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Letter Quality. Term often used with 9-pin and 23-pin dot-matrix printers. In the former case, only the term ``NLQ'' is ever justified.

Link Quality. Hey, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, if it's simply connected. But LQ usually refers to a telecommunications link.

Link Quality Indicator.

Long QT Syndrome. An infrequently occurring familial disorder in which affected members have QT prolongation and a propensity to syncope and fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

Larson Ratio. Term used in water treatment.

Lawrencium. Atomic number 103. Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.

(Domain code for) Liberia.

Living Room. A floorplan abbreviation. So what do you do when you're in the other rooms?


According to the introductory editorial in the December 2003 issue of AFER, ``[t]he Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel group led by Joseph Kony against the Ugandan government, has lasted for the last 17 years. Originally, this violent conflict was based in Acholiland, but of late it has escalated to other districts in Northern Uganda. [This issue of AFER] presents a heart-breaking and depressing picture of a humanitarian crisis...''

    ``The LRA is characterized by its brutal activities of hacking innocent civilians to death, abducting children, raping women, cutting off the lips, ears and limbs of those they suspect to be pro-government, leave alone stealing the people's little food.''

Lightning Rod Ball. A decoration at the top of a lightning rod.

London Review of Books.

Loop Reverse Battery.

Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation. I think I'll pass. No wait-- let me think about that!

Longitudinal Redundancy Check[ing].

Long-Range Correlation.

Long-Range Diagonal Order.

Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Part of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the NIH.

Laser Range Finder.

Leukaemia Research Fund. A UK charity.

Leukemia Research Foundation. A US charity.

Long-Range Force[s].

Lymphoma Research Foundation. ``LRF's mission is to eradicate lymphoma and serve those touched by the disease.'' Be careful you don't miss the second verb there. ``LRF was formed in November 2001 by the merger of the Cure for Lymphoma Foundation (CFL) and the Lymphoma Research Foundation of America (LRFA). Both CFL and LRFA were founded by lymphoma advocates who sought to turn a life-changing diagnosis into a positive experience for others with the disease. LRFA was founded in 1991 in Los Angeles by the late Ellen Glesby Cohen, who lost her own battle with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in August 2000. CFL was founded in 1994 in New York City by Jerry and Barbara Freundlich. Jerry is a twelve-year survivor of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma thanks to research and a chemotherapy protocol which cured him.''

Lymphoma Research Foundation of America. Merged into LRF, q.v.

Lightning Rod Insulator.

Local Routing Number.

Low-Risk Neonatal (nursing). Registered nurses in the US and Canada with sufficient experience and recent employment in the specialty may take a written or computer exam administered by the NCC to receive an LRN credential.

Long-Range Order.

Lower Reading Room. Of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. There's a URR too.

Library Research Round Table. Someone had a fire sale on round tables, and the ALA maxxed out the corporate credit card. Cf. EMIERT, NMRT.

Now if you're gonna wait until we get a round tuit -- hah!

Laser Raman Spectroscopy.

Long-Range Strike Bomber. Also widely expanded as ``Long-Range Strategic Bomber,'' but since ``strategic'' is virtually synonymous with ``long-range,'' this is clearly not what the smart weapons procurers intended. Moreover, a bomber is more ``long-range'' without bombs, so the third word serves a purpose. On the other hand, it was evidently not necessary to clarify confusingly that the aircraft was an explosive bomb-er. Also, the strangely placed hyphen (in the head term) is a key to proper intonation of the initialism. This all makes so much sense to me that I'm clearly insane.

The US Air Force put out the RFP for the LRS-B in July 2014. The initial contract was awarded to Northrup Grumman in October 2015.

Lansdowne Road Stadium Development Company. A joint venture between the IRFU and the FAI, to tear down the old Lansdowne Road Stadium in Dublin, Ireland, and build a new one in its place.

LRSDC was set up in September 2004 by John O'Donoghue, then Ireland's Minister for Arts, Sport, and Tourism. The old stadium was demolished in 2007 and, as of January 2009, the new stadium is expected to be finished in April 2010.

London Regional Transport. Government body that took over the Underground (LUL) and some other transport networks, and that in the mid-1980's started calling itself the LT, q.v.

Lahori Roman Urdu (script). Defined, in the book mentioned at the Pakistan entry, as ``any [my emphasis] Roman Urdu system which combines `basic' Roman letters with traditional Arabi[c] diacritical marks.''

``Basic Roman letters'' in this case included the inverted l.c. ee to indicate shwa, and the æ of Danish. ``[T]raditional Arabi diacritical marks'' refers to marks added by Muslim Indians to the [Persian extension of] Arabic script in order to indicate sounds not present in Persian.

Lahore is a city in Pakistan somewhere, and Lahori is the adjective form.

Least Recently Used. Computer programming term designating the item that presumably is least likely to be missed, and therefore a prime candidate for replacement in cache. This idea can backfire if you're cycling systematically through a set of numbers that's just slightly larger than the cache. Then by following this reasoning you'd always be deleting from cache the number you were about to need. Cache algorithms require a certain level of cleverness.

A good waiter is like a good cache algorithm, always anticipating your needs (a) without your voicing those needs explicitly and (b) without being obtrusive. Good waiters notice if your glass is nearly empty and reason that if you're halfway through dinner and all the way through fluids, you may be thirsting for another glass. A good waiter detects the status of your glass using peripheral vision. A good waiter knows that it is possible to walk and even carry some empty dish and look around at other tables one is servicing without tripping. A good waiter does not come to your table empty-handed when your glass has been empty for fifteen minutes and say ``Everythingokay?Good'' and leave the bill before you can finish masticating. And a good waiter does not tell you his name.

It used to be that the main reason you paid to eat at a better restaurant was so that there wouldn't be mouth-breathing peasants at the next table unfamiliar with the safe and seemly operation of a fork and knife. As the job market stays tight, however, restauranteurs are scraping the bottom of the waiter employment barrel. Since most people tip on a percentage basis, better waiters go to work where the food is more expensive. So maybe having a better class of fellow patron has slipped to second place among reasons to dine out at a pretentious place. Better food or cooking is usually a distant fifth. Decor and bragging rights are third and fourth.

Line-Replaceable Unit[s]. Unit[s] replaceable at the battle-line, or near it.

Lunar Roving Vehicle. Or just Rover. ORV; very limited number produced (ten). Top speed about 10 mph. Follow this link for a nice pdf brochure.

It was powered by two 36-volt silver-zinc batteries. (One battery had sufficient power for all systems, but it was a long hike back to the LEM if it failed. In fact, the LRV was kept within 9.5 km of the LEM in case that became necessary.) The batteries served not only as electric power sources but as heat sinks for the electronics.

Three LRV's were used on the moon -- one for each of the last three Apollo missions (15-17).

(Domain code for) Lesotho.

Level Switch.

Levi Strauss. Mr. Strauss was born in 1829 in Bavaria. Levi was his first name. He died in 1902. He and Jacob Davis patented a process for riveting men's pants. Levi Strauss and Company will be happy to tell you more of this history.

Claude Lévi-Strauss was born in 1908. He spent WWII in New York City, teaching at the New School for Social Research. Also while there, he was a cofounder of École Libre des Hautes Études (see FU). When he taught American students in New York, his name was listed in the course catalog in some butchered form I can't recall very certainly, probably ``Claude L. Strauss.'' He asked why, and was told essentially that his real surname would be regarded as a joke. [I probably read this in Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).]


Lewis and Short. Surnames of the editors of a Latin dictionary. When it was first published in 1879, simultaneously in the UK and the US, Oxford gave it the modest title A Latin Dictionary (the indefinite article was such a nice touch) and Harper's brought it out as Harper's Latin Dictionary. It's generally called simply ``Lewis and Short'' or some abbreviation of that. Its successor, compiled by a new set of editors, was named Oxford Latin Dictionary (no article, indefinite or otherwise, unless you regard dictionary as uncountable and imagine the null form of indefinite article). Its first fascicles appeared beginning in 1968. This successor has, of course, more recent scholarship, but also various perceived shortcomings (briefly described at the OLD entry), so the L&S continues to be used.

Pejoratively, L&S is called ``Lewishort.'' Also jocularly: ``Levis et Brevis'' (`light and short'). [Glad I looked that up; I thought it meant `Mutt and Jeff.' I wish it meant that. What the hell, let's just pretend that's what it means. It's a dead language anyway, who cares. Then again, maybe it means jeans and underpants. That reminds me of one of the most popular puerile jokes among Latin students: ``Semper ubi sub ubi'' supposedly translated `Always wear underwear.']

Just think! All this information-like drivel is

FREE! on the World-Wide Web.

Unless, of course, you're paying connect charges.

An online version of Lewis and Short, integrated with some online texts, is available as one of the text tools at the Perseus Project.

In principle, ``L & S'' might also be used by classicists to refer to Liddell & Scott, but one nowadays usually recurs and refers to LSJ.

Incidentally, about Mutt and Jeff: Mutt was the taller one, I think. According to Fred L. Worth's The Complete Unabridged Super Trivia Encyclopedia (1977), when the comic strip Mutt and Jeff was begun in 1907, Mutt had a first initial A. Ha ha. Those guys were subtle. Also:

Bud Fisher, the original artist, titled it ``A. Mutt.'' On June 7, 1908, Russ Westover killed off A. Mutt, only to bring him back to life. His full name, later: Augustus P. Mutt.

LiSt. A Unix command to list the contents of a directory. Users of other operating systems may encounter this command if they use a command-line version of ftp.

Local Switch.

Locus Sigilli. Latin for `place for seal.' A now mostly obsolete type of formal contract required a seal or boss. L.S. would be the place. Over time, however, a written substitute came to be accceptable. People would write ``SEAL'' or ``L.S.'' Sealed contracts are still common in real estate.

Loop Start.

Low-power Schottky. Designates a subfamily of TTL (`LS-TTL') that uses Schottky diodes to clamp BC junctions away from forward bias (and consequent BJT saturation).

``Subfamily.'' Sounds demeaning, doesn't it?

Luminescence Spectrometer.

Law and Society Association. founded 1964. A constituent society of the ACLS since 1997. ACLS has an overview.

``The Law and Society Association is a group of scholars from many fields and countries, interested in the place of law in social, political, economic and cultural life.''

Leukemia Society of America. Founded in 1949. At some point it expanded its mission to become the LLS.

Limited Space-Charge Accumulation.

Linguistic Society of America. founded 1924. A constituent society of the ACLS since 1927. ACLS has an overview.

``[F]or the advancement of the scientific study of language. The Society serves its nearly 7,000 personal and institutional members through scholarly meetings, publications, and special activities designed to advance the discipline. An interest in linguistics is the only requirement for membership.

The Society is an affiliate of the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (CIPL), a constituent society of the American Council of Learned Societies ..., a member of the Consortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA), the National Humanities Alliance (NHA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Literature[s], [the] Science[s], and [the] Art[s]. Eighteen ways to designate the liberal arts college of a university. In practical terms probably not any different from FAS or CAS. On a quick search, it seems the U of M at Ann Arbor is the only one currently with a College of LSA. The University of Iowa uses LSA as the name of its Division of Interdisciplinary Programs. The University of Oregon's CAS was formed at the turn of the nineteenth century ``as a collection of discrete departments under a single administrative umbrella.''

Louisiana Sheriffs' Association.

The Lute Society of America.

Law School Admission Council. See LSAT.

Link Service Access Point.

Law School Admission Test. A half-day standardized test required by all Law School Admission Council (LSAC) law schools, which group includes all 200 or so ABA-approved law schools in the US. Scores range across the comical range of 120 to 180. Before the rescaling in June 1991, the score range was 10 to 48. It seems almost as arcane as the Common Law.

Almost all LSAC-member law schools in the United States also require applicants to subscribe to the LSDAS.

Least Significant Bit.

Lower SideBand.

Library Services and Construction Act.

Limited Space Charge Accumulation.

Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Here's an explanation from Lance Ladic at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Also called Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM).

LS coupling
Coupling between orbital (L) and spin (S) angular momentum of a system. Also called Russell-Saunders coupling.

Lake Shore Drive. A major north-south road in Chicago.

Law Student Division of the American Bar Association (ABA).

Least Significant Digit. For binary representation, this is equivalent to LSB.

Limited-Slip Differential. Doesn't allow one wheel to spin free when the other has traction. Helps you pull out of a muddy or icy ditch, and generally helps maintain your grip on the road.

d-LySergic acid Diethylamide. Generally does not help maintain your grip on reality. Then again, Albert Hoffman took a heavy dose of LSD shortly after discovering it in 1938, and though he had a bad trip, he lived to the age of 102, dying in April 2008. Living long is one way to maintain a kind of grip on reality.

Law School Data Assembly Service. A service of LSAC that provides a means of centralizing and standardizing undergraduate academic records to simplify the law school admission process.

Large-mammal Spongiform Encephalopathy. That's not the expansion; it's just the template for the expansion. Some day there likely will be a spongiform encephalopathy afflicting a mammal whose Latinate name begins with the letter el, and we will be ready -- we've already reserved the plot. We're not taking applications, but we do wish to point out that llamas are ``camelids.''

For other spongiform encephalopathies, see the entry for prions, which may be the cause.

Level[s] of Significant Exposure.

London School of Economics. It's still usually referred to by those four words, but at least since 1978 its official name has been the ``London School of Economics and Political Science.'' It was rather leftist when it was founded in 1895, but drifted steadily to the right until the 1960's. The first sociology department in a British post-secondary institution was created in the LSE in 1902, followed by Manchester University (1904) and Liverpool University (1905). I notice that as of 2006, the LSE has a ``Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method.'' This is like having a Department of Astrology and Astronomy (without astronomers). Mick Jagger attended the LSE until he was sure that the music thing was going to pan out. (I've encountered contradictory versions of the story.)

London Stock Exchange. Come to think of it, this is sort of a London school of economics.

Low Self-Esteem. A fashionable excuse for the behaviors it is supposed to cause (and which probably cause it). The main problem with treating low self-esteem is that it is often entirely and even more than entirely warranted. (As Winston Churchill is widely reported to have said of Clement Attlee -- ``a modest man, who has much to be modest about.'') The treatment for LSE consists of boldly ignoring the etiology and hoping the symptoms will go away. Of course, low self-esteem is not just some pernicious buzzword for the unreflective. It is also an opportunity for the more sincere Professor Henry Hills of the world, the Trouble they must find right here in River City.

(Personally, I would like to recommend that low self-esteem be abbreviated lowse and pronounced ``lousy.'' In fact, I insist. You must follow my recommendation because, because if you don't I'll feel bad, and hold my breath till I turn blue.)

Perfectly characteristic of the LSE industry is The Self-Esteem Institute, which appears to comprise Marilyn J. Sorensen, Ph.D. (I mean ``comprise''). The common banner (copyright 2002) at the top of its pages announces

The Self-Esteem Institute

"Dedicated to the advancement of healty self-esteem"

I pass over in silence the uneducated use of quotation marks. The question is, how to solve the LSE problem that might arise if anyone there ever notices the ignorant misspelling? The watch begins today, May 19, 2003. Ever watchful, I returned in November 2005 and found that they have a new common banner:

The Self-Esteem Institute

"Offering a program for recovery from low self-esteem"

Alright, enough of that.

Can we talk? No -- this is just a vanilla webpage. Can I be really serious for a moment? Yes. Sorensen and others write and act as if low self-esteem were some newly discovered ailment that psychiatrists and psychologists refuse to recognize. This is approximately like calling the GI tract the ``IO tube'' and complaining that gastroenterologists ignore its importance.

But that's not the worst of it. The esteem industry is responsible for such inanities as suggesting the use of purple ink for correcting students' homeworks. Red is so demeaning, you know. Purple, what a great idea! Better: let's not correct any errors. This will lead to higher grades, and that's what we all want, after all.

Law Society of England and Wales. Known locally simply as ``The Law Society.'' It's not about eradicating lawyers. Is it pronounced 'll sue?

Librerís Santa Fe. Spanish, `Santa Fe Book Stores.' An Argentine (.ar) chain. About 50K titles. Perhaps I ought to mention that santa fe means `holy faith' in Spanish.

Live and Safe Free-Choice (kind of Petri net).

Langelier Saturation Index. Water-quality parameter.

Large-scale integration (100-10,000 transistors; vide integration).

LSI Logic


Liddell-Scott-Jones. Classics classic. Greek-English Lexicon. Available online from the Perseus Project.

LSJ is the update by Henry Stuart Jones (1867-1939) [and also Roderick McKenzie (1887-1937)] of what was officially (and otherwise rarely) known as the Oxford Greek Lexicon. That earlier work was compiled by Henry George Liddell (1811-1898) and Robert Scott (1811-1887); its last edition was that of 1883. Substantially abridged versions of the Liddell and Scott lexicons were titled An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott, better known as the ``middle Liddell.'' (At least two somewhat different abridgements were produced.) By analogy, the LSJ is occasionally referred to as the ``Great Scott.''

The link above gives access to both LSJ9 and I-don't-know-which middle Liddell. You know, this here is a glossary entry for a lexicon. Does that lexicon have an entry for this useful glossary? No, this is an unreciprocated citation, an unrequited entry.

As I'm sure you realize, disk space is precious. So you understand that we can't spare bytes for needless repetition. Instead of cutting and pasting, I'm going to have to ask you to spend your connection penny on visiting the Pakistan entry, if you want to learn more about the provenance of the LSJ.

If this were a movie instead of a glossary, we could cut to a different scene at this point, without preamble or headword. It would be morning in America. Specifically, it would be the early morning hours of Independence Day, 1862. That is a day that both contestants (er, adversaries) in the US Civil War celebrate with pride, and both sides in their different ways feel they are nobly defending the achievements of the Revolutionary War heralded on that day in 1776. Today General McClellan's Army of the Potomac is returning to Washington, DC.

The war has not been going very well for the Union. President Lincoln, a circuit-riding lawyer with no experience as a soldier, is frustrated that the southern rebellion has not been defeated quickly. General McClellan's Army of the Potomac set out on the Peninsular Campaign in March 1862, to capture Richmond, Virginia -- capital of Virginia and of the Confederacy. Modern communications technology (the telegraph) allowed Lincoln to take direct command of Union armies and test whether he could do any better job commanding them than the generals he contemned as timid. In the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862, Joseph E. Johnston's army attacked and nearly defeated McClellan's troops outside of Richmond. Johnston was gravely wounded, and Robert E. Lee replaced him, renaming the army ``Army of Northern Virginia.'' Ironically, McClellan judged then that Lee was ``likely to be timid and irresolute in action.'' Lee attacked McClellan on June 25; in the Seven Days Battle that ensued, both sides suffered heavy casualties. So we have come upon McClellan's forces in unhappy retreat. A week after this Independence Day, Lincoln will cede the post of general-in-chief to a professional soldier (Gen. Henry W. `Old Brains' Halleck). (The position isn't yet called ``head of the joint chiefs of staff'' because that institution doesn't exist yet. Later, when it does exist, it won't prevent commander-in-chief LBJ from micromanaging the Vietnam War. And then -- but why don't you read about it in the JCS entry?)

US Independence Day always has a more or less odd tenor in Britain. The oddity is greater during the Civil War. Britain was the center of the world abolitionist movement, and US slavery was that movement's greatest target. So there was a sort of partisan British interest in the conflict that precipitated the American Civil War. On the other hand, the Union's refusal to allow the secession of its southern states has to seem a bit ironic, in England, four-score and six years after the Philadelphia declaration of independence.

On this day, in Oxford, three little girls are taking a boat trip. They are the daughters of Henry Liddell, dean of Christ Church College. (You remember Henry George Liddell, a principal of this entry?) The children are accompanied on their voyage by Reverend Robinson Duckworth and his friend, a mathematics lecturer in their father's college. As he has on previous outings, and as he will again, the lecturer spins a fantastic story in which ten-year-old Alice Liddell is the central character. This day the story is especially engaging. This day, as the author will recall twenty-five years later, ``in a desperate attempt to strike out some new line of fairy-lore, I had sent my heroine straight down a rabbit-hole, to begin with, without the least idea what was to happen afterwards.''

It is, W. H. Auden will say, ``as memorable a day in the history of literature as it is in American history.'' On this day, or the next, little Alice Liddell begins pestering the story-teller, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, to write the stories down for her. Late that November, she will receive ``A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer Day,'' entitled Alice's Adventures under Ground. (That's the title, transcribed from a facsimile. In more recent printings the third word is often capitalized.) Friends will urge Dodgson to publish it. The Civil War drags on. Finally, on April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia. Five days later, Lincoln is shot. He dies on the day remembered throughout the US today as the IRS tax-return filing deadline. Under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, Dodgson comes out with a much-expanded Version of his stories: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. It is published by MacMillan on the fourth of July, 1865.

The original single bound manuscript volume Alice's Adventures under Ground was eventually auctioned by Mrs. Alice (Liddell) Hargreaves to pay the burial duties for her late husband. At Sotheby's it fetched a handsome 15,400 GBP, eventually ending up in the possession of Eldridge Johnson, founder of the Victor Talking Machine Company (later merged into RCA-Victor). Johnson died in 1945, and the next year the book again went on auction. Luther H. Evans, the Librarian of the Library of Congress got together a consortium of American bibliophiles to buy it on behalf of the British people ``... as the slightest token of recognition for the fact that they held off Hitler while we got ready for war.''

Another child who inspired famous books and had a cherished treasure end up in America was Christopher Robin. See this A. A. entry for details.

I lodged at Christ Church, Oxford, for a conference. They have a bust of Dean Liddell there. I also stayed at a Christ College in Cambridge. When I told the taxi driver I wanted to go to ``Christ College,'' he explained that Cambridge has a Christ's College (founded 1505) and a Corpus Christi (founded 1352). (He didn't give quite that much information.) This Christ guy seems to have been pretty popular at one point, or else rendered unto Caesar a truly glorious contribution to the capital campaign. I told the taxi driver I probably wanted Corpus Christi, as that would be more ironic. I guessed right, and my room had a view of the cemetery.

Do not confuse Liddell and Scott with Lewis and Short (L & S).

There's a book I'd like to recommend, and it's somewhat relevant to this entry (what isn't, at this point?) so what the hey. Robert V. Bruce: Lincoln and the Tools of War (Urbana and Chicago, Illinois: Univ. of Ill. Pr., 1989). (Actually, it was first published in 1952.) Abraham Lincoln (like George Washington) worked for a time as a surveyor and had a long-time amateur interest in technology (ditto). When he took office and war came, he aggressively sought to turn the North's technological advantage into a military one. Worried that Great Britain might enter the war on the Confederate side and deprive the Union of niter from India, he set up a research project, secret from the Navy and War Departments, to develop a new chlorate-based explosive. Anyway, the book is mostly about ordnance; not much about C3I.

Landing Ship Medium. Medium size.

Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Moléculaire et Cristalline.

Lucky Strike Means Fine Tobacco. Advertising slogan of Lucky Strike brand cancer sticks, made intensely well-known from 1944 on.

Local Service Management System.

Lenguaje de Signos Nicaragüense. A sign-language pidgin created independently by deaf students in Nicaragua. Developed when Sandinista government created schools for the deaf which applied lip-reading methods. A boon for linguists. Cf. ISN.

Louisiana State Nurses Association.


Local Service Order Administration.

Languages for Special Purposes. This term generalizes ESP (English for same). At least there's no psychic namespace collision, but it does seem to suggest that the language as a whole serves a special purpose. I think it's meant to suggest a specialized use (or training for a specialized use) of a general-purpose natural language, but you may use it as you please.

Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc. I guess they chose the punctuation after consulting an unfocus group of [fill in favored despised group of analphabets here].

A polling company; there are others.

Lunar-Solar Power System. Also LPS, q.v..

Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot. Weirdly, although the people who write research papers on LSQD's are manifestly aware of the word lenticular, they rarely use the term ``lenticular quantum dots.''

Leaf Setup Request.

Large-Scale Structure. In the Universe. Astronomy term, so ``large'' here is literally astronomical.

Lean Six-Sigma. I see it written in italics, so I suppose the ``lean'' is a negative skew rather than a positive kurtosis.

Lindhard, Scharff and Schiott (ion implantation range computations).

Light Spot Scanning.

Lower Single SideBand.

Level-Sensitive Scan Design.

Landing Ship for Tanks.

Large Space Telescope.

Library Services and Technology Act. Originally enacted by the US Congress as part of the Museum and Libraries Services Act of 1996, up for reauthorization in 2002. Provisions administered by the IMLS.

Here's a page on LSTA from the Washington Office of the ALA. The closest thing to a dedicated federal page on the LSTA is this page on ``Grants to State Library Agencies.''

Low-power Schottky TTL. Wait a second -- didn't we just cover this? Sure!

Load-Store Unit. A sometime element of computer architecture.

Louisiana State University. In Baton Rouge, LA.

Logistic{al|s} Support Vehicle. Apparently an error, and a surprisingly rare one, for LVS.

(Domain code for) Lithuania. (A national website is under construction as of July 2000.)

Lithuanian men's given names generally end in -as, -ius, -us or -is.

H. L. Mencken, in his an appendix (4/e, 1936) to his The American Language, sloppily classed Lithuanian as a Slavic language. (In fact, with Latvian it constitutes the East Baltic language family, the only surviving part of the Baltic branch of the IndoEuropean language family.) He gives the declension of bòmas, the form of the English word bum as adopted into the American dialect of Lithuanian (as a male noun of the second accent class):
Singular Plural Dual
Nominative bòmasbòmaidù bomù
Vocative bòmebòmai
Genitive bòmobòmu
Dative bòmuibòmamsdviem bòmam
Accusative bòmabomùsdù bomù
Instrumental bomùbòmaisdviem bòmam
Locative bomèbòmuose

The identity of vocative and nominative plural forms above is not peculiar to this accent class; they are always identical. The dual form, as the table suggests, is not always available. In fact, it is now apparently rare, found primarily in nonstandard dialects. (The American variety of Lithuanian reported by Mencken reflected the speech of nineteenth-century immigrants.)

The locative case is used without a preposition. E.g., Vilniuje typically requires translation as `in Vilnius.' The modern locative is actually an adessive case, a remnant of an earlier, more glorious system of locative cases. The allative and especially the illative are still found dialectally. Isn't that great? These locative cases originally developed as postpositions (like prepositions but following a noun) used earlier were assimilated to the nouns.

The grave accents indicate short stressed vowels. There are some other diacritical marks besides the grave accents, but we're not going to use a full Unicode font just to get this one table straight. On the other hand, this information could come in handy some day -- you never know. So in detail, the final a in the accusative singular and u in the genitive plural each have a hook, sort of like a cedilla facing the wrong way, hanging off the bottom. The hook has no phonemic value: it represents a final long-vowel nasalization that disappeared from all dialects centuries ago. It does means that there are extra vowel symbols for long vowels (hooked i and u correspond to wye and to u with a macron, resp.).

Also in that table above, the dviem in the instrumental case only has a tilde over the e. The orthography of Lithuanian also includes acute accents. The tilde and acute accent are used to distinguish the two tones (circumflex and acute, respectively) of stressed long vowels and diphthongs. These are usually indicated in dictionaries and other linguistic works, and not elsewhere. (However, we get a bye because this is an English dictionary and other linguistic work, see?) They also have a dotted (above) e, and they do one or two things to consonants. I imagine that if you had a dirty typewriter ribbon, it made you look like an elementary-school drop-out.

Definiteness of nouns is marked by a modification of the ending.

Lawrence Taylor. Defensive lineman for the Jets, retired.

Left (L) Tackle (T).

Linear Technology semiconductor device prefix.

Line Termination.

London Transport. Previously the LRT. Owned the London Underground (LUL) and oversaw the now privately operated city bus and light rail routes in the Greater London (England) area. Under the GLA Act, all its responsibilities were supposed to be transferred to TfL. Oversight of the private transport networks was transferred to TfL, but the government got cold feet when it came to the government-owned networks. The GLA act was amended so that LT remained in existence and retained ownership of these -- LUL and its subsidiaries, including the Infracos (separate legal companies). It is envisioned (as of 2001) that the Infracos will eventually be privatized, and that at some time afterwards, ownership of the Underground will pass to TfL.

L/T, L-T
Long Term. As in ``long-term debt.'' You notice how the term ``long-term credit'' doesn't come up anywhere near as often? There's a reason for that. When individuals and organizations go into debt, they get money in the short term on the basis of their long-term ability to pay it back. The paying-back is always longer-term than the initial transfer of the loan principal, or there wouldn't have been a need for the loan in the first pace. In the transaction, the debtor takes on an obligation to repay (with interest), and the creditor receives a promise. Since the credit is a positive value, the creditor has something that can be sold on its own. In fact, banks and other lending institutions do this all the time. So you never hear about the burden of being ``saddled with long-term credit.'' The debtor, on the other hand, has something that puts a negative value on the balance sheets. Positive value comes from the ability to generate revenue, which is typically harder to sell separately from the company itself, to say nothing of personal debt. And if you think it's hard to sell a car with a lien on it, try selling the lien without the car.

All this plus-minus asymmetry is something that really torques me off about charities. Solicitations for charitable contributions often make me wish I could make a negative contribution, and decrease their unwelcome or even destructive activities. Unfortunately, it's just as difficult to make a negative contribution to a charity as it is for a debtor to give away its obligations. Capitalism is so unfair. The most you can do is sound disingenuously interested when they call, and encourage them to waste money on a follow-up direct mail solicitation too. It's the least you can do. But back to loans...

A couple of major factors color the secondary market in loans: one is confidence. If there is a question of the debtor's likelihood of repaying -- and there often is -- then the credit is still transferable, just not at its face value. Collection agencies are essentially speculators in loans that are damaged goods. They gamble that their cost of collection, plus the reduced price they pay for the bad loan, is less than the amount they can expect to collect. Certain situations can interfere with the operation of the market in bad debts. The best known today is the one that afflicts Japanese banks. Under existing rules, they can keep nonperforming loans on their books at far above their realistic value. They can't collect, they can't sell at the value they list on their books, and if they try to foreclose the real value becomes apparent.

Government bonds of stable capitalist democracies are not subject to significant questions about likelihood of repayment, so they allow one to isolate another factor: inflation. I'll fill in the discussion on that later. Why are you reading about elementary economics here anyway? Don't you know this started out as a microelectronics glossary? I mean, I'm just makin' it up as I meander along.

Technically, the reason you can't get the prime rate on your loan is that you don't have the sterling credit rating of your bank's best customers. In reality, of course, size matters. The bank is in the business of making loans, so a big customer for the bank's product can demand a little extra consideration in return for not taking its business elsewhere. You, punk, can go where you like.

Long Ton. (2240 lb.: 20 hundredweights of 8 stones of 14 pounds. Divisible by seven as well as five, and more factors of two than you can shake a yardstick at.) Cf. ST.

Low Temperature. Colder than a well-digger's ass usually doesn't qualify. 77K is more like it.

Lower Tester. What the heck is that?

Lighter Than Air (vehicle).

Long-Term Agreement.

Low Temperature Buffer.

Long-Term (medical, nursing) Care.

Low Temperature (LT) Ceramic Carrier. The `CC' is also expanded Co-fired Ceramic. (See slide show here.)

Low Temperature CVD.

Laser Target Designation.

LimiTeD partnership: partners assume limited liability for the obligations of the enterprise. A popular type of business organization.

LTD, Ltd., ltd.

Line-Terminating Equipment.

Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium.

Long-Term Evolution. The fourth-generation wireless standard?

LengTH Field.

Lingua Tertii Imperii. Abbreviation used by Victor Klemperer in his famous diary of life in Nazi Dresden (and also used as title of one of his books). The German word Reich does not translate very well into English, which is perhaps the reason it isn't translated. It doesn't exactly mean `empire,' as is obvious from the German name for Austria (Österreich), but it is intended to be a little stronger than `country.' You might translate it `realm' if that word weren't archaic, but in some contexts Reich does convey an archaic idea. I have an old (1849) children's picture book with the title Von den alten Weltreichen, which may be fairly translated `Of the Ancient Civilizations.' (I think Reich is related to the -ric ending in English names -- -rich ending in German -- meaning `ruler.' The Old English word rice meant `kingdom.' This word appears to be one of a relatively small number of early borrowings from Celtic into Germanic.)

Victor Klemperer's NS-Zeit diaries were published in two volumes in 1995 by Aufbau-Verlag. LTI appears toward the end of volume 1 (Ich will Zeugnis ablegen bis zum letzten: Tagebücher 1933-1941). For a long time, he made short notes in the diary, mostly noting individual word substitutions. Usually he headed these observations Sprache: [`language']. At page 305 (for September 14, 1936) he uses Sprache des 3. Reichs [`language of the 3rd reich']. (Maybe elsewhere too, I only skimmed.) I think he first introduces ``LTI'' in formal typescript inserted at the end of June 1941.

Klemperer (1881-1960) was a philologist and literary historian at the Technische Universität Dresden, who, although Jewish, was not murdered by the Nazis, and lived in oppressive conditions considerably better than a death camp, evidently because his wife was gentile. [This ``exception'' allowed some others to live, most famously in Berlin, though it certainly was not always or even usually enough to save one's life. Consider that gentile-Jewish intermarriage was made illegal by the Nuremburg laws. In an autobiography published in 1997, the late theoretical particle physicist, scientific biographer and historian Bram Pais described his survival in occupied Holland. He and a friend were discovered, and his friend was executed essentially because that friend's girlfriend and lover, saving her own life, convinced interrogators that she was gentile.]

V. Klemperer managed to escape Dresden early in 1945 -- timely, given the Allied fire-bombing later that year [described in Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, who survived the firebombing as a P.O.W. on work detail (illegal under the Geneva conventions, FWIW) at Schlachterhaus Fünf there]. Klemperer returned after the war and taught at various East German universities.

The long delay (until 1995) in publishing the diaries has been reported to have something to do with the fact that his book casts a critical eye on language abuse not only by the Nazis but also by the Soviet occupying authority. I've heard that the English translation leaves much to be desired.

Victor Klemperer was not an immediate relative of his contemporary Otto Klemperer, the conductor and composer. It's interesting how The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians entry for Otto manages to avoid all explicit reference to nazism. It describes how ``[g]rowing economic distress, coupled with pressure from the Right, obliged the government to shut the Kroll Opera in July 1931,'' and mentions airily that Otto Klemperer ``emigrated'' in April 1933. The Encyclopædia Britannica) (in those editions where the most important woman mathematician in history has merited an entry) describes similarly Emmy Noether's relocation from Germany to the US. Who is served by this coyness? (For more on EB entry politics, see error propagation.)

Otto Klemperer was from Breslau. If you want to read more on Breslau, Germany (.de) you visit the He entry. That's how this glossary works. Breslau has been Wroclaw, Poland (.pl) since the end of WWII. It experienced severe flooding a couple of years ago. That's right, just a couple of years ago, in, uh, the Summer of 1997.

Less than a TruckLoad. This doesn't really mean the truck is any emptier than otherwise. It designates shipment of loose freight, as opposed to sealed containers.

Long-Term Memory. Cf. STM.

Long Time No See. Chatese expression meaning `I didn't see you in chat yesterday.'

Low-Temperature Oxide.

Lot Tolerance Percent Defective. For example, `5% LTPD' means that no more than 5% of a lot should be defective. Puts one in the mind of the Parson's egg.

Now suppose that you set the LTPD at 5%, and the acceptable quality level (AQL) at 95%. That AQL implies that, on average, 5% of of any lot will be defective, so the typical lot will be flirting on the borderline of not meeting the lot tolerance, and something like half of the lots will be unacceptable. (The precise fraction depends on shape of distribution, but it's pretty close to half, by the central limit theorem, if units in a lot are uncorrelated). Okay, now suppose you have a hundred units per lot, and the AQL of 95% is being just met. Then the standard deviation of the percent of defectives in a lot is just a sliver under 2.2%. Therefore, an LTPD of 10% would be reasonable (if 5% failure can be called reasonable). For similar considerations of unit vs. lot, see the eggs entry.

LeTteR. Or maybe LetTeR.

Long-Term Relationship. Personals-ad abbreviation. This term stands in approximately the same relationship to marriage as SO does to spouse. If marriage were spelled with one more letter, then the two acronyms would have equal data compression ratios.


Learn To Read Latin. One of the first genuinely new Latin textbooks in many years (cf. LFA), written by Andrew Keller and Stephanie Russell and published by Yale University Press in December 2003. You need both the text and the big accompanying workbook; together they weigh five pounds. Wouldn't Learn to Lift Latin have had greater alliterative appeal? (One of the authors points out that the workbook pages are perforated, cutting in half the weight that must be hauled to class.)

One great divide among Latin textbooks is between those using synthetic text (made-up Latin examples) versus those using authentic literary text as soon as practicable. LTRL is solidly in the authentic camp, and the authors have mined the TLL to take examples from an unusually various assortment of authors, but... the book is dense with grammar explanations, and most reviewers seem to feel it is an introductory text suitable only for very advanced students.


Leaning Toothpick syndrome. A disease of regular expression syntaxes.

Laser-Triggered Spark Gap.

Lead Tin Telluride.

Language Training and Testing Center. Part of National Taiwan University (NTU).

The LTTC was first established in 1951 (under some other name I didn't find on the English pages) ``to provide intensive training in English for government-sponsored personnel who were preparing to go to the United States under technical assistance programs in place at that time.''

``In 1965, the LTTC began to offer courses in Japanese, French, German, and Spanish, and to open classes to other government-sponsored personnel; personnel sponsored by private organizations; and to the general public. The LTTC also began to provide foreign language proficiency tests.''

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Better known as ``Tamil Tigers.'' More informatively understood as ``Tamil Terrorists.''

Loan-To-Value. Normally thought of as a ratio [and expanded as Loan-To-Value (ratio),'' vel sim.], but expressed as a fraction or percentage, though a ``75% LTV'' is really an LTV ratio of 3, strictly speaking. At least the relationship is monotonic.

Whether ratio or fraction, it refers to the amount of a mortgage loan relative to the lending value of the property on which one takes the mortgage. You may ask: ``why take out a mortgage on more than the value of the property''? Why indeed. Because interest adds up, and also sometimes because of the precise definition of lending value, q.v.

Lobster-Trap Video. A traditional lobster trap with modifications: a Plexiglas roof, red lighting for night-time operations, and a VCR used, as you may possibly have guessed by this time, to study the behavior of lobsters. The first LTV was developed by the University of New Hampshire research group of zoologist Winsor H. Watson III.

Lunar Transfer Vehicle.

Long Tone Zero. Typically pronounced and written LiTZ. A Ham-radio emergency broadcast protocol used on VHF/UHF. You transmit three or more seconds of DTMF zero, followed by a voice description of the emergency. Read about it here.

Logic[al] Unit. Compare DLU and contrast PU.

London Underground. Link is to the official website. You're interested in historical information, so you want CULG.


Latin, Lucius. A praenomen, typically abbreviated when writing the full tria nomina. Also ``L.''

(Domain code for) Luxembourg. A place that challenges the concept of `native language.'

Here's the Luxembourgian page of an X.500 directory.

Lutetium. Atomic number 71. Improve yourself, learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.

Light Utility Aircraft.

Logic[al] Unit Block.

LUnar landing and launch vehicle (i.e., BUS).


Titus Lucretius Carus. Author of De Rerum Natura (Latin, `Of the nature of things'). The cognomen Carus means `dear.' Lucretius was one of the most important of Epicureans, philosophical descendants of Epicurus, whose physics was largely that of Democritus. De Rerum Natura is held dear by some as the first great qualitative work of statistical mechanics, which attempted to derive the properties of macroscopic bodies from the behavior of their microscopic constituents.

Local Usage Details. Detailed record of local calls made and received from a particular phone number.

These records are regularly available to police with a court order -- this constitutes a kind of search, so it is unconstitutional (unreasonable search) unless it can be demonstrated to a judge that there is reasonable cause to suppose that it is material to a crime that has been committed. It's subject to the same restrictions as tapping. Cf. T-3.

In August 1999, the FCC decided to allow law enforcement authorities access to the record of cells through which cellular phone calls are routed. Civil liberties groups have opposed this as an unreasonable infringement of privacy that turns a cell phone into a tracing device.

The German form of the name Louis.

Luteinized Unruptured Follicle. A syndrome in which the follicle develops into the corpus luteum without releasing the egg. Vide Luteinizing Hormone (LH).

An airy breakfast surprise, served very hot. Introduced during WWII. Ultimately unsuccessful: it was not well-received in England -- it bombed. Okay, this entry is a joke. (Obviously, right? Right!?? It's a pun on Luftwaffe.) But big cookies really were dropped. For amazing information on another incendiary breakfast treat, see the SPT entry.

For related information (that's actually true) on toast, see the FF (for French Fries) entry. Look, it's there alright, you just have to scroll down a bit! Do you expect everything to be served to you on a silver platter with maple syrup? For something to put on ordinary English toast (during WWII), there's some relevant information at the Spam entry.

Steven Wright said he went to a restaurant that served breakfast `any time.' I guess that's an acceptable variant. So he ordered French toast during the Renaissance. Ha! That's German toast!

Luhn checksum
An algorithm often used to provide a check digit in applications such as credit card numbers. In the number with the check digit removed, number the digit positions starting with 1 at the beginning. Take all the digits in even positions, double each one, and add the individual digits of all the resulting numbers; add to this total all the digits from the odd positions. The check digit, when added to this total, must produce a total ending in 0. This checksum serves to detect any error that affects only a single digit or is a transposition of adjacent digits other than a 0 and a 9.

Example: the number to be checked is 34567790. The 0 at the end is the check digit. The digits in even positions are 4, 6, 7 -> 8, 12, 14. 8+1+2+1+4 + 3+5+7+9 + 0 = 40, so the number is valid.

Luiss, LUISS, LUISS Guido Carli
Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali. `Free International University of Social Studies.' Guido Carli -- the man it's named after, so to speak -- makes the full name a tad long, and more often makes an appearance with the rest of the school's name compressed to LUISS.

London Underground Ltd. ``The Underground.'' More at the LT entry.

Sounds seditious, and you can see lean and hungry types wailing there and strumming a few chords. The Stones were from London, the Beatles were from Liverpool.

Portuguese, `squid.' This has no apparent cognate in Spanish, where the standard term is calamar.

Lula is the nickname of former Brazilian President Luiz Inacio da Silva. What, Portuguese doesn't have a word for buffoon?

League of United Latin American Citizens. The oldest functioning Hispanic civic organization in the US. It was called United Latin American Citizens at its founding in February 1929, and took its current name at its constitutional convention the following May.

Portuguese, `squid.' This has no apparent cognate in Spanish, where the standard term is calamar.

Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses.

Line Unit/Line Termination.

An actress and singer born Marie McDonald McLaughlin Lawrie. Remembered for her first film role, in ``To Sir, With Love'' (1967). The ``sir'' referred to was the starring role of an engineer, Mark Thackeray, who takes a job teaching in what was literally an underclass neighborhood, though today we'd describe it as a model working-class community (in the East End of London.) Sidney Poitier played the starring role. Lulu played one of the students and also sang the theme song (same title as the movie), and it went to top of the pop charts in the US but didn't do especially well in the UK.

Weird, very weird fact: she was married to Maurice Gibb, one of the Bee-Gee's, from 1969 to 1973.

lumber dimensions
Lumber is usually priced and purchased by its nominal dimensions. The exception is when you buy wood ``in the rough.'' If you buy a length of 2x4 in the rough, you get a piece of wood with a rectangular cross section of thickness 2 inches (2'') and width 4''. When you take this wood home and plane it, and let it dry (and shrink some more), it takes dimensions closer to the real dimensions you get when you buy dressed (surfaced) wood of nominal dimensions 2x4. Long ago (1950's, say) the conversion from nominal to actual dimensions was something like this:
 Nominal ||  Actual
     (in inches)
    1    ||  25/32  (0.78125)  (Oh sure, accurate to a quarter mil.)
    2    ||  1 5/8  (1.625)
    3    ||  2 5/8  (2.625)
    4    ||  3 5/8  (3.625)
    5    ||  4 5/8  (4.625)
    6    ||  5 5/8  (5.625)
    7    ||  What the heck weird kind of size is that?
    8    ||  7 1/2  (7.5)
   10    ||  9 1/2  (9.5)
   12    || 11 1/2  (11.5)

Cf. board foot. You want to know more lumber terms? Visit the specialized glossary at the online Hardwood Handbook.

Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital. Cf. HOMO, LUMO+1. Just because you didn't have enough problems already, I suggest you read the HODO entry to find out about the LEAO, a special case of LUMO.

Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital plus one. The next molecular orbital above LUMO. Not quite as interesting, for total-energy calculations, as HOMO-1 because, like, there's no electron there. Vide etiam HOMO-2. If you want to find laser energies, on the other hand, pretty important.

I wish a few people would leave a bit early for lunch. There are never any parking spaces when I get in to work.

LUnar Orbit. (NASAnese.)

LUnar Orbit Space Operations Center. (NASAnese.) That is, an SOC that is itself in lunar orbit.

Lupus. Official IAU abbreviation for the constellation.

Lesbian yUPPY. The plural is normal (luppies).

US Armed Forces slang for LRRP: Long-Range, Reconnaissance Patrol.

Leaking Underground Storage Tank. Aww, mama, I'm goin' down!

Look-Up Table.

A lute player. Also lutenist. If you get the idea you've been here before, you may have entered a limit cycle. CTRL-ALT-DELETE to escape.

A lute player. Also lutist.

A maker or repairer of stringed instruments, such as violins, and occasionally even lutes. Cf. lutanist.

A lute player. Also lutanist.

Sixtiesian for `love.' Should be spelled in warm colors. In an appropriate haze, this can seem profound.

``Love to see you, bye.'' Abbreviation reliably attributed to someone's sixteen-year-old daughter.

Lautverschiebung. German term meaning `sound shift'; the standard linguists' term in German for what is called a ``[regular] sound shift'' in English.

Left Ventricle. It's the Big One!

Likely Voter[s]. An ill-defined category that pollsters start to try to report a month or two before an election.

The starting point for computing the numbers and preferences of likely voters is the same data for registered voters, culled or somehow corrected on the basis of some additional information. When asked, people who identify themselves as registered voters (probably including a large number who are not registered) say, about 90% of the time, that they are likely to vote. This is not an accurate prediction. Some pollsters report LV counts that are 90% of their RV counts, which suggests that they're going by these unreliable self-reports of RV's. I suppose it's better than nothing, since it ought to exclude a larger fraction of those who won't than those who will vote. Then again, it probably excludes a larger fraction of those giving honest answers rather than the ones they suppose pollsters would prefer.

You've probably heard that you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him (let's say it's a he) drink. This is stupid. You lead a horse to water by steering him along the way to water. You lead a horse to drink water by driving him the long way, through arid parts. Uh, I seem to have lost my way.

Oh yeah, I wanted to comment on the LV/RV ratio. In recent years there have been increased efforts to register the unregistered. Here are data for the State of Florida in three consecutive election years:

               Year:     1992        1996        2000
RV/adults                62.9%       72.4%       72.3%
voters/RV                83.1%       67.4%       70.1%
voters/adults            52.3%       48.8%       50.7%

Notice the gratifying increase in voter registration between 1992 and 1996. Notice how the fraction of registered voters who managed to find a way to vote decreased dramatically in the same interval. It's almost as if people who hadn't registered to vote in the past were not very interested in voting anyway, and ended up not voting. If this theory were correct, and if the fraction of people ultimately interested enough to vote were approximately constant, then the large increases and decreases in the first two rows of the table above would balance out to much smaller variations in the third row. Hmm.


Low-Voltage CMOS (logic family). It's important, beyond the expansions, to keep the acronyms straight: LV CMOS and LVC expand to the same words, but the acronyms are used as designations for different generations of CMOS technology. LV uses 3.3V (``3 V'') logic swing and is fabricated with 2-micron design rules. LVC uses the same voltage swing but 0.8-micron design rules, for lower currents and all of the other standard scaling goodies. The subsequent ALVC uses 0.6-micron technology, but it also has some further features -- they're not just scaling the old designs.

LV is a 3V logic intended to have performance comparable with the 5V HCMOS logic; LVC is a 3V logic intended to have performance comparable with the 5V 74F logic.

According to TI, LV drives up to 8 mA (i.e., the maximum current its output can deliver while maintaining its logic level within the noise margin is 8 mA). Since CMOS logic gates have very high input impedance, this imposes essentially no limit on the static fan-out. The current drive is important at the final stage, where something may have to be actuated, but that can easily be handled by specialized driver circuitry or buffers. The current drive also affects timing, since the interconnect and gate capacitances charge in a time inversely proportional to that drive current. Propagation delays are specked at 18 ns maximum, while the static power consumption is ``only'' 20 µA for both bus-interface and gate functions.

Landau-Vlasov. Semiclassical description of nuclear dynamics. See Gré, C., Remaud, B., Sébille, F., Vinet, L., and Raffray, Y., Nucl. Phys. A585, p. 317 (1987); Shuck, P., Hasse, R. W., Jaenicke, J., Gré, C., Remaud, B., Sébille, F. and Suraud, E., Prog. in Part. and Nucl. Phys. 22, p. 181 (1989).

(Domain code for) Latvia.

Rec.travel offers a starting point for web travel thence.

Literacy Volunteers of America.

I volunteer to be literate in America myself.

Left-Ventric{le|ular} Assist Device. After all, it's the left ventricle that does the heavy lifting, pumping into the aorta, while the right ventricle just sends blood to the nearby lungs. In 1994, the FDA approved the first LVAD for implantation to keep failing hearts functioning. It was meant as a stopgap for patients awaiting a heart transplant. The ``second generation'' of LVAD's, starting in 2005, are increasingly intended as a long-term alternative to a heart transplant.

{Left|Location} VALUE. In computer programming, an lvalue is an expression that can be assigned to. (In other words, it can appear on the left side of an assignment, in the conventional way such things are written. Outside of COBOL, of course. You know: ``ASSIGN 9THIS TO 9THAT.'') In other words, an lvalue is an expression that can be evaluated to a memory location of some sort. This gives me a creepy feeling, because it sounds like it's got something to do with pointers. Better to stay with rvalues. Originally, the first letter of lvalue was expandable specifically as left, but I have seen the location expansion in at least one programmer's manual (for C#).

The concept of an lvalue, although not quite the term itself, seems to have had its explicit origin in the description of CPL. Here is Section 6 (``Expressions'') of the Barron et al. description (1963; bibl. details at our CPL entry), in its entirety:

  There are two possible modes of evaluation of an expression in CPL, known as the left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) modes. All expressions can be evaluated in RH mode, but only certain kinds of expression are meaningful in LH mode. When evaluated in RH mode an expression is regarded as being a rule for the computation of a value (the RH value). When evaluated in LH mode an expression effectively gives an address (the LH value): the significance of this is discussed further in Section 8.

Section 8, ``Left-hand expressions and assignment commands,'' makes clear that LH values are used to determine the destinations of results in ``assignment commands.'' (All statements in CPL are definitions or commands.) The language has multidimensional arrays and LISPish lists somewhat resembling contemporaneous FORTRAN common blocks, and these data structures can be assigned to in single assignment commands (i.e., they can be evaluated in LH mode).

Perhaps LH and RH values came to be called lvalues and rvalues in CPL programming. Those terms were certainly used with CPL's immediate descendant BCPL. (See the July 1967 manual linked from our BCPL entry. The operators lv and rv were available for pointer arithmetic.) The terms lvalue and rvalue continued in use with B, and (drumroll, please) C.

Low-Voltage CMOS (logic family). 0.8-micron technology for 3.3-V logic levels. Cf. lower-performance 2-µm LV and later 0.6-µm ALVC. Performance of LVC is comparable to the 5V 74F TTL family.

Visit TI's page.

Left Ventricular end Diastolic internal Diameter.

Low-Voltage Differential Signal.

Left-Ventricular Ejection Fraction. Implicitly the fraction ejected into the aorta; the fraction ejected back through a leaky mitral valve into the left atrium isn't doing much good.

Left Visual Field.

Lehigh Valley International (airport). Serving the greater Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton area. Airport code ABE

As the architecture scholar Witold Rybczynski pointed out in City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World (New York: Scribner, 1995), no large European city was founded after the sixteenth century, and no American city (now standing) was founded before then.

Lviv is the current (Ukrainian) name of the largest city in Galicia. By ``Galicia'' here I mean the one in northwestern Ukraine, western Russia, southeastern Poland, or the eastern end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, depending on the era you're looking at. The city thus has various different names, many of them a godsend to this sparsely populated region of the collation sequence (LV, LW). Tradition and recorded history say that it was founded in 1256 by a Russian prince and named after his son Lev (`Leo' in English), although archaeology says that a settlement had already existed there for some time. The transliteration to English of the Russian name of the city is normally Lvov. Many centuries ago, Galicia was conquered by the kingdom of Poland. In the Roman script of Poland its name is spelled Lwów, but the pronunciation is closer to what an English-speaker would guess from ``Lvov.'' Poland gradually shrank and finally disappeared as its largest neighbors grew, and Galicia became a part of the Habsburg Empire (the Austrian, later the Austro-Hungarian Empire). Under Austrian rule, Lwów was known by its German name Lemberg.

At the end of WWI, the Polish people got a country of their own again, and Lwow was part of it. On August 23, 1939, Hitler's Germany and Stalin's USSR signed a mutual non-aggression treaty called the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. The treaty included secret clauses partitioning Poland between the signatories. The next week (specifically September 1), Germany invaded Poland and precipitated WWII. The Soviet Union occupied eastern Poland for a while, but was pushed out two years later, when Germany invaded Russia (Operation Barbarossa, begun June 22, 1941). At the end of WWII, pursuant to an understanding among the leaders of the main Allied powers (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill), the Soviet Union took a few territorial bites out of its neighbors. One of those bites was Galicia, which was made a part of Ukraine. At the time, the Polish population of Lwów/Lvov/Lviv was told that they were free to stay, but that the city would become Ukrainian. If they wanted to remain in Polish territory, they were advised to move to Wroclaw. Wroclaw is the Polish name of the city that had been called Breslau when it was part of Germany. Towards the end of WWII, most of its surviving German population fled west ahead of advancing Russian forces. The Polish municipal government of Lwów moved en masse to Wroclaw.

Low Vibrational Mode[s].

Louisiana Veterinary Medical Association. See also AVMA.

LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton. It's an intentional AAP acronym-assisted pleonasm, revel in it! (It's catching.) LVMH was created in a June 1987 merger of Louis Vuitton, known for fancy luggage, and Moët-Hennessy, known for champagnes and Hennessy cognac.

Both companies also had growing stakes in the perfume industry. They continued expanding in that direction to become the biggest luxury-goods house in the world; owner of Parfums Givenchy and Christian Dior, and some other famous names like, uh, Louis something, the name escapes me right now, Guerlain, Parfums Kenzo, etc. LVMH is vertically integrated, with the retailers Sephora and DFS (duty free stores) since 1997.

Lvov is the usual English transliteration of the Russian name of the largest city in Galicia. It's the administrative center of its own oblast. The administrative center for SBF information about Lvov is the Lviv entry. You're expected there now.

Laser Vibration Sensor.

Layout-Versus-Schematic. One kind of automated comparison implemented on CAD software.

Lightweight Video Sight. That's an infantry term.

Logistic[s] Vehicle System. That's a cavalry term. It stands for a system -- a vehicle system, in fact -- that happens to be what most people would just call a vehicle. Hence LSV.

Licensed Veterinary Technician.

Light-Valve Technology.

Low-Voltage (LV) Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL).

Light Weight (compound noun) or LightWeight (adjective).

Long Wave.

Long Wheelbase (motor vehicle). Also ``LWB.'' You needn't follow link to SW.

Long Wheelbase (motor vehicle). Also ``LW.'' You needn't follow link to SWB.

(Cloud) Liquid Water Content.

Living Well Center at UB.

Local Weightlifting Committee. Local affiliate of USAW.

Logging While Drilling (for oil or gas). I wouldn't know; ask here.

A monetary unit. In the forests of Angola, a lwei is only worth one one-hundredth of a kwanza (and murrychristmas to you too) but in the Scrabble forest it's worth at least seven points.

The Scrabble plural is lweis, but in the real world Lweis occurs most frequently as a typo for Lewis.

Lutheran World Federation.

Long-Wavelength InfraRed (IR) (light). Greater than 12 µm, say.

Leave WithOut Pay.

`Leave' in the sense of time away elsewhere -- in the expectation, or at least with the option, of return. Not `leave' in the sense of farewell.

Lwów is the Polish name of the largest city in Galicia. Right now the city is part of the Ukraine, and goes by the Ukrainian name Lviv; most of our Lwów-related information is at the Lviv entry. If I end up putting some information to the glossary concerning Lviv during a period of Polish rule, the present entry would be the logical place to put it. No guarantees, though. (Nyuk, nyuk, nyuk.)

Light-Weight Process.

Long-Wavelength Pass (filter, coating).

Light-Water Reactor.

Linear White SPace.

Amphibious (Landing) Warping Tug.

Listen While Talk.

The League of Women Voters. You don't have to be a woman to join. You don't even have to be female.

dysLeXic rebus for excel. For a number of Japanese car lines, designates the intermediate (not fancy, not plain) model.

Languages across the Curriculum. A program at SUNY Binghamton.

Local eXchange Terminal.

Roman numeral for seventy; abbreviation for the Septuagint (available online). A translation of the Old Testament into Alexandrian Greek (an identifiable variety of Koine), completed around the end of the third century BCE. In Hebrew, it's called Targum Ha'shivim (`Translation of the Seventy'). It is the earliest known translation of the Hebrew Bible, and is one of the main aids in the interpretation of Hebrew terms no longer known (see, for example, the entry for Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, and the Ecclesiastes material at the BG entry). Apart from translation issues, it is also interesting to compare in detail the texts of the oldest surviving Biblical texts: LXX, DSS, and the Masoretic text.

A variety of seventy-two's are traditionally associated with this translation -- seventy-two days to finish (this I do not believe), seventy-two translators (six from each tribe; how they found so many from ten lost tribes, I'm not sure). Oh yeah, and each translator made his translation in isolation, so they could be compared afterwards, and all the translations turned out identical.

Seventy, and occasionally seventy-two, is the traditional number of languages (after Babel). Hence, there is a sort of Jewish numerological association with languages generally.

Mark Goodacre's New Testament Gateway includes a Greek New Testament Gateway, which also has links to texts and tools for the LXX. There must be a link in there somewhere for Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint/Scriptural Study, or I suppose you could just click on this link. Here's a short bit on the history from Innvista.

A suffix that transforms adjectives into adverbs. Some examples: slowly, easily, deviously. When the adjective ends in -ic, the adverb is almost always formed by adding -ally. There's a small list of exceptions at the publically entry. (Don't do this orthographic experiment at home!) For some comparison of -ly with similar morphemes in other languages, see the adv. entry.

Some nonadverbs also end in ly, such as Cicely, comely, early, family, friendly, homely, homily, and likely. A few such nonadverbs, like kindly, sickly, and elderly, even have the form of current adjectives with an -ly adjective added. Coincidentally, many of the -ly oddities I can think of have something to do with the sickly elderly (see this NAA entry and the Dylan Thomas afterthoughts in the see through entry).

(Domain code for) Libya.

Libya Online has some tourism information, but doesn't mention any gender restrictions. Back in the 1980's, a friend of mine, age about 30, wanted to do some ethnological research in North Africa, and she chose Tunisia over Libya. One consideration was that to stay in Libya she would have had to have been accompanied by a close male relative -- father, brother, or husband.

Light Year. The distance light travels in a year. And if you're chasing a light pulse at half the speed of light, then in a year you will travel one half light year, and the light pulse will travel a whole light year, but you will still be a whole light year further behind. Really. Give up, or do it with mirrors.

NaOH. Caustic soda. If you're going to use it to make soap (vide saponification), make sure you get pure lye, and not lye with pieces of aluminum intended to help clear your drains. Widely available Red Devil brand lye has no aluminum. I have no commercial or pecuniary interest in Red Devil.

Lynx. Official IAU abbreviation for the constellation.

lynx, Lynx, DosLynx
A text-oriented web browser for Unix, VMS, and PC-DOS platforms. One home of Lynx (the original home, I think) is at the Academic Computing Services of the University of Kansas. The current version is available here.

Bermuda's commercial internet.

Lyra. Official IAU abbreviation for the constellation.

Lavender Youth Recreation and Information Center. In San Francisco, where else?

lyrical solipsism
This may not be the best term for what I want to define, so I'll leave it undefined until after I collect more than two examples.
  1. ``I'm a sight for my sore eyes.'' This is a line from the Vertical Horizon song ``Finding Me,'' written by Matthew B. Scannell. The next line is ``But it's all I am so,'' leading into the chorus, which begins ``Don't tell me how to be / 'Cause I like some sufferin'.''
  2. ``We are the hope we have been waiting for.'' A popular line from Barack Obama's speeches or revival meetings of early 2008. Some people think the expression means something, and some people don't. Some people say ``yes we can,'' and some people say ``and to think here we were hoping for hope to arrive when all the time it was staring hollow-eyed at us from the mirror.'' I say it's lyrical collective solipsism.

Just for narcissism balance, I'd like to extend my remarks on that hope quote above. It was used during a primary campaign in which Obama's primary opponent (in both senses) was Hillary Clinton. In her book Living History (2003), she wrote ``While Bill talked about social change, I embodied it.''

Landing Zone. I guess that would usually be about half-way between floors.

(Abraham) Lempel and Jacob Ziv. In 1977 and 1978, Lempel and Ziv authored papers that became the basis of most lossless compression algorithms currently in use. Macintosh Stacker, for example, uses LZ77, the algorithm described in their 1977 paper, and Unix compress uses LZ78.

For more information than I'm willing to tap in here, visit the compression FAQ.

Luftschiffbau Zeppelin, `Zeppelin Airship Works.' Used as a prefix for the individual numbers of their dirigibles; for example, the Hindenburg was LZ 129. ``D-LZ129'' appeared on the side of the ship; presumably D stood for Germany (Deutschland).

Zeppelin was a brand of dirigible, named for Graf Zeppelin (Graf is German for Count). The first Zeppelin, an aluminum-frame dirigible, was made by Count Zeppelin from the (1892) design of David Schwartz, a Zagreb timber merchant. Dirigible means directable -- i.e. steerable, and in principle might include blimps (as well as airplanes, for that matter). Established usage, however, applies the term almost exclusively to rigid-frame lighter-than-air craft. Besides, the other kind already have a category name -- blimp. No one really knows the origin of the term blimp (one proposal: B-limp, next after A-limp). (The cartoon character Colonel Blimp, the supercilious jingoist, was created in the 1930's; the balloon blimp term was in use from the turn of the century.)

To a significant degree, even high-altitude balloons without propellers are directable. By raising the craft to different levels, one takes advantage of air currents flowing in different directions. However, you can't tack against the wind in the middle of the sky.

Lempel-Ziv Excise (algorithm). The LZ78 compression algorithm generates a tree of strings. If the message encoded is constructed from an alphabet of length N, then each node of the tree has at most N branches. Once all N branches have occurred in the message, there are no further references to the parent node. LZE is an implementation of LZ in which one takes advantage of this fact to abbreviate the encoded references to previously occurring strings.

Laser Zentrum Hannover. The linked pages are a convenient but incomplete English translation of the German pages. You might want to know that ``Forschung / Entwicklung / Beratung'' -- the uniform motto on the upper right of the pages -- means `Research / Development / Consulting.' The German pages appear to have perhaps about as much English text as the English pages have German text, but on the German pages English words are loans. [The word Center, for example, is the common singular and plural form of the German word whose more native cognate is Zentrum (pl. Zentren).]

What, you wanted to know about lasers? Visit the durn site!

Lempel-Ziv-Welch. Terry Welch's version of LZ78 compression, which cleverly encodes the dictionary in the compression process, so it is automatically reconstructed in the decompression. Welch designed it in 1984 for implementation in hardware for high-performance disk controllers.

First Language. Abbreviation is common in the literature of second-language (L2) acquisition.

First Lumbar vertebra. Cf. 1L. Also the name of a Lagrange point, q.v.

Last 10 (games).

L10n, L10N
        L ocalizatio N
         |<--    -->|
          10 letters
Cf. E13n, i18n, j10n.

Second Language. The abbreviation is common in the literature of second-language acquisition (SLA), contrasted with L1, the native language. (It goes with the indefinite article an, if you had any doubt as to its pronunciation.) SLA research literature rarely mentions a third language. Presumably the view is that a third language is a second second language. Peano would love this.

In most of the research I've seen, the L2 is English. Other acronyms you should know, if you want sound hip in that crowd: the equivalent terms EFL and ESL (usually for adult or late adolescent learners), the corresponding TEFL and TESL (teachers of same), ELL (immigrant children in the US, roughly), and EO (the Anglophone control group for ELL's). To really sound practical, you ought to spout about TOEFL.

Second Lumbar vertebra. Cf. 2L. Also the name of a Lagrange point, q.v.

Layer-Two Tunneling Protocol.

Third Lumbar vertebra. Cf. 3L. Also the name of a Lagrange point, q.v.

Fourth Lumbar vertebra. Cf. 4L. Also the name of a Lagrange point, q.v. Do you think you can detect a pattern here?

In 1983 or so, Sidney Coleman gave a seminar at the Princeton University Physics Department, on the large-N approximation. At one point he evaluated some trivial diagrams whose values turned out to increase linearly with the order of the diagram. Coleman did not make this point explicitly, but simply evaluated a few terms so the audience would see the pattern as it emerged. At about the fourth-order term, the late Samuel B. Trieman, sitting in the audience, interrupted petulantly to protest that he didn't see the point of the evaluations. The speaker paused to answer

``Sam, I'm going to evaluate one more diagram. If you still don't see a pattern, I recommend that you consider a position in university administration.''

Perhaps Professor Coleman was unaware that Professor Trieman was Director of Graduate Studies (vide major world language).

Fifth of five Lumbar vertebrae. Also the name of a Lagrange point, q.v.

l8r, L8r
Chat rebus for `later.'

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