas a Life word which meant, in short, ``this fascinating fact will be forthcoming.''
Those who forthcomed it were the researchers. They became quite accustomed to being asked, at midnight, to fill in ``there are
KOMINGrivets in the bridge,'' or ``there are KOMINGtrees in Russia,'' or ``this was the KOMINGBingo game in history.'' Obviously on the latter the writer wanted to say ``biggest,'' but he needed a checker to prove it for him.
An advantage of editing notations like KOMING and 000 (q.v.) is that they are recognizable and yet extremely unlikely to be intended to appear in the text of an article.
Fact-checkers were also required to put pencil dots over each word checked, as a supposed check that they had actually checked. They had to use red pencil for names, dates, and titles, and green pencil for material that could be expended in sizing.
Various national laboratories use schemes reminiscent of Life's dots in order to maintain security: guards may be required to touch the identification (ID) badge of each individual entering at the gate. The idea is that this decreases the chances that a guard will inattentively let someone through who isn't authorized to enter a secure area.
And it's not even a theorem -- it's just an obvious lazy approximation that works okay because large errors approximately cancel. I'm disgusted.
An underappreciated aspect of blogging is that lightning commentary without benefit of editing gives rise to transparency. No time for second thoughts, no time to repair Freudian slips.
Kos also composes paino music. In 1996, he recorded a piece called ``Solipsistic Affirmations.'' Indeed. (Rereading this entry some time later, I think I had left the typo intentionally uncorrected.)
It gives you an idea of how important it is to minimize mechanical stresses when you consider that kovar is a pretty cruddy conductor (2.05 × 106 S/m, about 1/17 that of aluminum). Of course, package leads don't have to be thin.
A mouthpiece for the North Korean government's take on the news is Minjok Tongshin.
B. B. Kadomtsev and V. I. Petviashvili, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 192, 753 (1970) [Eng. trans. Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 539 (1970)].
It describes wave motion in a number of fluid and plasma systems: small-amplitude, fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves in a low-<beta> magnetized plasma.
This entry is under construction.
B. B. Kadomtsev and V. I. Petviashvili, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 192, 753 (1970) [Eng. trans. Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 539 (1970)].
KPII is not as interesting mathematically as KPI (+3 --> -3) because it has no two-dimensional soliton solutions, but it does occur more frequently in physical models. [Per A. Senatorski and E. Infeld, ``Simulations of Two-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Soliton Dynamics in Three-Dimensional Space,'' Physical Review Letters [PRL] 77, 2855-2858 (1996.09.30).]
Here's the South Korean page of an X.500 directory.
The Villanova University Law School provides some links to state government web sites for Kansas. USACityLink.com has a page with mostly city and town links for the state.
Ain't worth nuthin' if you ain't got the do-re-mi.
In the Multics system, memory objects were called segments [of memory space]. The KST listed those segments ``known'' to a particular process in the sense of being accessible to that process.
The only significance of the Multics system is that the name Unix is a pun on it.
If I think of something to add, maybe I'll break these out into separate entries. It's not a taggo or anything like that, see?
There ought to be a word game like magnetic poetry that allows you to mix and match acronym expansions to produce hippogriffs like Knights of Saint Vehicular, etc.
J. C. Trewin, recalling the touring repertories of 1920's England, has written
These companies, working on a small budget, kept to a familiar run of plays: among the tragedies, Macbeth, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and Julius Caesar; among the comedies, The Merchant of Venice, The Taming of the Shrew, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and less often, The Merry Wives of Windsor, though this had seldom been out of [touring-company director Frank] Benson's programme in the old days when, as the late Henry Caine said once, a week usually began with `The Merry Shrews of Venice.'(According to a footnote, Henry Caine, 1888-1962, made this remark to Trewin at St. Ives, Cornwall, in August 1959.)
[The above information is cribbed from Arthur Colby Sprague and J. C. Trewin: Shakespeare's Plays Today : Customs and Conventions of the Stage, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970), p. 12.]
When Quellenforschung finds her mark, the result can be deadly.
Note that these are not exactly equivalent. King's Knight and Queen's Knight only designate files (q.v.) on a chessboard. Knight can designate either of those two files, as well as one of the four pieces called a Knight.
An alternative, less traditional (as I understand it) abbreviation for Knight is N.
Every allowed move of a Knight moves it onto a square whose color is different from the one it's on. For equally fascinating thoughts, see the B (for Bishop) entry.
This is probably a sign of the imminent collapse of civilization, or at least the collapse of eminent civilization, but we may as well entertain an alternative interpretation: In the rush to establish a net presence, a number of journals that have previously published camera-ready papers have moved to an edited format, as this entails little work in excess of that needed to mark up articles as hypertext. A number of new copyeditors must have been hired who are unfamiliar with scientific typesetting or science. I suppose he might have protected himself by writing kBT.
Umberto Eco has written
I work for a publishing company. We deal with both lunatics and non-lunatics. After a while an editor can pick out the lunatics right away. If somebody brings up the Templars, he's almost always a lunatic.
Katholieke Universiteit in Dutch. Flanders example: Leuven; Netherlands: Nijmegen, Brabant).
Katholischen Universität in German. E.g.: Eichstätt.
Used to be very common with police radar, I think, but now they also use X-band equipment.
Basil Hall Chamberlain repeatedly complained to Lafcadio Hearn, whose work he published, about the unnecessary use of Japanese words in his stories about Japan. on June 5, 1893, Hearn wrote him<
DEAR CHAMBERLAIN, -- Thanks for strictures and suggestions. I changed the text as you desired, except in the case of the word Kuruma. That has been fully explained in preceding articles. (By the way, I never heard a Japanese use the word jinrikisha.)
The missing determiner (in this context one would usually the or your before ``strictures and suggestions'') is interesting. It's the sort of error a native Japanese-speaker would make in English (Hearns's native language).
Lafcadio Hearn, writing on June 19, 1893, to Prof. Basil Hall Chamberlain at Tokyo Imperial University, related the following story told by a young kurumaya.
[O]ne evening a military officer engaged him to take him to a house near the Hanaokayama. He took him there. The officer went into the house, -- a superb residence, --bidding him wait. He waited until 3 A.M. Then he suddenly saw that there was no house, and that his kuruma was gone. He got no money, and only found his kuruma two days later, -- in a gorge.
I've never encountered it, but it was also listed in an accompanying sample of ``popular shorthand texting terms.'' This is ``popular''? It's praise, how could it be popular? Oh, I get it: irony.
Good news about customer satisfaction! Reportedly, students only hate KnightVision to the degree that they are forced to use it.
The difference comes into play in alternating current. If we consider the simple case of ordinary single-phase current (and we had better, because that's all I understand), then voltages and currents are normally given in terms of their root mean square (rms) values. If the voltage is a sinusoidal signal oscillating between +170V and -170V, then the square root of the average of the sqared voltage is 120V (i.e., the rms voltage is down a factor of 0.7071 from the peak voltage value). If you put this voltage across a simple resistance, then the current is in phase with the voltage, and the factors work out so that the time-average rate of power dissipation is just the product of Irms and Vrms. This power can be labelled indifferently in watts (W) or volt-amperes (VA).
If the effective impedance of the load is complex (i.e., if the current through a power-consuming device is not in phase with the voltage), then the product Irms × Vrms does not represent the power consumption. Instead, while there is power dissipation in phase with the voltage, there is out of phase with it as power that is alternately stored in the device and returned by the device. For example, in an inductor, this is energy stored in the magnetic field generated by the current in the coil.
The circuit situation is represented by writing the current and voltage as phasors. Phasor is just an unnecessary extra word for a two-dimensional vector rotating at constant frequency; a complex number with time dependence exp(jwt). [Here j is the imaginary constant, what everyone who is not an electrical engineer writes i; t is time, and w is easier to get to appear on your screen than the angular frequency omega.] Okay, then: if there is some reactance (imaginary component of impedance), then the current and voltage phasors point in different directions. Let's call the phase difference, the angle, Ø (phi). [Okay, just between you and me, it's really a Swedish vowel, but it's close enough. Sheesh, gimme a break whydontcha.]
Say the complex voltage is
V(t) = Vpexp(jwt),with Vp real. Then the current is
I(t) = Ipexp(jwt+jØ),with Ip also real. Now consider the complex product
(I(t))*V(t) = Ip Vp exp(-jØ).The real part of this, apart from a factor of a half, is the real power used-by/dissipated-in the load. This is real power, and labeled by W or kW. The modulus of the vector sum of the real and imaginary parts is nevertheless useful, and it is labeled in VA or KVA. More concisely: IrmsVrms is labeled in KVA or VA, the real power IrmsVrmscos(Ø) is labeled in W or kW.
The imaginary power IrmsVrmssin(Ø) is still significant -- a motor with a non-unity power factor draws current in excess of what one would estimate based on power alone. In the extreme case of a purely reactive load, no power is used, but the power supply must still be capable of providing current, and the cables of carrying it. Hence, power engineers use KVA in sizing elements of the power distribution and supply systems, particularly transformers.
I've never seen an etymological dictionary of Yiddish, but in German this would be written quetsch. The German noun Quetsche means `plum,' and the verb quetschen means `squeeze.' Also, Quetsch is the name of a plum variety that is used in Alsace, primarily to make a fruit brandy (which is also called Quetsch).
I don't see what this-- oh!
Here's another German word: Quatsch. It started out as the onomatopeoic verb quatschen, `squish' (to make the sound that comes from pressing a moist or water-logged mass). In the nineteenth century, it came to mean `prate, talk nonsense,' and the noun Quatsch was coined to mean `nonsense, balderdash.' I'm not sure what relationship there is between the verbs quetschen and quatschen. It seems there might be some influence, at least.
Okay: quits originally meant `even' in a financial sense. To ``be quits'' was to be even, accounts-balanced, debt-free, square (in one sense)<[ meanings of square are very various; origin of `squared away' unclear to me at least]>. The German word, at least according to dictionaries I've consulted, retains both meanings, and like the English word is used only as a predicate adjective, and not attributively. The words come from the Latin quietus, meaning `quiet.'
A related legal term that is still understood (more in North America than Britain, at this point) is the noun quitclaim, which comes from the same Latin root (via the post-classical quieta-clamatio and various related medieval terms, either directly or via French). This also contains the notion of a written document, Like the Yiddish kvit and unlike the German quitt.
Read more. Read it at the kvitl entry. There: two, no three! sentences. A solid paragraph.
The base word kvit means `[written] receipt.' The final -l in kvitl is a diminutive suffix used in Yiddish and in Austrian dialects of German (and, I imagine, in other Upper German dialects). [It used to be productive in English, and in standard German it is used in verb formation. I don't know why the more common noun suffix in German is -lein. L-containing diminutive suffixes are common throughout the Indo-European language family. They seem to have entered via the Hittite word for `son,' just as the Japanese diminutive -ko is originally the word for `child.' I'll try to get an entry together some time.]
I imagine that most of the fluent Yiddish speakers today are members or former members of the a Hassidic community, for whom the following is or was important: One of the main characteristics distinguishing a rebbe from a mere rabbi is that a rebbe reads kvitlach (the plural `notes'). This kind of kvitl is prayer request -- a request for the rebbe to pray on someone's behalf.
The requests are conveyed through the rebbe's gabbai (`secretary'), who is usually the one who writes the kvitlach.kvitlbelieve -- that detailed and vague kitlach yield exactly equally satisfactory results. Hasidim also believe this, so they kinda agree with me. In every sect, anecdotes (hey -- the plural or at least the dual of datum) circulate about how the rebbe supernaturally `read between the lines' of a kvitl.
Of course, all this pious expertise doesn't come free. Underneath the kvitl when it is handed to the rebbe is a pidyon, `redemption,' more plainly described as ``cash.''
KW is sort of appropriate, for a country whose only significant resource is petroleum.
Most of this stuff has since been replaced by online search tools (see, for
example, concordance.com), but many
university libraries still have a few such dusty tomes in the reference section.
The 1960's and 70's were a sort of golden age for these volumes, typically
printed in nonproportional font, often in all-caps. Just thinking about it, I
can hear the line printer farting a burst of asterisk lines. For old times'
sake, let's take a stroll down acid-paper lane... Ah! A Concordance to the
plays and [mostly much longer, axe-grinding and stupid editorializing]
prefaces of Bernard Shaw in ten volumes, compiled by E. Dean Bevan
(Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1971). Bevan
had help, however. Singled out for special recognition was one keypunch
operator (if you don't know what this means, ask your oldest living ancestor),
``Pamela Toburen, who for nearly a year sat at the keyboard for three to four
hours a day, punching a staggering 2,378 pages of text with unparalleled
accuracy.'' Following are the Dumas entries from volume 3. (The lines in this
concordance are 131 columns long, from beginning to end of printable area; you
may have to widen your browser window.)
OVER PREFACE(161) DOWN TO THE LATEST GUILTY COUPLE OF THE SCHOOL OF DUMAS FILS, THE ROMANTIC ADULTERERS HAVE ALL BEEN
METH PREFACE(R84) WHICH MAKES HIS PLAYS, LIKE THE MODELS OF SCOTT, DUMAS , AND DICKENS, SO DELIGHTFUL. ALSO, HE DEVELOPED THAT
FABL PREFACE( 64) A DISEASE? SHAKESPEAR, WALTER SCOTT, ALEXANDRE DUMAS , MYSELF: ARE WE ALL MENTAL CASES? ARE WE SIMPLY
The stuff in the first seventeen character spaces cites the source.
OVER stood for his probably justly forgotten work ``Overruled,''
METH for ``Back to Methuselah'' (preface only; the individual
parts of his ``pentateuch'' are coded as MTH1 through MTH5; R84 stands for page
FABL for ``Farfetched Fables.''
(In this simple case, the lengths of preceding and following context are fixed.
In cases where these are allowed to vary, the context field might be rotated
in a wrap-around field, with the end of a long following context appearing at
the beginning of the line. I really don't want to think about this, or about
what happened when the preceding context was long.)
Entries were ordered first by keyword, next alphabetically by (word of) context
following keyword. Obviously, a number of editorial choices are necessary.
Certain frequently-occurring words did not get entries (ALL would have required
seven thousand lines). The available computing power and programming guts
dictated that the collation (``alphabetical'')
order used was that native to the Honeywell 635, to wit:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ? A B C D E F G H I . ( J K L M N O P Q R - ' ) ; S T U V W X Y Z , " !
There are no examples of KWIC's in Eugene Garfield's Citation Indexing--Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities (Wiley, 1979). I mention it only because I already transcribed the author and title and stuff, so why waste the work? You can read that book and get a feel for the ``advanced information resources'' of an earlier, quickly bygone era.
Ah! The book I had been looking for was the even thinner volume by T(revor) H(oward) Howard-Hill. (If I had two Howards in my name I'd use more initials too.) It's called Literary Concordances : A Complete Handbook for the Preparation of Manual and Computer Concordances (Pergamon Pr., 1979).
The double KWIC is a variation on KWIC indexing which identifies an important term within the context of each keyword and does a secondary alphabetization with respect to the subsidiary term. That is, entries for a common keyword are ordered alphabetized by secondary keyword rather than by context following the KW. I'm not sure a double-KWIC has ever been published for English work, but you could read more about them in Lucille H. Campey, Generating and Printing Indexes by Computer, ASLIB Occasional Publications, No. 11 (London: ASLIB, 1972).
If at first you don't succeed, then try, try, and try, again, until you convict.
Now that we've got that out of the way, I should mention that a KWOC is usually a KWIC with the keyword printed at the top left of an entry or sequence of entries. While that is the only necessary difference in principle, in practice the term KWOC implies a bit more. The redundant use of keywords as headwords betokens a willingness to sacrifice efficiency for the convenience of the user, ease-of-use, or user-friendliness (is that clear?). Hence, once can expect mixed case, more white space, and features that make the volume look more like a traditional (i.e. manual) concordance. (For a bit more on the latter, see the article by Joseph Raben, ``The death of the handmade concordance,'' in Scholarly Publishing, vol. 1, no. 1 (1969), pp. 61-9.) Features that become possible once a separate line is introduced for the keyword headword include cross-reference information (for alternate spellings and related words) and a count of the total number of occurrences (like the parenthesied 3 below). If the Shaw concordance exampled in the KWIC definition above had been done as a KWOC, it might have looked like
DUMAS (3) down to the latest guilty couple of the school of Dumas fils, the romantic adulterers have all been Over. Pref. 161 which makes his plays, like the models of Scott, Dumas , and Dickens, so delightful. Also, he developed that Meth. Pref. r84 a disease? Shakespear, Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas , myself: are we all mental cases? Are we simply Fabl. Pref. 64
A common feature of traditional concordances is a certain flexible inconsistency: rather than simply include or exclude keywords, omitting any entry at all for the more common keywords, traditional concordances have an intermediate strategy. While most keywords have detailed entries and a small number of very common words have no entry, the remaining words, of intermediate frequency, have a listing only of their locations. When a KWOC does this, of course, it is no longer a special case of a KWIC.
Using the present tense to write this entry felt kind of weird, justified mostly by the fact that KWOC's are still read in libraries, even if they are no longer published. KWIC's and KWOC's are like tables of logarithms -- providing the kind of information least appropriate to continue publishing in paper.
Okay, since you're all so interested that you've read through to the end of the entry, here's an actual example of a KWOC, rather than a reworked KWIC. It's from A Concordance to the Works of Sir Thomas Malory, edited by Tomomi Kato (University of Tokyo Press, 1974). This was the heroic tree-murdering sort of concordance, with 43.5 columns of concordance for the word a. According to the word-frequencies data at the back of this concordance, that word occurred 4953 times (2981 in the narrative, 1972 in dialogue or ``conversation''), and represented 1.4435% of the words in the text. A quick skim suggests that the three most common words are and (6.4655%), the (3.9922%), and that (2.4560%, the alternate form thatt occurs once, for a total of 2.4562%). I am not so ambitious; here's the entry for the word fyres:
FYRES THERE HE FYNDYS TWO FYRES FLAMAND FULL HYGHE 05 05 0200 19 B COWRE AND TO SYT BY FYRES), SO THYS SEASON 20 01 1161 06 A
The second line comes from book twenty, chapter one, page 1161 (you didn't think I was going to write that out, did you?) and line 6 (I'm unpredictable). The absence of a ``C'' in the second-to-last field means that this was narrative rather than ``conversation.'' It was transcribed by ``hand A'' according to Eugène Vinaver's edition.
On Sunday, February 10, 1946, a slow (non-express) passenger train, traveling from Hatfield to KX, approached the Potters Bar station north of London too quickly. It derailed at a switch, toppling sideways. The derailed train was then hit by a London-to-Edinburgh express, and that mess was in turn hit by a southbound Bradford-to-London express. It might've been worse; two soldiers were killed and seventeen other people were injured.
On Friday, May 10, 2002, a high-speed train (going from KX to King's Lynn, in Norfolk) derailed as it passed through Potters Bar. Travelling at about 100 MPH, the last car of the four-car electric train swung off the tracks, smashed into a bridge next to the station, and slid across two platforms, hitting waiting rooms at the station. It eventually came to a stop when it became wedged underneath the platform canopy. Seven people died, mostly among the thirty passengers in the derailed car, and over seventy were injured. (The forward cars, with 121 passengers, lost a set of wheels and came to stop a third of a mile past the station.)
Everyone was appalled. My gawd -- two accidents at the same station, in the space of a little over 56 years! That's it, from now on I'm driving.
Popular song suggests that Maxwell's equations don't have the same kinds of solutions in or on or over Kentucky as they do elsewhere. For example, there's Bill Monroe's ``Blue Moon of Kentucky'' (1947). The singer beseeches the ``[b]lue moon of Kentucky [to] keep on shining.'' Dang, blue moons rarely even start to shine in other states. Then in ``Kentucky Woman,'' Neil Diamond sang repeatedly that ``[s]he shines in her own kind of light.'' I hope to get to the bottom of this someday. Until then, if you visit Kentucky I recommend you take an extra set of batteries.
The Villanova University Law School provides some links to state government web sites for Kentucky. USACityLink.com has a page with mostly city and town links for the state.
I use the singular ``child'' above advisedly, by the way. The most recent data since the turn of the century show Japanese fertility around 1.3 or 1.4 -- way below replacement rate (usually estimated as 2.1 children per woman).
In the head term of this entry, mama is a foreign borrowing; in Japanese it is written in katakana. (Cf. mama-haha.) It would now be possible, at least, to borrow an equivalent term from English. I don't think the term is common, but see ``push parenting.''
I'v never seen the name of the international congress abbreviated ICMS. It's usually referred to as ``Kalamazoo'' and abbreviated K'zoo. Makes me think of tiny, tinny, one-note flutes.
The K1 and K2 slang terms were mentioned in a New York Times article in the Week In Review Section, in June 2000.
The SEA blithely uses ``K-20'' in a CFP (submission deadline Nov. 21, 2003) posted to the ASSESS mailing list (Nov. 25, 2003). Is it too late to stop the spread of this pernicious abbreviation beyond the southeastern US? The outlook is grim.
Earlier this year, I was in the Wendy's on Dixie Way towards closing and I overheard an argument. An employee was angry because a customer had grabbed her and the manager had seen it and done nothing. The manager was temporizing sophistically, and the employee was giving notice.
I saw her before she finally left and told her she was in the right. I pointed
out that, ``to be blunt, you're the cutest girl here'' and she jumped in to say
that this was the reason the others didn't understand. [Note to self: beautiful persons socially
disadvantaged-- challenged; need legislation; must found
research group, call the Carnegie,
MacArthur, People Like You] I asked why she didn't get a job as a
waitress in a restaurant with more enlightened management. She explained ``I'm
in adult school! I haven't even graduated from eighth grade!'' Later, she
showed me the mood-ring-luster bead on her pierced tongue. She's probably not
I hadn't realized that there were educational requirements, but come to think of it, the waitresses at Nick's Patio have all completed at least K-12. I guess the Amish must have a serious shortage of people qualified to wait table in their Greek restaurants. For a moment, you yourself probably wondered whether a complete HS education is needed for identifying, communicating, and delivering food items. It is needed -- for many reasons, not all obvious.
Traditionally, of course, completion of high school was a demonstration of determination and emotional maturity, and hence a token of desirable work habits. Today, as we know, it requires no determination or maturity at all, and may even suggest a reluctance to work. However, as the topics explored in school have become more diversity-sensitive, relevance-oriented, and quality-driven, it has been necessary to delay the introduction of certain difficult topics. [Long ago (1969), unenlightened teachers used those subjects to indoctrinate students in patriarchal Western ``culture.''] HS graduation now guarantees that the prospective waitperson has been exposed to spelling and arithmetic issues, viewed from a rich and diverse range of modern and traditional third-world perspectives. This is helpful when the cash register goes off-line.
(For the record, I've learned that Nick's does hire waiters and waitresses without HS diplomas.)
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