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Radio Frequency.


Red Figure. As in Attic vases, craters, and other ceramics. A few links at the BF entry.

République Française. `French Republic.' Designates a number of the government reorganizations France has had since the overthrow of Louis XVI. They're on a fifth republic now.

Research Foundation of SUNY.

Resident Fellow. University Faculty paid to live in a dorm full of students.

Rheumatoid Factor.

RF, rf
Right Field[er]. (Baseball term.)

Robert Fitzgerald. A translator of Homer into English.

Rtherfordium. Atomic number 104.

Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.

Radio Free Asia.

Room, Food, and Beverage. If you're a high roller in Las Vegas, the fellow with the power of the pencil may just ``comp'' [make complimentary] the RFB.

Recording for the Blind. Now called Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic.

Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic. Was called Recording for the Blind.

Registro Federal de Contribuyentes. Spanish meaning `federal contributors' registration.' A Mexican tax identification number. Cf. CIF/NIF.

Request for Comment[s]. Internet RFC's, curiously, are really the written definitions of the protocols and policies of the Internet. They have a curious unofficial-but-often-definitive status, described here (by FOLDOC), based in significant part on the evidenced authority of the self-appointed authors. In its voluntary nature and unremunerated quality, it's a kind of Bourbaki of the internet.

Entry points for these can be found at OSU.

River Forecast Center[s]. Future component of National Weather Service field structure.

Request for Discussion. [Part of formal procedure for establishing a new newsgroup.] Used to be called CFD (Call...), but renamed to avoid confusion with CFV (...Votes).

Resident Flash Disk. Not really a disk, but a mass Flash-PROM memory intended for applications that would normally reside on a disk.

Rural Free Delivery. (Free means that addressee does not pay a fee for delivery. Once upon a time, it could be cheaper to send than to receive.) Instituted in the US in 1896. I forgot to celebrate.

Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. And these other pills turn the wings back into arms. It's important to prepare, because it's very hard to open the pill bottle at that point.

Radio Free Europe. Broadcast to the Soviet-occupied countries of Eastern Europe, particularly Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. Its sister station Radio Liberty (RL), established in 1951, broadcast to the Soviet Union.

RFE was established in 1949, and reined in in 1956 after it was perceived (apparently largely incorrectly, it later turned out) that RFE broadcasts had misled Hungarians into believing that a rebellion would trigger Western intervention.

In 1973 the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) was created to oversee the RFE and RL, and in 1975 those were merged to become RFE/RL. Related programs are Radio Martí (est. 1983, operational 1985), TV Martí (operational in 1990), Radio Free Asia, broadcasts to various parts of Africa and Asia.

A recent history of the stations was published by Arch Puddington: Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War Triumph of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty (U.P. of Kentucky, 2000), 382 pp.

Resources for Economists on the Internet.

Revue Française d'Études Américaines. Published since its founding in 1976 by AFEA.

Real Federación Española de Fútbol. `Royal Spanish Football Federation.' Individual Spanish teams are consistently strong in European club competition, but when the talent is combined in a national squad for World Cup competition, it is not successful. Real Madrid won the Champions league in 2000 and in 2002, in the latter case beating Barcelona in the semifinal. Out of the 10 World Cups that Spain played in before 2002, its best finish was in 1950, when it took fourth place in Brazil.

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. See substantive entry at RFE (Radio Free Europe).

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

ReFormulated Gasoline.

Radio France Internationale.

Radio Free Iraq. A service of RFE/RL.

Radio-Frequency Interference.

Request For Information.


Rivista di Filologa. Why the cee? I don't know. You think I make these up myself? Think again. Maybe its real or previous name is Rivista di Filologa Classica.

Italian classics journal catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Radio Frequency (RF) IDentification (ID). Pronounced ``ARE fid.'' Micron would like to explain the finer points, and how it differs from RIC, right at this site.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.

Request For Offers. Term for a formal element in some US government acquisitions procedures.

Request For {Proposals | Papers}.

Request For Qualifications. That is, a call for prospective contractors or consultants to submit letters of interest and indications of qualification.

Run For Your Life.

Radio Galaxy. Various specific types have their own acronyms:

Radio Grade. Very old designation applied to cable. ``RG-58'' is thinnet coax cable (``cheapernet'').

ReiGn[ed]. E.g., ``Ahab of Israel (rg. 874-853 BCE).''

I enter this definition with a pang of regret, because its wider use or even familiarity would reduce the frequency of some of my favorite homonym errors (``Isabella, who rained in Spain,'' ``Henry VIII, who reined in the Church as well,'' etc.). You'd like 'em too. Tell you what: keep this abbreviation under your hat, and under no circumstances, whatever you do, should you dare reveal the existence of this glossary to any esteemed member of our entertaining fourth estate. It'll be our secret -- just between you and me and a couple of thousand other visitors per day.

De Imperatoribus Romanis is ``An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.'' There's a biographical essay and bibliography for every emperor. You probably also want to see the website on The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ``A digital resource created and produced by Salvador Miranda, consisting of the biographies of the 20th century cardinals and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution.''

Renormalization Group. A gang of physics toughs who enforce the cosmic censorship hypothesis.

[Football icon]

Right (R) Guard (G). Most often used to indicate the football position, rather than the underarm deodorant product.

[Phone icon]

Ring[ing] Generator. By either name, it causes an instrument at your call destination to ring. (In the US) produces 100 V ac at 20 Hz, superimposed on -48 V dc at the telephone of the called party. This is completely different from the audible ringing (ringback) generated by the common control to indicate to the calling party that the destination may receive a call. What? You thought you were hearing the ringing on the other end? What if they have a dozen extensions? You hear bells even if they disconnected their phone, so hang up already, they've moved. Cf. telephone ringing.

Republican Governors' Association. Chaired, as of mid-year 1996, by Michigander John Engler. Chaired, as of late 2003, by Ohioan Bob Taft. At this rate, I won't use up state gentilicial nouns until the twenty-fourth century. According to this otherwise tolerably literate press item, released on the 40th anniversary of JFK's assassination, ``Taft replaces Colorado Governor Bill Owens, who's tenure was marked by the RGA's three gubernatorial wins in four 2003 races.''

Cf. DGA.

Residual Gas Analy{zer | sis}.

Red Green Blue. Infinet offers an index of the RGB codes of various colors.

Rarefied Gas Dynamics.

Real GDP. inflation-adjusted GDP.

Reihe Germanistische Linguistik. `Series in Germanic Linguistics,' published by Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen.

Royal Greenwich Observatory. The Royal Observatory at Greenwich when it wasn't at Greenwich. See GRO.

Reflection Grating Spectrometer.

75-ohm coax cable. Used for cable TV (CATV) and some PC LAN's.

93-ohm coax cable.

Relative Humidity.

Arizona State University (ASU) has its main campus in Tempe. The microelectronics clean room there, like those elsewhere, uses dehumidifiers. Unlike most, however, it also has humidifiers.

``It's not the heat, it's the humidity.''
is true. I was in Tempe in 1990 during the 122°F (50°C) day [I think it was July 25; highs the whole week were near 120]. A warm breeze blew, so it was 122 in the shade as well. You could spill beer on the sidewalk and inhale your alcohol faster than drinking. You could literally fry eggs on the sidewalk, to say nothing of car sheet metal, but that doesn't really require such high temperatures. So long as you stayed hydrated, you were safe and even pretty comfortable outside; I shivered whenever I entered an air-conditioned building.

Resistance Heating. Joule Heating.

Ressources Humaines.

RHesus. As in Rh blood factor.

Rhodium chemical symbol. The symbol originally used was Ro, which would have worked out better, since now there is another element whose name begins with the letters rh (rhenium, with the chemical symbol Re), but there is currently no other element whose name beginning in R that has an o in its root (see, however, Rn).

Rhodium has an atomic number of 45 and is named after Rhoda, a television show starring Valerie Harper that was spun off of the Mary Tyler Moore. Okay, let me check that now... Well, this is true: the names Rhoda and Rhodium are both derived from rhódon, the Greek word for `rose.' (It occurs in Homer's famous repeated phrase Englished as ``rosy-fingered dawn.'') Close enough. William Wollaston discovered the metal in 1804. As he explained in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. 94, p. 419, ``I design in the present Memoir to prove the existence ... of another metal, hitherto unknown, which may not improperly be distinguished by the name of Rhodium, from the rose-colour of a dilute solution of the salts containing it.'' The metal itself is ``white'' (as that word is applied to metals). It is one of the platinum-group metals.

Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.

r.h., RH
Right-Hand[ed]. See also RHCP, RHD, RHDP, RHS, RHT, and lvalue. (Oh, alright, go to rvalue first, if you want to plod.)

Residence Hall Association.

Robotics and Human Augmentation. An NSF program.

Right-Handed Batter. RHB's generally bat better against RHP's than against LHP's. That's why left-handers are over-represented in the ranks of pitchers.

[Phone icon]

Regional Holding Company. ``Baby Bell.'' After the divestiture of AT&T in 1982, seven RHC's were formed to continue the local phone services previously provided by AT&T.

Rural Health Care Corporation. Floruit 1998, but here's its old URL, possibly otherwise occupied.

Red Hot Chili Peppers. A rock band that as of 2004 is still probably at least as widely recognized as optical rotation.

Right-Hand Circular Polarization.

Random House Dictionary.

Right-Hand Drive. Refers to steering-wheel placement; RHD is used on most vehicles intended to be driven on the left side of the road. (Postal delivery vehicles are an important, though not uniform, exception.)

RHD isn't very common, except in England and Japan; India (and Pakistan and Bangladesh), Australia, and a bunch of countries in between; and a swath of African countries -- mostly former British colonies -- stretching from Namibia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, along the east up to Kenya and Uganda. All told, RHD countries represent a mere one third of the world's population. For a detailed survey and some history, see the Wikipedia page for Rules of the road and links therefrom, particularly Brian Lucas's more detailed page. Jan Pielkenrood's shorter page on the subject has one of the better world maps of driving side, and includes some personal observations on the subject. This page isn't listed at the Wikipedia entry; it represents some compromise between brevity and comprehensiveness. Cf. Left-Hand Drive.

In Vladivostok, at the extreme southeast corner of Russia, most cars are RHD Japanese models, but vehicles are driven on the right-hand side of the street as in the rest of Russia. In late Spring 2005, the democratically-elected dictatorship in Moscow was rumored to be considering plans to discourage RHD vehicles.

Japan has rather stringent requirements for the maintenance of motor vehicles. Even cosmetic damage (i.e., significant body damage that does not affect vehicle operation) is required to be repaired. For this reason among others (such as the relative affluence of modern Japan), there is a large supply of second-hand RHD vehicles in good condition. In LHD countries, they are sold at a discount relative to equivalent LHD vehicles. This accounts for their abundance in eastern Russia, and for import restrictions or homologization requirements in LHD Asian countries. However, Cambodia (hey, we don't have to call it Kampuchea any more?) switched from RHD to LHD specifically to stem smuggling from neighboring RHD Thailand.

[column] Greek archaeologist Polyxeni Tsatsopoulou, interviewed by the AP in July 2005 regarding excavations of the Via Egnatia, explained that the Romans used left-handed driving and right-handed reining:

She said drivers held the reins with their right hand and wielded their whip with the left, so the Romans made drivers stay on the left to avoid the lash of oncoming riders and keep road-rage incidents to a minimum.

That was probably not the entire story, however. Back when everyone was either right-handed or ambidextrous, side-arms (uh, swords) were worn on the right side. Also, right-handedness implies right-footedness, and right-footed people find it easier to mount a horse from the left.

Whipping with the right hand has been common, at least. (The evidence from Roman antiquity below is adapted from a discussion on the Classics List in June 1999, before it descended into the political muck. Important contributors included James M. Pfundstein, Arthur J. Pomeroy, Wade Richardson, and Diana Wright.)

Visual evidence for chariot-race chirality is collected in Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines, edd. Daremberg & Saglio (Paris, 1887), under the entry for circus. This includes coins displaying the races and mosaics from Barcelona and Lyon. An on-line mosaic (with really naive perspective) illustrating a chariot race is served by Tunisia On-Line. All the races are run counterclockwise (i.e., driving on the right). The whip is generally in the right hand, with the reins in the left hand or tied to the left arm.

Literary sources cited in Daremberg & Saglio include Lucan 8.199ff:

Non sic moderator equorum,
dexteriore rota laeuum cum circumit axem,
cogit inoffensae currus accedere metae.
(Loosely, the middle line says that the right wheel turns around the left at the turning point.)

Daremberg & Saglio also cites Silius Italicus 16.360:

laevo interior stringebat tramite metam
(Loosely, and explicated: `he gazed at the turning point from close in on a left-leaning path.')

Book V of Virgil's Aeneid contains a naval race run counterclockwise. Later evidence includes the gripping chariot race (counterclockwise again) in Ben Hur (1959). Seventeen minutes of footage! Or hoofage or whatever. According to IMDB's trivia for this movie: ``The chariot race has a 263-to-1 cutting ratio (263 feet of film for every one foot kept), probably the highest for any 65mm sequence ever filmed.)''

Because of a forceps accident attending his difficult birth (kein Kaiserschnitt), the last Kaiser had almost no use of his left arm, and always rode rather docile horses. In a picture that illustrates Anne Topham's Memories of the Kaiser's Court, 1914 (or at least the reissue A Distant Thunder, 1992), the Kaiser and Kaiserin pose for a picture on horseback, and the Kaiser's mount has his head down because the Kaiser can't pull on the reins (so the accompanying text).

Right-Hand Decimal Point. Refers to digit displays. (See, for example, 7-Segment displays.)

Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction. This refers to High-Energy Electron Diffraction performed at grazing incidence of electrons on a surface. For a rough surface, a diffraction pattern appears. As used in semiconductor fabrication, however, it is used to detect surface roughness of layers being grown in very-high vacuum (MBE, MOMBE) systems. An electron beam is reflected at grazing incidence from the surface, and the reflected beam is imaged on a phosphor screen (like a TV screen). Only the intensity of the central peak (specular reflection--no diffraction) is used. Intensities typically vary by an order of magnitude. Intensity maxima correspond to a smooth surface, indicating complete monolayer growth, while minima correspond to maximum roughness, indicating approximately 0.5 monolayer coverage. While samples are normally rotated to improve uniformity, the RHEED signal is too jittery to measure when the sample rotates, so this is not done during RHEED measurement. RHEED oscillation monitoring allows monolayer-accuracy growth in MBE.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Red Hat favors stability over trendiness. This is evidently a feature attractive to enterprises that want to limit risk. This is no merely theoretical feature. Most RHEL users were spared panic and heartbreak when the OpenSSL Heartbleed vulnerability became known in April 2014, because RHEL versions up to and including 6.4 shipped with an earlier version of OpenSSL that was not affected. (Apparently 6.5, which had shipped in November 2013, was affected.)

Relativistic Hartree-Fock (method). The need for such a theory is indicated by the fact that in the nonrelativistic theory, a single electron in the ground state of a Z-proton atom has an rms velocity Zalphac. This result is an exact consequence of the virial theorem and the formula for a rydberg (Ry) or a hartree (H).

Restricted Hartree-Fock (method). `Restricted' relative to `Unrestricted' Hartree-Fock (UHF) method. The so-called UHF uses orbitals that are sz eigenstates to make the z component of total spin, Sz, a good quantum number. The RHF makes the further restriction that the orbitals have good z component of (orbital) angular momentum, m or lz, so the many-particle wave function is an eigenstate of total z-component Lz.

Vide symmetry dilemma.

Research in Healthcare Financial Management. Vide isRHFM.

Regional Home Health Intermediary. A private subcontractor hired by Medicare to do Medicare's job.

Registered Health Information Administrator. RHIA's are accredited by AHIMA (as of this writing, anyway). RHIA is the new improved name (since 2000) for RRA (which AHIMA used to accredit when it was called AMRA).

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Pronounced ``Rick.'' It's been in operation at Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton, LI, since 2000. Until 2008, when I got around to updating this entry, it still listed RHIC as ``under construction,' so that gives you an idea of how up-to-date some of these entries are.

Registered Health Information Technician. Why undergo an expensive medical procedure when an IT specialist can just go into your definitions file and simply adjust your settings? Oops, there was a bug; hope you saved a boot disk.

RHIT's are accredited by AHIMA (as of this writing, anyway). RHIT is the new improved name (since 2000) for ART (which AHIMA used to accredit when it was called AMRA).


Rheinisches Museum für Philologie. Normally translated `Rhenish Museum for Philology.' A German journal catalogued by TOCS-IN.

This journal was started as Rheinisches Museum by the classics professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. Friedrich Nietzsche was the only one of Ritschl's students ever to publish in it.

F.W. Ritschl was director of the Museum of Antiquities of the Rhine during his time as a professor at the University of Bonn, which is indeed on the Rhine. Ritschl had ongoing acrimonious quarrels with his colleague Otto Jahn, and in 1865 he accepted an appointment at Leipzig, but continued as editor of RhM.

Nietzsche entered the University of Bonn in 1864, and the quarrel between Jahn and Ritschl spoiled his first year in classics, so he focused his attention on music. In 1865 he followed Ritschl to Leipzig.

Research in High Magnetic Fields (conference).

Right-Handed Pitcher. The kind that stands on the mound. Pitchers that stand on the table usually have bilateral symmetry. Has there ever been a (regular-starting) switch-handed pitcher in the major leagues?

Resting Heart Rate. ``Light-to-moderate'' physical activity raises the heart rate to roughly 1.5 times the RHR; ``moderate-to-vigorous'' same to 1.75 × RHR, and ``vigorous'' activity to 2 × RHR.

RHS, r.h.s., rhs
Right-Hand Side. For an elucidation of this subtle expression, cf. l.h.s..

``Benjamin,'' the name Jacob gave to the first of his two sons by his second wife Rachel, is ben-yad-hamim: `son of the right hand.' There's an exposition of handedness in dice available on the web.

Rural Health Support, Education and Training. A program of the Australian Government's Department of Health and Ageing.

Right-Hand Traffic. There are rules of the road, and there's the rule of the road. The rule of rules is which side to drive on, and RHT refers to driving on the right. Children in the US learn to ``keep to the right'' in elementary school, and generally internalize it. (Except possibly in isolated small towns, where the rubes just like to bump into you even though you could have six feet of sidewalk between you. Um, and also perhaps big cities, where it's just too crowded to follow any rule except picking your way wherever you see an opening and Hey! Where's my wallet?!) One notices the pedestrian manifestation of RHT most clearly in near-forange or pseudo-forange. (Don't just sit there wondering what forange means. Follow the link!

In RHT countries, most vehicles have steering wheels and most other driving instruments on the left side. These vehicles are called left-hand drive, or LHD, vehicles. LHD vehicles encourage drivers to sit on the left or practice extreme yoga.

RHT is more common on continents; you're more likely to encounter LHT on islands and subcontinents. Given the relative sizes, you can see that RHT is more common, though not by as much as you might guess. Nevertheless, because LHT is less common overall, it is traditional to indicate which are the LHT and which the RHT countries by giving an exhaustive list of the LHT countries only. We followed that convention, and then we went on ahead and added all the interesting stuff to that entry, leaving just a couple of lame jokes here. YOU'RE READING ON THE WRONG SIDE OF THE GLOSSARY, YOU DUMMY!!

Rural Health Training Unit.

Radioisotope Heater Unit[s]. These are small plutonium dioxide cells used to provide extra heating in space. Spacecraft in the general vicinity of earth, or at about one astronomical unit from the sun, can easily keep a temperature convenient for instrument operation and tolerable for life support by relying only on solar heating balanced by radiative cooling. (A spherical gray body in orbit at 1 a.u. from the sun, with a uniform surface temperature, will equilibrate at a temperature of about 0°C. In principle, for a small satellite or a surface with high heat conductivity, the temperature of the satellite's surface will be approximately uniform. In practice, satellites are given a slow rotation so the sunward side doesn't overheat.)

Royal Holloway, University of London. As this brief college profile indicates, RHUL is the legacy of two erstwhile women's colleges. One Bedford College, was founded in 1849 by the social activist Elizabeth Jesser Reid. The second was founded by Thomas Holloway, who made millions selling patent medicines, uh, in the days before scientific pharmacology -- let's leave it at that. Holloway modestly ``initiated public debate'' on what to do with ``a quarter million or more'' quid of his millions. It's always hard to find someone to volunteer an opinion on what to do with someone else's money, but on this occasion an evidently far-reaching discussion ensued, and led to a suggestion from one obscure Mrs. Thomas Holloway (Jane) that some of the money be spent on an architecturally extravagant college for women. Royal Holloway College was opened by Queen Victoria in 1886.

In 1900, both Bedford and Royal Holloway became part of the University of London. In 1965 both admitted male undergraduates for the first time. In 1982 the two schools signed a partnership agreement under the pressure of budget cuts. The university's history page doesn't happen to mention the rabid hatred of Lady Thatcher that is fairly universal in British academia, even today. In 1985 the schools merged, and in 1986 Bedford moved out of its old digs and became half of ``Royal Holloway and Bedford New College.'' By decision of its College Council in 1992, that continues to be the registered title, but ``Royal Holloway, University of London'' is the shorter name under which it is ``presents itself.'' For a number of years its domain name was <rhbnc.ac.uk>, but as of 2000 http://www.rhbnc.ac.uk/ is forwarded to <http://www.rhul.ac.uk/>, and sometime in 2001 email addresses will switch over. This is a matter of some regret and even resentment among old-time faculty.


Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter. A German-language history journal that might have been named `Rhine Quarterly.' See Stuart Jenks's page of Tables of Contents of Historical Journals and Monographic Series in German for a partial table of contents (deutsche Seite: Zeitschriftenfreihandmagazin Inhaltsverzeichnisse geschichtswissenschaftlicher Zeitschriften in deutscher Sprache).

Regarding the name: ein Blatt is a sheet of paper -- i.e., a leaf, both sides. The plural Blätter can mean `newspaper.' Vierteljahrs is the genitive of quarter-year (Vierteljahr); the adjective vierteljahrlich is equivalent. The different spelling rules of German and (such as they are) of English obscure the close cognate relationship of words in the two languages. The relationship is clearer from a comparison of pronunciations or from a comparison of the spellings in a common system like IPA. For example, German jahr is English year. In IPA, these are spelled /jar/ and /ji:r/. The initial and final consonants are the same (in one or another accent, since arr's vary a lot) and only the vowels differ essentially (the colon after the i indicates that its duration is extended). We'll eventually explain more about the pronunciation of the letter jay in an appropriate jay entry. For now just understand that J is the consonantal form of I.

About the abbreviation: German systematically capitalizes nouns, common and proper. (A substantial exception concerns compound nouns and a characteristically German curiosity called extended adjective constructions, which are written wihout spaces and with interior nouns not capitalized. Thus, the compound noun quarter-year sheet is Vierteljahrblatt.) German conventionally uses lower case for adjectives, even when those are derived from proper nouns. Hence, if it were not a formal title one would describe a few Rhennish quarterly pages as rheinische Vierteljahrblätter. (Because you need to know, I'll also mention that in personal correspondence, second-person pronouns are also capitalized. Also, capitalization of foreign-language phrases obeys different rules, if any.) Although German practice regarding capitalization in acronyms is not so standardized, there is a tendency to mix case, capitalizing letters representing nouns. GmbH is a good example of this. Because only the first noun of an agglutinated compound noun is capitalized, acronyms formed from these follow a less systematic pattern. The acronym of this entry -- RhVjBll -- represents a typically loose application of the rule. The B of the noun Blatt is capitalized, but the j of Jahr (`year') is not. The double-ell represents the fact that theBlatt is in the plural form Blätter.

The book A Small Book of Grave Humor (1971) catalogues entertaining tombstone inscriptions. Here's one from a cemetery in Dunoon, Scotland:

Here lie the remains of
The most amiable of
And excellent of men

His real name was Woodcock
But it Wouldnt come in Rhyme

Most of our rhyme stuff is at the fünf entry. Probably the most prominent alternate spelling of rhyme is rime, in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's famous poem, ``The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.'' You wonder that he didn't use the antient spelling.

It's an ancient word, rhyme. Rime and ryme were the common spellings through the sixteenth century. (The difference in spelling, -i- vs. -y-, once corresponded to a difference in pronunciation, but the two vowels were close and tended to be confused. I think rime is supposed to have been truer to the pronunciation, but came the Great Vowel Shift and, well, you know the story.) The appearance of forms with aitch (rhyme and rhime) during the sixteenth century reflected an awareness of the etymology. Latin rhythmus is the common source of this word and rhythm, and the restraint shown (of using only one aitch, in one or the other place) seems to have arisen as a conscious effort at clarity of meaning. Rhime and rhyme were the common spellings from the seventeenth century on, the latter not prevailing until the nineteenth. Coleridge's spelling is a conscious affectation.

Refractive Index. Square root of the relative dielectric constant.

Regesta Imperii. An inventory of more-or-less Germanic Holy Roman Emperors from the Caroligians to Maximilian I. A major historical resource now on-line and searchable. The medievalists roar approval.

Républicain Indépendant.

Républicain indépendant is not an especially distinctive designation. For example, in August 1990, in a largely meaningless development, Zaïre's Parti républicain indépendant (PRI, headed by former minister Nguz a Karl-i-Bond) and la Fédération nationale des démocrates convaincus united under the banner of l'Union PRI-FENADEC. At the same time another former minister of ``maréchal Mobutu,'' Mungul Diaka, announced the formation of a new party to be called Rassemblement démocratique pour la République (RDR). This helped keep the number of political groupings in Zaïre above 60. Politics now abhors a democracy deficit; with a loud whoosh!, democratic structures and trappings rush in to ... well, it's not clear what they do, but they don't fill the vacuum.

Fresh out of l'École nationale d'administration in 1951, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was first elected to the French parliament as an independent. In 1966, as finance minister under Charles de Gaulle, he founded a center-right party of républicains et indépendants that worked in coalition with the Gaullists. The party supported Giscard's (successful) presidential bid in 1974, and changed its name to Parti Républicain. There may have been a couple of other names in there, and I've seen Giscard referred to as a républicain indépendant, though that may not be official. In 1978 his party formed part of his UDF coalition. Since 1997 the party has been headed by Alain Madelin, who has moved the party in the direction of economic liberalization and changed the name to Démocratie Liberale (DL).

In French reportage of US politics, US Senator John McCain is liable to be described as un républicain indépendant (though much more often as a républicain centriste). In English, he is called, depending on how favorably the reporter judges him, a ``maverick'' or ``independent-minded'' member of the Republican party, a Rino, ``not a team player,'' or simply traitor.

Research I. Pronounced ``research one.'' The top level in the Carnegie Foundation categorization of institutions of much and not much higher education.

... Research Institute. Productive acronym suffix.

Rhode Island. USPS abbreviation. Observe that Rhodes was an island (hey look: according to the web, it still is!), but Rhode Island is not.

[column] The Colossus of Rhodes was one of the ``Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.'' It fell down (in an earthquake), and after a few hundred years it was sold for scrap. No one remembers where it stood, but they've put up a couple of bronze deer statues where they think it was. You think that's sad? Another Wonder, the structure after which mausoleums take their name (the Mausoleum of Halicarnasus: a memorial to King Mausolus), was cannibalized for stones to build a fortress for the Knights of Saint John during one of the crusades (1402). Okay, maybe sold-for-scrap is still worse than that, but at least it's got competition for the basement.

The Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy serves a page of Rhode Island state government links. USACityLink.com has a page with some city and town links for the state.


Research Institute of America. Their publications used to bear the motto ``Your Research Partner.'' That's a bit more inclusive than necessary. They are your research partner for US Federal, State and local tax law.

Research Institute on Addictions. Affiliated with the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) and with the University at Buffalo (UB). They don't give away free samples, as far as I know.

Record Industry Association of America. They weekly certify albums, singles, and videos as having gone gold (over 500,000 units), platinum (over 1,000,000), multi-platinum (over 2,000,000). There was a devaluation, I don't remember when; it used to take a million units to go gold. You can check out each week's cert's (or more, if you join) at Billboard.

RIAA is affiliated with IFPI.

German, Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor. `American Sector Broadcast (station).' In Berlin (see BE).

Rigid-bottom Inflatable Boat. RIB's are more durable and more expensive than canvas-bottom inflatables, and less durable and less expensive than fiberglass and aluminum boats. The price ratio between RIB's and noninflatables is not as great as the lifetime difference, but RIB's may make up for it in speed and maneuverability, since the inflatables are lighter.

SAFE boats are often loosely or mistakenly called RIB's.

Recombinant ImmunoBlot Assay.

Reactive-Ion-Beam Etching.

Remote Intelligent Communications. Micron would like to explain the finer points, and how it differes from RFID, right at this site.

Rural Information Center. A service of the USDA.


Rethymnon International Conference on the Ancient Novel. Sponsored by the University of Crete Department of Philology (Division of Classics). RICAN 4 was held in May 2007.

Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. To prevent inflammation from further complicating physical trauma (usually to a limb). Elevation means elevation of the limb about the level of the heart. If you hurt your foot, this probably means you should lie down.

Sometimes mistakenly expanded Rest & ICE. Apply ice indirectly: use a bag of frozen veggies if you don't have an ice pack that you keep in the freezer, and put some cloth between that and the skin -- you're not trying to freeze anything. If it's very uncomfortably cold, then it's too cold. Twenty minutes or a half hour is the usual recommendation.

After a couple of days, apply heat. That's what everyone says, so it must be true.

There's something else you should know, and normally I'd put the information in a different entry and force you follow a link. But seeing as how you're immobilized and need to rest, I'll make an exception and tell you right here. There are basically two OTC (that's over-the-counter) analgesics (that's pain-killers) for non-mild pain: tylenol and ibuprofen (that's right, I didn't mention aspirin). They're sold under an aisle-full of different brand names. Ibuprofen is better for muscle and tendon pain, and for inflammation.

Regis Iussu Cantio Et Reliqua Canonica Arte Resoluta. Latin, `At the King's Command, the Song and the Remainder Resolved with Canonic Art.' (This puns on ricercar.) Inscribed on a page preceding the first sheet of music sent by J. S. Bach to King Frederick the Great as a ``Musical Offering'' [musikalisches Opfer] after his visit to the king's court in 1747 (where Bach had improvised on a theme proposed by the king and developed in the Opfer). More on King Frederick the Great at the ABPT entry.

ricercar, ricercare
Term used (16c.-18c.) for various musical forms, usually fugues. Various plural forms of the word were used in English: ricercare, ricercares, ricercari, ricercars.

Italian, `to seek.' Cognate with the English words research and recherché. Don't tell me recherché is not a common English word -- it's so common even the French have borrowed it.

Richards, I.A.
See I.A. Richards.

Richard Simmons
Remember Charo!? No? God, I really am old. Go read a different definition. If any other fortyish geezers like me are still reading, you remember that Charo! was a regular guest on the Tonight Show with Johnny Carson. I'm not sure what her talent was supposed to be, but it had something to do with shaking her body [Ftnt. 27]. And she was a favored guest: always got to sit and chat with the host. She's still shaking it, at a restaurant in Hawaii (HI) that she owns with her husband. [Also, she was promoting a video with the claim (I read in late 1996) that she was one of the literal movers and shakers responsible for bringing the Macarena to the US from Spain. She wants credit for this!]

Richard Simmons is to David Letterman what Charo! was to Johnny Carson: a bundle of enthusiasm and energy, intimidating no one while demonstrating unashamed gracelessness, who barely conceals enjoyment at not being taken seriously. A consumate amateur. What does it say about the decadent state of the universe, that we have come from Charo! to Richard? It's not encouraging.

This is probably the place where I should say something about William Hung, but words fail me.

One fellow who worked as a publicist for Simmons went on to work as a G.O. at Club Med, according to a story she got published in the UCB alumni magazine. Now she wants to write for a living. Times are tough.

In Spanish, the adjective charro means coarse (or of low value in other ways), and in some countries charro is used as a noun for `cowboy.' I think Elvis Presley played a Mexican cowboy in a movie called Charro. Another common word for cowboy, in Argentina at least, is gaucho. Guacho, on the other hand, means `bastard.' I detect a recurring theme.

One of the purposes of this glossary is to make important connections among things that are completely unrelated to each other. I don't want to imply that these connections are often tenuous or specious (although this is true). Let's just say you might not have thought of them -- which, of course, is the reason we point them out to you. Anyway, cf. UCSB.

If ever there was a word that deserved to be plural, riches is it.

The word riches is understood and construed as plural, as if it were the regularly constructed plural of a noun rich. Now it is true that rich can be used as a sort of noun in phrases like ``the rich.'' (Observe, however, that like any adjective it is modified by adverbs. E.g., ``the newly-rich.'') In any case, if riches in the ordinary sense were simply the plural of the sort-of-noun in ``the rich,'' it would designate the same group, rather than what it is they have that makes them so. In fact, the word now usually spelled riches was originally a singular noun spelled richesse. It was a French loan, and the -esse was simply a suffix that converts adjectives to abstract nouns (-esse and -ece in Old French). (More about that below.) English doesn't have many words that use that suffix (caress, distress and later stress, duress, largess, and prowess seem to be the only common survivors). This, and the presence of the pre-existing English word rich, apparently explain how richesse was interpreted as a specialized use of a plural (of rich). (This is not a metanalysis, but similar confusions are described at the matanalysis. It's also not a pea, so check there too in particular.)

This -esse suffix represents the Latin suffix -itia. The corresponding reflex in Italian is -ezza (the adjective ricco yields ricchezza). Spanish and Portuguese use -eza (hence riqueza from rico in both). [The OED claims (s.v. -ess, suffix2) that Portuguese also uses -ezza. That might be, but I can't find any instances. The double z looks like something that might have been eliminated in the major reform first promulgated in 1911, but a couple of mid-nineteenth-century dictionaries I checked also had riqueza and similar forms. However, Portuguese spelling wobbled a lot back then, so it's hard to be definite.]

There's a rich galaxy of words associated with rich. In broad terms, they are all believed to originate from Latin rex and or Celtic rix, meaning `king.' That was borrowed into Germanic at a very early point, and within Germanic languages evolved into words like modern English rich and modern German Reich. The Germanic words were borrowed back later in Late Latin and Romance (see the rico entry for an example). There were further effects, like the borrowing of richesse mentioned above, and the French word riche may have influenced the development of the native English word rich.

Pile hay. Hey -- before you rick, you might want to ted. Rick and ted are regular verbs that describe regular activities on the Scrabble tablelands.

Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. A law that essentially imposes penalties on conspiracies to commit various crimes and to protect the secrecy of that conspiracy. It was originally written as a tool to fight organized crime -- the mafia -- and its penetration of organizations like the Teamsters' Union. One of the ideas of the law was that the usual penalties for intimidation and other tools of a protection racket are too light -- disproportionate to their role, and that the wrong people (the soldiers rather than the generals) pay the penalty. Another idea was that because criminal organizations are organized for secrecy, solid ``traditional'' evidence would be hard to collect. As a remedy, evidence for a pattern of criminal behavior would be allowed -- in effect, a change in the rules of evidence.

Once the law was passed, however, another law came into play. This other, the law of unintended consequences, cannot be repealed. The unintended consequence is that many prosecutors found RICO a convenient tool to use against business groups that are not engaged in the kind of organized crime that legislators probably had in mind. In particular, many of the businesses targeted were not involved in any violent activity or threats; their intimidation methods were legal (but in support of illegal behavior).

Spanish adjective meaning `wealthy' or `tasty,' as appropriate. Yes, it's a cognate of English rich (and French riche), but no, comida (`food') doesn't have to be rich to be rica. (A fair synonym for rica in this sense is sabrosa, cognate with English savory. One alternative word for wealthy is acaudalado, related to the well-known Spanish word caudillo.)

Wealth, treasure, and various sorts of abundance are riqueza, but tastiness is buen sabor or buen gusto. The toponyms Puerto Rico and Costa Rica mean `rich port' and `rich coast,' resp. The associated gentilicial nouns (nouns for the inhabitants) are puertorriqueño and costarriqueño (also costarricense).

Rico is one of those Spanish words, which I had been led to believe are rare, that originated in the East Germanic language of the Visigoths who ruled Iberia. The Gothic word was reiks, `powerful.' (I might say this is a Visigothic word, but the fact is that most of what we know about East Germanic languages is what we know about Gothic, and most of what we know about that is from the Bible translation of Ulfilas, who was a Visigoth.) If you want to know any more about rico and its cognates (in case you were wondering: yes, you do want to know more) you can learn about it by following the link to the riches entry. Before you go, though, I should mention that riqueza took over the meanings of an earlier word rictad, now obsolete. The ending -eza in riqueza is common in Spanish (forming nouns from adjectives) so it is superfluous to posit the influence of the Old French form richesse that is mentioned at the entry for riches.

Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. ``[A] national [US] membership organization of professionals who provide sign language interpreting/transliterating services for Deaf and Hard of Hearing persons'' established in 1964 and incorporated in 1972.

AVLIC describes itself as ``an RID Approved Sponsor of Continuing Education (CE) Activities'' so at least some (and for all I know all) pronounce RID as an initialism and not an acronym. Too bad.


Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquite. A journal of the law in antiquity. Published in Brussels; catalogued in TOCS-IN.

riding the bench
Hey! When does this thing pull out?

Reactive-Ion Etching. You can visit a picture of a Plasmatherm RIE system at the Notre Dame Microelectronics Lab.

Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is based on a generalized non-Minkowski geometry of spacetime, and Georg Friedrich Bernard Riemann (1826-1866) was one of the major developers of generalized geometries, whose study is usually known as Riemannian geometry. This Riemann-Einstein has nothing to do with Bernard Riemann. One Karl Wilhelm Julius Hugo Riemann (1849-1919) music theorist and teacher, produced Musik-Lexikon (1882). In revised editions, it continues to be a standard reference. The first major revised edition was Riemann-Einstein, edited by A. Einstein in 1929 and issued as Hugo Riemanns Musiklexikon. That was Alfred Einstein (1880-1950). Albert played violin, but he wasn't so wie ein polymath.

Hugo Riemanns Musiklexikon, as edited by W. Gurlitt (1959-1967). More at Riemann-Einstein.

Rate Increase Factor. ATM term for factor by which a source may increase its transmission rate if given the all-clear by an RM cell. Cf. RDF, ACR.

Reduction In Force. A RIF notice is a layoff notice.

right bank
The right bank of a river is the bank on your right-hand side when you face downstream (assuming you're not an owl or other neck contortionist).

By ``downstream'' I mean the direction in which water flows on average. This a useful extension of the definition. If a river issues in an ocean or bay (i.e., in a body of water that has tides), and if it has too little ``river flow,'' then it functions as a tidal river. At the lower end of a tidal river, salt water flows upstream as the tide rises, and there typically develops an estuary of often brackish water.

To ``bank right'' is to change the direction of an airplane's flight by lowering the right wing (not this right wing) and adjusting other control surfaces to execute a turn toward the right.

A management verb meaning to change the number of personnel. A term that originally carried the false suggestion that something other than downsizing might be meant.

right wing
Politically conservative. Gingrich is a cyberweenie.

The convention that ``right'' and ``left'' correspond respectively to conservative or reactionary or resistant to change or whatever, and to liberal or progressive or favoring change or whatever, goes back to the French Revolution (the one in 1789). Specifically, in the Estates General the aristocratic members sat to the right of the speaker (the place of honor; let's not get into it) while the commoners sat to the left. So basically, to be on the right was to be in support of the established order, and to be on the left was to be in opposition. When a new order has been recently established, the meaning of the terms is in flux. In Paris there is a bohemian (and left-wing -- ça va sans dire) district on the left bank of the Seine. I think that's just a coincidence.

right wing nut
A person substantially to the political right of the person using the phrase. You don't have to be too far to the left for the political spectrum to seem to consist of right-wing nuts, their dupes, the alienated, and progressives.

I understand that the term ``wing-nut'' as a disparagement is supposed to derive from the threaded item of that name and from the resemblance to uncool people with prominent ears. That doesn't seem like enough of an explanation to me. Perhaps there is some influence of ``right-wing nut'' parsed as ``right wing-nut.''

It seems that every fool has the right to make ignorant unsupported slanders and have them broadcast to other fools on TV.

Routing Information Indicator.

Rikagaku Kenkyûjo. Japanese `Physico-chemical Institute.'

From one of RIKEN's own (English) about pages:

The mission of RIKEN is to conduct comprehensive research in science and technology (excluding only the humanities and social sciences) as provided for under the "RIKEN Law," and to publicly disseminate the results of its scientific research and technological developments. RIKEN carries out high level experimental and research work in a wide range of fields, including physics, chemistry, medical science, biology, and engineering, covering the entire range from basic research to practical application.
RIKEN was first organized in 1917 as a private research foundation, and reorganized in 2003 as an independent administrative institution under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

I was really charmed by the parenthetical ``only'' in the first sentence.

Raman-Induced Kerr Effect Spectroscopy.

Répertoire International de la Littérature de l'Art. `International Repertory of the Literature of Art.' Published by the College Art Association of America starting in 1975. It was distributed semi-annually in paperback covers made of construction paper. In 1981, RILA was first supported by a subvention from the J. Paul Getty Trust. By 1984 (vol. 10) it was officially published by the Getty Trust (later more particularly by The Getty Art History Information Program), and CAA had become a ``sponsor,'' along with the International Committee for the History of Art, and the Art Libraries Association of North America (ARLIS/NA). Improvements were not long in coming. The second part of vol. 10 adopted the use of the ISO's three-letter country codes! With volume 11, RILA became available ``on-line via DIALOG Information Services as file 191 (Art Literature International)''! That very same volume, RILA lost the ratty paper covers and came in cloth covers with gold lettering! In a more subtle rationalization, the order of written-out versions of the name was reversed, with the English now on top. And finally, finally, they capitalized the expansions and got rid of those unsightly little blotches that had marred the title words Repertoire and Litterature! If you have any artistic sensibility, you recognize how long overdue that has been.

The last volume was 15 (1989). It was subsequently merged with Répertoire d'art et d'Archéologie into an online database called the Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA).

Vocabulary word for today: ekphrasis.

Retail Industry Leaders Association.

Revista Iberolatino Americana de Neurorradiología. A former publication of SILAN.

Reaction Injection Mold[ed | ing]. Popular method with polyureas. (I don't know how the polyureas themselves feel about it, but they don't have much say in the matter.)

Research In Motion. It's best known for the BlackBerry -- the sugarless kind, the kind with larger buttons.

rimediaru kyôiku
A partial loan translation from English to Japanese, meaning `remedial education.'

Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy. Or Resonance-Ionization Mass Spectrometry. You guys duke it out among yourselves, I'm a neutral observer. A brief description is served by Virginia Tech.

Relative Intensity Noise.

RINA, Rina
Republican In Name Also. Refers to a politician in the US South who is not a DINO.

German, `ring road' (whether for automobile or rail traffic). For an example, see the rail-transport map at the BE entry for Berlin.

`Apple[s]' in Japanese. This word I think I can remember.

Ringo and Kenneth

RINO, Rino
Republican In Name Only. Can be used to refer to any moderate Republican, but Senator Lincoln Chafee (R-R.I., defeated 2006) was the genuine fake article. Cf. DINO.

Rail Incident Officer. British term.

Rio de Janeiro
The name of a Brazilian city. The name (meaning `January River' in Portuguese) stems from a mistaken initial identification of the entrance to Guanabara Bay.

Raster Image Processor.

Reasonable In Private. A politician is said to be RIP if he's dead. No wait--he's said to be RIP if he tells reporters off the record that he thinks the way they do. No wait--that's still not quite right. If he confesses to reporters off-the-record that he's not as extreme and stubborn as his stupid constituents force him to be. Sure. The initialism was apparently introduced by David Brooks in a New York Times column on February 7 or 8, 2007.

Research In Progress. Sounds pretty final to me. The US Office of Science and Technology is supposed to have a database thereof; I haven't checked.


Rest In Peace or (Latin meaning the same:) Requiescat In Pace. Also a man's given name, and a verb similar to tear. I find this accumulation of semiotic charges somewhat troubling.

It is reported that Rip Torn is only acting, but I'd just as soon not share a carpool with him, or any other kind of pool. On the other hand, as Groucho once pointed out to Dick Cavett, Peter O'Toole is doubly phallic, so take your choice.

Retired In Place.

Routing Information Protocol. An IGP.

The Royal Institute of Philosophy. ``[F]ounded in 1925, [it] aims to promote the study and discussion of philosophy and original work through its journals Philosophy and Think and by arranging and sponsoring programmes of lectures and conferences. The Council of the Institute welcomes applications for membership from all those interested in Philosophy.''

The Royal Institute of Public Health. Immediate predecessor of RIPHH, q.v.

The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene. I'm sorry, I can't tell you anything substantive about this organization; we're a tiny, cramped little glossary and we have very limited space, so it's all we can do to list the sequence of its aliases. Again, sorry, really.

The Public Health Medical Society was set up informally in 1886, and incorporated in 1892 as the British Institute of Public Health (BIPH). Not long after (1897) it gained royal patronage (I think that means that the reigning monarch nods in the organization's general direction) and it proudly adopted the name Royal Institute of Public Health. Then in 1937 it merged with the Institute of Hygiene (est'd. 1903), and the resulting organization adopted a new name that included all the words in both of the original names, and and. They didn't have to use the word Institute twice. That's one of those reduced-overhead advantages of combining name operations. It's called the nomenclaturics of scale. Okay, it isn't.

Radiological Information System[s].

Resonan{ t | ce } Ionization Spectroscopy. Virginia Tech serves a brief description.

Reduced Instruction Set Computing. One of two alternating fashions in computer design. The other fashion is CISC. RISC is currently the overwhelmingly favored style. Jocular expansion: Relegate Important Stuff to the Compiler.

rise of the middle class, the
An all-purpose answer to any question about social history. If an essay is required, mention glass manufacture.

Répertoire International des Sources Musicales; publié par la Société Internationale de Musicologie et l'Association Internationale des Bibliothèques, Archives et Centres de Documentation Musicaux. International Inventory of Musical Sources: published by the International Musicological Society and the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres.' Abstracts in your choice of French, German and English. Text in the author/compiler's choice of French, German or English.

Runner[s] In Scoring Position. That is, on second or third base. A runner on third base can score on most singles. A runner on second can reach home on a deep fly if he counts on the ball not being caught.

Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition. It tends to get more exciting as you go along. Cf. ISTA, RSTA.

A brand of soap. If you know the expansion of the initialism, please tell our maintenance engineer, who would really like to know. (This glossary has a special area for maintenance engineering research.)

Renewals In Time. Putative synonym of FIT (failures in time) used for repairable systems. (But I think there may be some hidden assumptions about service reliability in this equivalence.) I.e., a unit of failure intensity (equivalently renewal rate, or ROCOF) equal to one repair per billion hours.

Resonant Interband Tunneling. Tunneling through a junction separating electronic states that are in different bands on opposite sides, occurring without a transfer of energy involving some other degree of freedom. E.g., the tunneling responsible for the second rise in current in an Esaki tunneling diode, or current across a type-III semiconductor hetero-interface. (These both involve tunneling between conduction band and valence band.)

Rochester Institute of Technology.

The independent bookdealers in Buffalo all say Rochester is much more of a book town. Rochester was the name of Jack Benny's straight man.

A girl's given name, also short for Margarita, and a nickname for Margaret.

Rand Intelligent Terminal Agent.

Romance Imumble Tmumble Achievement. Not really. The Rita is an annual award of the Romance Writers of America. It's named after Rita Clay Estrada, the RWA's first president, and there's no common retronymic expansion, but the name is often, either thoughtlessly or ignorantly, written in all-caps.

Rural Industrial Technical Assistance.

Resonant Inter[sub]band Tunneling Diode.

Radio In The Loop. Also RLL.

Research Institute of Tropical Medicine in the Philippines.

Rapid Intervention Vessel. A fire truck for offshore oil-well fires and blowouts.

Rhode Island Veterinary Medical Association. See also AVMA.

Registered Jack. Term used both for the jack and the plug that fits it. Registered with the FCC.

Here's a listing.

Royal Jordanian Air Forces.

Republican Jewish Coalition.

Remote Job Entry.

Radial Keratotomy. Resculpting of defectively focused cornea, using a diamond knife. The procedure began to be developed in the 1950's. In its developed form, it consists of making four to eight deep incisions in the cornea, in a pattern of spokes. These incisions, through as much as 90% of the cornea thickness, weaken the cornea so that it flattens out, correcting myopia (near-sightedness). Unfortunately, the weakness doesn't heal, and initially corrected vision is followed by progressive hyperopia (increasing far-sightedness). The procedure became routine in the Soviet Union (USSR) in the 1970's. They also used steel dentures. Because of the progressive hyperopia problem, as well as the facts that results were hard to predict and that healing was slow and painful, the procedure never caught on in the US. I mean, glasses aren't that bad. In any case, a surgical correction alternative called photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) succeed RK, and that procedure is being supplanted increasingly by LASIK, qq.v.

There is a school of thought that mini-RK -- RK using small incisions -- can achieve good results without the risks of ordinary RK. That argument doesn't seem to have won many adherents.

Runge Kutta (predictor-corrector implicit differencing schemes for numerical evolution). This acronym is very useful because no one knows how to pronounce Runge's name. (Many probably would if they only knew that Runge is a German name.) Here's a resource that may one day help you pronounce these names.

Roman KeyCard Blackwood. A contract bridge bidding convention known by its initialism. (The original Blackwood is explained at the entry for bidding in bridge.)

Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida. A theory of the effective interaction of spins in a metal. The interaction falls off as an oscillatory function (radial wavelength equal to half the Fermi wavelength) with an algebraic envelope (1/r³ in three dimensions). In a dilute magnetic alloy, this is approximated as an infinite-range random-sign spin-spin interaction that gives rise to the standard spin glass (SG) model.

Radio-Keith-Orpheum. Hollywood studio founded in 1928, formed from the merger of the film business of David Sarnoff's RCA, Joseph P. Kennedy's (yes that Joseph P. Kennedy's) Film Booking Office (really a studio) and the Keith-Albee-Orpheum vaudeville empire (begun 1882). Over the years RKO used logos with the words ``RKO Pictures,'' ``Radio Pictures,'' and ``RKO Radio Pictures,'' and also self-identified as ``RKO Pathé'' (Pathé Studios had also been merged in), as a graphic at RKO's website shows.

The term radio picture was also used during WWII for still photographs (typically of action, but still they were stills) transmitted by radio. Functionally, this was a bit like fax -- it was certainly the transmission of a facsimile, but the pictures were in grayscale, and given the technology available, the coding had to be analog.

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