The spelling of Frankfurt in English has undergone a slight evolution from `Frankfort' to `Frankfurt,' principally in the 1980's or 1990's. For more detail, see the Frankfort entry.
The largest book fair in the world is the annual one-week Frankfurt Buchmesse, held during October (occasionally during or starting in September), with many thousands of exhibitors and a few hundred thousand visitors.
The Coptic calendar year has 13 months, 12 of 30 days and one of 5 days (6 in leap years). The French revolutionary calendar was similar, but the five or six intercalary days, which also came consecutively, were not designated a month. The traditional ``Egyptian year'' used for certain astronomical calculations in antiquity was exactly 360 days long, although the length of a real year was much more accurately known.
Note on the Latin: annus is the nominative form of the Latin word for year -- the form used when year is the subject of its clause. English is rather uninflected, and in particular, nouns are only inflected to indicate number and to distinguish the possessive case -- e.g., year becomes year's. (The possessive case corresponds roughly to the genitive case in European languages that have more extensive noun inflection, most prominently the Slavic languages.) The standard ``articulation'' of the cases for simple nouns that are borrowed from well-known languages like Latin is to use the nominative form for all cases in English. Thus, for example, we write not only
This is my vita. [predicate nominative]but also
I lived my vita. [oblique case]even though in the corresponding Latin sentence the word vita (`life') would take the accusative form vitam.
When a Latin noun phrase is imported, it is normally in the nominative case as well. That means that the base noun is in the nominative, but if other nouns occur they generally are not. An example is curriculum vitae (`course of life' or `life's course,' more at CV), which is used synonymously with vita in English. Here curriculum (`running' or `course,' as in a race) is a nominative form, but vita appears in its genitive form vitae (`life's' or `of life'). The genitive form is very common in these situations. English now most commonly creates compound nouns by using nouns as adjectives (called ``attributive noun'' in this function), rather than with possessive constructions: life history rather than life's history. The possessive form and related constructions used to be more common in English and continue to be more common in continental languages. In Latin and other highly inflected languages, the attributive noun has to be in some case, and that case is often the genitive, so the distinction sort of disappears.
In Latin as in English, inflections appear mostly as modified endings. Thus, the genitive forms of nouns and pronouns in English usually require the word to end in an ess (with some complications involving apostrophes, etc.) and present-participle verbs are the infinitive forms inflected with the suffix -ing. [German uses a -d added to the infinitive ending -en, so present participles end in -end (you could think of that as a mnemonic). At the time that the Scottish and English crowns were united, Scottish present participles ended in -and. The conversion of -and to -ing, along with various other systematic changes, took about a century.]
Latin inflections are about as systematic as those of English, but they are complicated by the fact that different classes of words are inflected differently. For example, Latin has four classes of verbs. These are inflected by rules that depend slightly on the verb class. Verb inflection is called conjugation; to ``give the conjugation'' of a verb is to give its various forms. (In Spanish, the four classes collapsed into three. All present participles in Spanish end in -iendo or -ando. The occurrence of -nd- in both Germanic and Romance (and Latin) present participles is probably not a coincidence, but I haven't checked. Scottish used to form present participles with an -and ending. In English, use of the nominalizing ending -ing (cognate with the German nominalizing ending -ung) expanded and replaced the native -nd present-participial ending. It took about a century for the -and form to disappear in Scottish after the political (and substantially linguistic) union with England and Wales.
There are classes of nouns in Latin just as there are classes of verbs. These classes are called declensions. There are five declensions, and each has a unique genitive ending for singular nouns. The other endings (for nominative, dative, accusative, and ablative cases) are more complicated, in that they also depend on grammatical gender. By convention, Latin dictionaries list the nominative form of a noun as headword, followed by its genitive ending and its gender, which is just enough information to indicate which set of inflections should be used. Thus, for example, the entry for vita begins "vita, -ae, f." Thus, the nominative and genitive singular forms are vita and vitae, as indicated above. The -ae singular genitive ending indicates that vita is a first-declension noun, and as it happens almost all first declension nouns are feminine ("f.").
The word for world (or universe) in Latin is mundus, and its entry begins "mundus, -i, m." We know immediately that the genitive singular form (`world's' or `of the world') is mundi, as in the phrases anno mundi and annus mundi, nominal subject of this wildly distended entry. Most second-declension nouns are masculine (m.) like mundus or neuter (n.) like curriculum ("curriculum, -i, n.").
The word annus means circuit, and very commonly the circuit of the sun, or year. Like mundus, it is a second-declension masculine noun (dictionary entry begins "annus, -i, m."). Thus, according to the rule stated above for noun phrases, the phrase `year of the world' comes over from Latin as annus mundi with nominative annus and genitive mundi. Not every unnaturalized Latin phrase in English is a noun phrase, however. Anno mundi is an adverbial of time. It originally occurred in medieval Latin sentences as ``... anno mundi MMMM,'' where anno is the ablative form of annus. This meant `... in the four-thousandth year of the world' [the last year of the fourth millennium]. It might be abbreviated ``A.M. MMMM'' (or ``MMMM A.M.''; word order is looser in Latin than in English, because inflections indicate syntactical relations). In translation of the text, the abbreviation was typically left in its original form: ``... 4000 A.M.''
You know, we're just about getting to the interesting part, but I'm running out of steam. Briefly: the precise date and even moment of the creation of the world was extremely important in Christian eschatology, because of the theory that world history was divided into thousand-year periods paralleling the seven days of creation. Hence the term ``millenarianism.'' At the end of six thousand years, there would begin a thousand-year reign of Christ on Earth. These would correspond to the first six days of creation and the Lord's resting on the seventh day. There were hundreds of well-known attempts to compute the A.M. on the basis of history as recorded in the Bible. These exact calculations disagreed somewhat -- by over a thousand years -- in part because the task is impossible: there isn't enough detailed information in the Bible.
Or so it seems to me. The eyes of faith, however, have seen -- or imagined they've seen -- things I have not. Those other things were auxiliary assumptions in which there seemed to be good reason to believe -- at the time. Over the course of a few hundred years these pious scholars tended to discover that the apocalypse was nigh. Repent! When the world failed to end at the appointed time, wiser scholarly chronologists went back to work and soon determined that the end was again nigh. The pattern continues to this day, and when hundreds of people die as a result (as happened in Uganda in March 2000), it's not very funny.
In addition to the exact calculations that had the world ending tomorrow repeatedly over the past few hundred years, there were also exact calculations based on the fact that the birth of Jesus marked the beginning of the last -- no wait, the second-to-last -- millennium before the apocalypse. There are some, ah, difficulties with the gospel stories that make it hard to establish a precise date, and anyway the historical record is a bit sparse, so obviously the way to get things exact is to use the standard methods of Biblical exegesis to determine the exact A.M., and work from there. Somehow, those who believed correctly that Jesus's birth marked the beginning of a millennium were enabled to make the correct auxiliary assumptions, and corroborated with miraculous accuracy that Jesus was born in 5001 A.M. (these calculations were correct as recently as 1400) and later corroborated with miraculous accuracy that Jesus was born in 4001 A.M. Those who believed the original calculations of Dennis the Short, who defined the A.D. era, determined that 4001 A.M. coincided with 1 A.D.; others found somewhat different correspondences. Apparently 1 A.D. = 4001 A.M. is popular with some Masons, who denote A.M. by A.L. In the English-speaking world today, the best known of those estimates is that of Bishop Ussher, who computed that 1 A.M. began in 4004 B.C., so the world ended in 1998 (around Thanksgiving, I think it was).
The Jewish calendar also assigns the year one to the creation of the world, although without assigning any special significance to the millennial years (and without using the notation ``A.M.''). The first day of year one, the first of Tishri, began on sunset of September 6, 3761 BCE by Julian calendar reckoning, although the concept of sunset before the creation of the sun is a bit deep for me. (Extrapolating back before 1582 according to the current Gregorian calendar rules, that would have been October 6.)
Interestingly, in that year Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, came out with The Description of the New World Called the Blazing World. (It's an antiscientific parody.)
See also the 1963 entry.
Actually, the 12 AM convention is not universally accepted. Using a convenience sample of about five people in FitzPatrick Hall, I determined conclusively that there are two sharply defined groups of people:
In 1999, http://www.webmasters.am/ held a contest for the best websites in Armenia. Probably an interesting place to look for Armenian stuff. There's an Armenian Freenet, which ``provides free Internet access and training services for non-profit, governmental and educational organizations of Armenia, as well as individuals.'' Both the contest and the freenet are sponsored by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) country office in Armenia.
AM radio stations just don't seem to get as much respect nowadays as FM radio stations. Perhaps that explains why the Federated States of Micronesia, with the .fm is beginning to cash in, but Armenia is not. Then again, maybe Armenia actually wants to use its national top-level domain.
FWIW, there's two-tier pricing for domains under the .am TLD:
Registration and first two years fees USD 250 for non-residents, USD 60 for residents (including VAT) and annual fee USD 50 for non-residents, USD 24 for residents (including VAT) thereafter payable in advance.
For now, I have a somewhat precise-sounding figure of (``about 17 percent of physicians belong to the AMA'') from an October 2009 article by the columnist Jack Kelly. It sounds precise; it would be more precise if one knew, say, whether retired physicians were included in the denominator. It's kind of a precise upper or lower bound, depending on what quantity you're interested in.
The table below is based on a May 2010 article by Andis Robeznieks in Modern Healthcare (``More AMA money, but ...; ... membership declines, margin lags '07: report''; ellipses in the original). Much of the information evidently came from the AMA's 2009 annual report, released ahead of the annual meeting in Chicago in June.
Year Membership Change from previous year 2006 239,000 2007 241,000 +1% 2008 236,000 -2% 2009 228,000 -3%
The 2007 membership increase was the first in seven years, but it was achieved by giving 8,577 free memberships to first-year residents who had been student members the previous year.
The stereotype used to be that physicians worked until they dropped, and that they had no interests outside medicine anyway, so they would die of boredom if they retired. That's not consistent with my personal experience, however, and medicine is changing so fast now that one needs the energy of youth (or a rousing chemical simulacrum of it) to keep up with developments in many of the specialties. A couple of my relatives who were the first two women to graduate from the medical school in Breslau (around 1930) did volunteer work related to medicine after they retired, but a cardiologist we knew simply sold her practice and went skiing.
There's a putative muckraking book advertised by Putnam Berkley [sic] Group; the bulletized list of putative revelations is pretty reassuring. Less ``praising by faint damns'' than ``we didn't find anything interesting that you didn't already know about.'' Putnam Berkley Group belongs to MCA/Universal, the information conglomerate that gave us ``Waterworld.'' Sadly, Putnam Berkley appears to be a successor of that fine old house G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Cf. this other AMA acronym.
Straight College in New Orleans was founded by the AMA on June 12, 1869, as Straight University, offering instruction at the elementary level, then at secondary, collegiate, and professional levels. (Yes, I double-checked that sentence.) Less than one month later that 1869, on July 8, the Freedman's Aid Society (of the Methodist Episcopal Church) established the Union Normal School, which eventually became New Orleans University. On June 6, 1930, the two institutions merged to form Dillard University. Be it noted, since Dillard is an HBCU, that it and its predecessors accepted students and faculty of any race.
The following might not be worth its own glossary entry, but I have to say it somewhere: I have trouble keeping my Amandas and Ambers straight, but ``Am'' just doesn't sound like a natural-enough nickname. I think I would remember if anyone ever introduced herself with ``I'm Am.'' (But see the I-M-A-L entry.)
it is the oldest librarians' group of Mexico. Founded in 1924 with the name Asociación de Bibliotecarios Mexicanos [`Association of Mexican Librarians'], it acquired its current name and the status of a civil association in 1965. It has a presence throughout the nation and serves the following objectives: professional development of its members, and promotion and fostering of libraries, library service, and librarianship. The AMBAC maintains relations with numerous professional associations, and many of its members belong to one or more of them.
Ninety percent of the world's commercial amber comes from just one site, the open-pit amber quarry at Yantarny on Kaliningrad's Baltic coast. Amber is the principal natural substance exhibiting triboelectricity, q.v.
Ontario has an Amber Alert system. Aww, it's so hard to prove a negative.... Well, according to a report received at SBF, the National Center's expansion (above) is not used in Ontario.
``Intolerance of ambiguity is the mark of an authoritarian personality.''Adorno is Spanish for `decoration,' but Adorno worked in Germany, where `decoration' is Schmuck. I count this as evidence against the nomenclature-is-destiny hypothesis.
To be more precise, Adorno worked in Frankfurt aM, and was part of the Frankfurt school.
As of 2013, the title is apparently officially in mixed case (Ambix), but it is in all-caps on the cover, and in the past, the webpages of the society that published it (see below) consistently wrote it in all-caps, somewhat as the Time magazine website treats its title. I have seen it printed in all-caps in many other places as well. I haven't seen the practice explained, but I can think of one reason for it: the majuscule forms of the letters a, m, b, i, and x are the same as the corresponding Greek letters, so the Greek original and the Latin transliteration have an identical appearance. (In contrast, the minuscule forms are all different.)
There is an important limitation on the preceding statement about letter correspondence: it is true for all times and places for the first four letters, but for the last letter it is only true for the majority of the Greek-speaking world during the archaic period (i.e., the pre-classical period) and into the classical period. The reason is that the symbol that we call xi (following nu in the alphabet and in the Greek numerals, with a value of 60) was not widely used for spelling in archaic Greece. Instead, the letter we call chi, near the end of the alphabet (600 as a numeral), was used with different sound values. In Ionia in this period, the chi was evidently sounded like an aspirated version (/kh/) of the letter kappa, and xi represented a sibilated stop (/ks/). In most other places that used the Eastern Greek alphabet, including Euboea and much of the Greek mainland including Attica (the region around Athens), chi represented the ks sound. In the Western Greek alphabet, chi also had the ks sound. (Of course, the name of the letter was chi-iota no matter how you pronounced it.) The letter retained that sound in the Etruscan alphabet (a version of the Western Greek alphabet, and the name ``ex'' when it was adopted by the Romans.)
If I were a dialectologist of archaic Greek, I might be able to say how or whether the /kh/ sound was represented where chi was already taken for /ks/. They might have used a rough breathing mark (spiritus asper is the standard Latin name) as is done to indicate aspiration of the rho (hence all the rh's in the English spellings of many Greek-origin words), just as the Romans used ch to represent that sound in transliteration in borrowed words from classical Greek or from Koine, but maybe they simply didn't bother to indicate breathing for that point (velar) of articulation. Eventually, during the classical period, at least Attica adopted the xi and respelled words that had used the chi.
Members of SHAC receive Ambix as a benefit of membership. Ambix is currently published in March, July, and November. If anyone had asked me, I would have said that I heartily approve of this publication schedule.
Ambix is put out by Maney Publishing, which is celebrating Ambix as its Journal of the Month for March 2013. From today (March 2) until April 15, 2013, some of its content is available free. [The last three years, a historical post bella mundi special issue, and ``20 high-quality articles'' from the archives. That nicely infelicitous wording excites hope that other celebratory features will be unintentionally interesting.]
Set in the fictional East Coast suburb of Pine Valley, AMC story lines revolve around attractive young Erica Kane (played by attractive young Susan Lucci from 1970 to 2011) and her succession of husbands.
Palmer Cortlandt, a longtime character on AMC, owned a company called Cortlandt Electronics. He was played by James Mitchell, who died in January 2010. Kelly Ripa (a blonde sidekick like Vanna White, but she doesn't have to walk around so much) is an AMC alumna, and she was devastated when the show was canceled in April 2011. ``All My Children was more than a job,'' she said. ``It was my family. It was there that I met my husband; it was there when my first two children were born.'' But not all her children.
You know how, when you visit a foreign country, a lot of the TV programming seems, like, ``foreign''? There are all these locally famous stars you've never heard of or seen before, and their body language and facial expressions are hard to parse. Their smoldering stares must seem portentous to some, but you kind of look over your shoulder to see whom the look might be meant for. I always used to get that feeling when I traveled abroad, but now I can have the same feeling on the cheap by visiting places like the IFC website. To tell the truth, nowadays I get that where-am-I?-who-are-these-people? feeling all the time.
The service is offered by the Association of American Medical Colleges [AAMC]. The words ``non-profit'' and ``service'' do not, individually or in concert, imply ``free'' (in the sense of gratis).
It's a popular Jesuit (SJ) motto. Someone posted to the Classics list that he once heard a Dominican (OP) say ``I'll do it, but I won't do it ad majorem Dei gloriam because that's a Jesuit motto.
AMERICA. (from Americus Vespucius, falsely said to be the first discoverer of this continent.) One of the four parts of the world, and by much the largest. [See our antarctick and Australia entries.] It is bounded on all sides by the ocean, as appears from the latest discoveries; it being formerly supposed to join to the north-east part of Asia. Americus Vespucius, from whom it took its name, was a Florentine, who having accompanied Ojeda, an enterprising Spanish adventurer, to America, and drawn up an amusing history of his voyage, published it, and it was read with admiration. In his narrative, he had insinuated, that the glory of having first discovered the continent belonged to him. This was in part believed; the country began to be called after the name of its supposed first discoverer; and the unaccountable caprice of mankind has perpetuated the error; though there is no doubt that not merely Columbus, but Behaim, and Cabot, had visited America many years before Vespucius. (See BEHAIM, &c.)
Many are the conjectures about the peopling of this vast continent; but we cannot relate them here; nor indeed is it greatly to be wished. America is so long, that it takes in not only all the Torrid, but also the Temperate and part of the Frigid zones. It is hard to say how many languages there are in America, a vast number being spoken by the different people in different parts; and as to religion, there is no giving any tolerable account of it in general, though some of the most civilized of the aborigines seem to have worshipped the sun. [This (``the most civilized...'') probably refers to the Aztecs, who sacrificed as many as a thousand people a day to their sun god.] The principal motive of the Spaniards in sending so many colonies there was the thirst for gold; and indeed they and the Portuguese are possessed of all those parts where it is found in the greatest plenty.
This vast continent is divided into N. and S. America, which are joined by the isthmus of Darien. It has the loftiest mountains in the world, such as those that form the immense chain called the Andes; and the most stupendous river [sic], such as the river Amazon (``the mighty Orellana''), the ``sea-like Plata,'' the Oronoko, the Mississippi, the Illinois, the Misaures [presumably a French spelling for the Missouri; see the Mo. entry], the Ohio, the St. Lawrence, the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehannah, the Potomac, &c.
Besides the aborigines, who inhabit the interior parts, and the United States of America, who possess some of the finest provinces that formerly belonged to Great Britain, the various European powers have rich and flourishing colonies here. The American states are fifteen in number, each having a separate local government; but they are formed into one federal republic. These states long flourished as provinces of Great Britain; but parliament attempting to tax them by its sole authority, without the intervention of their assemblies, a civil war ensued; a congress was formed, which, in 1776, disclaimed all dependence on the mother country; the French king entered into an alliance with them in 1778; the colonies, powerfully assisted by France, were successful; and Great Britain, in 1782, acknowledged their independence in preliminary articles of peace, finally ratified by the definitive treaty in 1783. The Americans have since formed a new federal constitution. [Although the preface of Pantologia is dated June 1813, it is well possible that this entry was written before the War of 1812.]
Between America (the New World) and the Old World, are several striking differences; the most remarkable of which is, the general predominance of cold throughout the whole extent of this vast country. Here the rigour of the Frigid Zone extends over half that which should be temperate by its position, with regard to the same parallels of lattitude in the Old World: and even in those lattitudes where winter is scarcely felt on the Old Continent, it reigns with great severity in America, though but for a short period. Nor does this cold, so prevalent in the New World, confine itself to the Temperate Zones, but extends its influence likewise to the Torrid Zone, considerably mitigating the excess of its heat. The natives of this vast country are in some respects different from those of the Old World; for the skins of all the men, except the Eskimaux, are of a red copper-colour; and they have no beards, or hair on any part of their bodies, except the head, where it is black, straight, and coarse.
In a country of such vast extent there are, no doubt, as great a variety of soils as there are of climates. In short, America may be called an immense treasure of nature, producing most, if not all, of the plants, grains, fruits, trees, woods, metals, minerals, &c. to be met with in the other parts of the world; and that not only in great, if not in greater quantities, but many of these in greater perfection. By the discovery of this country, the Europeans have derived many real and solid advantages. Gold and silver have been more plentiful in the countries of Europe, since their connection with America, and the Materia Medica hath derived no small assistance from the productions of this continent. The various districts which compose this vast country shall be treated of in their respective places: and the reader may farther consult the interesting works of Morse, Winterbotham, &c.
If the above has not distracted you and you're still wondering about the number of American continents, you may find enlightening the following excerpts from the seventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1842) America article:
According to the geographical system adopted in the old world, America ought to be considered as two distinct continents, connected by the isthmus of Darien. Its two great divisions have evidently more of a defined and separate character than Africa and Asia, or than Asia and Europe; but though this arrangement may be very properly adopted for the purpose of description, it is too late now to think of assigning separate names to regions which have so long been known by a common appellation. ...
The American continent, therefore, with its dependent islands [incl. Greenland], is fully four times as large as Europe, about one third larger than Africa, and almost one half less than Asia, if we include with the latter Australia and Polynesia.
In addition to correcting the erroneous area comparison of Pantologia, this later encyclopedia also avoids the incorrect claim that the highest summits are found in the Americas.
The song is evidently a ballad telling a history of rock'n'roll, with numerous readily identified references to Buddy Holly. When it appeared, the song was subjected to repeated amateur analysis on the radio. In the years since, it has achieved FAQ status on rock newsgroups. In any given week, it is being discussed on at least one newsgroup. For example, sampling ( on AltaVista and DejaNews) at a randomly chosen moment (just now, in another window) I found that in the past seven days the discussion, or at least a cultural reference, has been visited upon
Lori Lieberman saw Don McLean perform ``American Pie'' in a nightclub and was inspired to write a poem on the back of a napkin, which became the lyrics for the song ``Killing Me Softly'' by Norman Gimbel & Charles Fox, featured on Ms. Lieberman's first album. (The poem became the lyrics! I don't know what became of the napkin.) Later, Roberta Flack did a very successful cover of the song.
Bob Garfield, in one of the essays in his Waking Up Screaming From the American Dream: NPR's Roving Correspondent Reports From the Bumpy Road to Success (Scribner, 1997), tells the story of a man who believes that the lyrics to ``American Pie'' are a prophecy of Armageddon.
In every American there is an air of incorrigible innocence, which seems to conceal a diabolical cunning.
Attributed to Gamal Abdel Nasser:
The genius of you Americans is that you never make clear-cut stupid moves, only complicated stupid moves which make the rest of us wonder at the possibility that we might be missing something.
I dunno, this sounds like coincident foolishness to me, but could there be something to it?
AmeriCorps ``volunteers'' receive an average of over $15,000 a year in pay and benefits, and almost 90 percent go on to work for government agencies or nonprofit groups. So it's basically an internship in sanctimonious dogooding (which isn't to say that the targets of the dogooding don't need help, or that the programs don't actually do some good, though these things are rarely very well quantified).
Apparently amethyst color develops when irradiation knocks Fe3+ ions into a configuration where they are stably Fe4+.
(Incidentally, the last census (1990) before 1998 gave a total US population of 248.7 million. By 1998 all reasonable projections put the population above 260 million. I doubt this affects the ``[m]ore than half'' claim, since that is probably based on estimates of prevalence as percentages of the population.)
A cognate of ami in English is amity, from the French amitié. Earlier French forms had an ess (the OED2 gives 13th c. amistié, amisté, and 11th c. amistet, which is similar to the modern Spanish amistad). The ess sound in these words comes from a soft cee, typical in Vulgar Latin when a cee was followed by a closed vowel (e or i). The classical Latin for amity was amicitiam, but the OED conjectures a Vulgar Latin (accusative) amicitat-em (explaining the two dental consonants at the end of the Spanish and Old French forms). They support this by a comparison with the evolution of mendicus, Latin for `beggar.' I've read that after the disaster of Napoleon's invasion of Russia, hungry French soldiers contributed a new slang word for beggar to the Russian language: cher ami (lit.: `dear friend'). (I haven't been able to track this down in any handy Russian dictionary.) If you're reading this glossary thematically, your next entry should probably be faux ami.
On July 18, 1994, an unexpected attack occurred at AMIA: a car bomb was set off outside the building, killing 85 and injuring hundreds. For years there have been rumors of Iranian government complicity, and official investigation of Iranian nationals, but negligible progress on the case. Claims have also been reported in the press that the Iranians paid then-president Carlos Menem a bribe of ten million dollars (in a secret Swiss bank account, you know the routine) to derail the investigation. As of March 2003, four Iranian diplomats are wanted in connection with the attack. (Interpol arrest warrants issued March 7 by Judge Galeano.)
In principle, an amide might be regarded as a special kind of amine (a compound with the structure R3N) in which two of the organic groups happen to be hydrogens. In practice, of course, the point of having terms with overlapping and even nested semantic ranges is so that important special cases can be distinguished. In other words, don't call it an amine if it happens to be an amide.
The first organic compound to be synthesized from inorganic chemicals was urea, the diamide CO(NH2)2.
The most important amide is the polyamide we call protein -- amino-acid polymer.
where N is nitrogen and R3 represents three organic groups that may be identical or not. Specifically, each R is a hydrogen or an organic radical single-bonded to the nitrogen through a carbon. (In the special case that all the organic groups are hydrogen, this is the formula for ammonia. A more careful definition excludes the special cases of ammonia and amides, q.v.
Note carefully the difference between an amine and the less common azide. An azide has three nitrogens bonded to one organic group (RN3); an amine has three organic groups bonded to one nitrogen. See also imine and imide.
Small amines are typically described as smelling like rotten fish. Cf. ammonia.
H H \ / N | R--C--H | C==O / HOThe carboxyl group -COOH, shown at the bottom of the ASCII graphic above, is the usual organic acid group. It is bonded to the same carbon as the amino group (-NH2) at the top.
Note that, except in the case of glycine, where R is H, the molecule has two stereoisomers and is optically active.
The amino group of one amino acid can react with the carboxyl group of another to form a peptide bond. With the loss of one water molecule, one has the dimer (and dipeptide)
H H \ / N | H--C--R | H C==O \ / N | H--C--R' | C==O / HOBy the obvious continuation of this process (condensation polymerization), one produces long chains of amino acids. These polymers are what we call protein. Small proteins, with ten to a hundred units, or roughly equivalently, with molecular weight between 1000 and 104, are called polypeptides.
It's too late for the current cycle of intervention, but for the next time they should consider ``African (Union) Mission In the DarfurS of Sudan'' (AMISS) or ``African (Union) Mission In South Darfur, Sudan'' (AMISS), whichever seems more appropriate. [The Darfurs are West Darfur, South Darfur, and North Darfur; their state capitals are El Geneina, Nyala, and El Fasher. The el is typical local (in Egypt and I guess here as well) pronunciation of the Arabic definite article normally written al. By an official estimate for 2000, South Darfur had a population of 2.7 million, making it the most populous state (or wilayat) of Sudan. There were an estimated 1.4 and 1.5 million in North and West Darfur. West Darfur is the primary region of the ``Darfur Conflict'' that began in 2003, and as of October 2006, there were an estimated 200,000 to 450,000 dead and 2.5 million displaced.]
That sounds pretty inclusive. In my culture and my period, air guitar is a major instrument. I think it operates by simulated emission or something. Tuning these buggers is a snap -- just like an oboe.
Oh Noooo! The sacrilege continues: a search engine called G. O. D. And we all know how careless the English are with punctuation.
Oh great: with sensitivity to ``diversity,'' the politically correct form is plural: ``American Literatures.'' You see, we are just now emerging from a dark ages in which American literature was thought to be one homogeneous unity.
Probably on account of the other side being spotted a few centuries' head start, there still seems to be more Brit Lit than AmLit. Not too many years ago -- maybe in an issue of Lingua Franca in the mid-nineties, I read an article about what American universities were doing to address this problem. They were making attractive offers for permanent storage of the personal papers of dead white European males (DWEM).
It could be much worse. My mother got her high school education (delayed by her years as a refugee, and compressed as she tried to make up a few years of that) in Argentina. Argentina has some excellent literature to be proud of, but there isn't all that much of it (I mean of the good stuff). Consequently, the patriotic effort to expose Argentine students to Argentine literature tends to scrape the bottom of the barrel. Apparently this isn't a problem in the US because we no longer require high school students to read any literature (or anything else that isn't going to be on the test).
Madrazo, candidate of the once-strong but now-divided PRI, polled third at 27%. He was once governor of the state of Tabasco, but his candidacy did not catch fire. (You have to forgive me, because I had to make some pun.)
Felipe Calderón won the actual election, if the apparatus overseeing the election is to be believed. Most observers probably believe, but AMLO thinks that the election was stolen from him. He held a few protests, and as of late 2008 he's still of the same opinion.
When crabs have started to go bad, there's a hint of ammonia smell. (Buy crabs when they smell sweet and fresh, and feel dense -- i.e., heavy for their size.) Cf. amides.
In Spanish, amo is also a noun meaning `owner.' I'll have to poke into the etymology of that.
Even an Academy Award nomination is considered an honor, and is considered a valuable marketing boost. The reality-show entry has some anecdotal information on the considerations that go into the awarding of an award nomination.
The Academy Awards are announced and presented at an annual event held on a Sunday at the end of February or the beginning of March. I think this is the event that they like to have hosted by a comedian, and none of them wants to do it. Maybe they should try to get a politician instead -- some of those guys are naturals, and there's the bonus that they have no scruples. But maybe it was some other awards event. Some other film awards (specially selected because they're awarded by organizations with acronym names): ACEC, BAFTA, BFCA, CFCA.
When asked whether he had visited the Parthenon during a trip to Greece, Shaquille O'Neal said, `I can't really remember the names of the clubs that we went to.'
Although this datum is insufficient basis for making a definitive determination of intelligence, it is nevertheless interesting to know what the Shaq's own attitudes on intelligence are. He made some of these attitudes clear in January 1998. According to a report in the Saturday, Jan. 10, 1998 Sports section of the South Bend Tribune (probably not an exclusive, but there I read it), the Laker center criticized teammate Mario Bennett for not having his passport for the previous Wednesday's road trip to Vancouver. Shaq was quoted as saying
``He's an idiot, an idiot: I - D - I - U - T.''
Shaq has done some rap recordings, including ``You Can't Stop The Reign'' and ``Strait Playin'.''
The word for pail or bucket in German is Eimer. English had an archaic cognate of this word in ember. The ultimate etymology of these words is obscure, but one hypothesis is that they are related to the Greek word amphora.
Latin was used in Roman Britain, a Celtic region that for over four centuries was part of the Roman Empire. As the empire declined, however, so did the Roman presence in Britain. Whatever Latin was spoken in England was substantially extinguished, along with the Celtic culture, in fifth-century invasions and conquests by West Germanic tribes (mostly Angles, Saxons, and Jutes). The West Germanic languages had many loan words from Latin, particularly for trade items and saliently foreign features of Roman culture (church- and war-related terminology). There's no evidence of et being adopted, and no reason to expect it to be. Latin was reintroduced with the mission of Augustine of Canterbury, begun in 596. For an and symbol used in the Anglo-Saxon period, see this 7 entry.
The usual explanation for the name of this character begins that when children recited the alphabet, they used to go from A through Z and finish with the character &. Since the symbol is normally read as ``and,'' it was necessary to put some kind of verbal quotation marks around it, to indicate that it was being recited as a list item, and not as a conjunction. (``Zed and and'' sounds like a stutter and leaves you expecting more.) Today we might say that it was necessary to indicate that ``&'' was to be parsed as a string or character literal and not as an operator. This was long before people started raising their arms and flexing their index and middle fingers while saying quote, quote, unquote. Too bad, I'd have liked to have seen it. Instead, they used the Latin phrase per se in the sense of `as itself':
``... ex, wye, zed and -- per se and.''Eventually, ``and per se and'' became ampersand.
Y'know, Alexis Saint-Léger Léger used the pen name St.-John Perse. Somebody ought to look into this.
A similar situation explains the names of the Greek letters epsilon and upsilon. Originally, the letters were called by their sounds. (E.g., ``tò u'' -- `the u' -- for upsilon. As the sounds of Greek evolved, it happened that ai and oi came to have the same sounds as e and u respectively. Reflecting this fact, expressions like ``tò u psilón'' and ``tò psilòn u'' came to be used to indicate the single-letter ways of writing the sounds. The two expressions given literally mean `the bare u.' I think `the plain u' might express the sense better.
You say you're ``beading profusely''? Oh! Breeding profusely! Don't worry -- people used to have lots of kids; it won't kill you.
Still a popular cellular system in North America. Uses FDMA. Required by FCC to detect signals at -116 dBm in a 30 kHz band (825-844 MHz and 870-899 MHz), and to achieve a signal-to-(noise plus distortion) ratio of 12 dB at that power. The definitive standard for AMPS voice services is specified by TIA IS-53, entitled ``Cellular Features Description.'' Implementation mechanisms for those services are specified by TIA IS-41 (``Cellular Radio Telecommunications Intersystem Operations'').
(AT&T, the ol' Ma Bell, proposed the concept of mobile cellular to the FCC in 1968, a couple of years before it was possible to demonstrate the possibility of implementation. The FCC allocated spectrum for AMPS in 1983.)
GSM (q.v.) has about twice the capacity.
In 1989 they sold the label to PolyGram for about a half a billion dollars. (Alpert and Moss took management positions at PolyGram but left in 1993. When you're worth a quarter billion bucks or so, you can afford to retire at 58.) In 1998 PolyGram was absorbed by Universal Music Group, and in early 1999 Seagram's, which owned Universal, gutted A&M. The A&M label then continued as just a label for its backlist. (A good page of information up to that point is part of an online ``A&M & Related Labels Album Discography.'')
In 2000 Vivendi bought Seagram's, mostly for its media holdings. (They sold off the flagship liquor division for needed cash.) Vivendi was a French water utility that tried, under CEO Jean-Marie Messier, to become a global media power. They didn't make it. On October 8, 2003, they reached agreement with GE to sell Vivendi Universal Entertainment, which will become part of NBC (to be renamed NBC Universal). The merger is pending European and US regulatory approval, hoped for in 2Q 2004.
Jerry Moss was mainly a professional record promoter when he and Alpert teamed up. Herb Alpert you remember from Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass, right? Also known more appropriately, and sometimes credited, as ``Herb Alpert's Tijuana Brass.'' Initially, there was not a Tijuana Brass distinct from Herb Alpert. Herb and Jerry Moss took a break in recording to see a bullfight in Tijuana, and there heard a mariachi band. To produce a similar effect, they overdubbed Herb Alpert's trumpet. (Also, the engineer added bullfight crowd roars from a sound-effects record.) Alpert eventually put together a Tijuana Brass band for touring and broadcast performances. They were pretty MOR -- old people's music. So were other acts that A&M signed until about 1966.
It's not really relevant, but did you ever notice how a lot of English speakers, even in (upper) California, pronounce Tijuana with an extra shwa after the first i?
Cf. Society for American Music (SAM) and Society for Ethnomusicology (SEM).
Before 1961, the amu was based inconsistently on the mass of Oxygen (O). Physicists used an amu that was 1/16 the mass of an 16O, chemists used 1/16 the average mass of naturally occurring oxygen atoms, a mix mostly of 16O with small admixture of 17O and 18O.
The definition agreed to in 1961 was a compromise that had the precision of the physical definition (independent of the slightly variable naturally observed isotope mix of O) but a numerical value closer to the earlier chemical definition. Up to measurement error:
1 amu (international) = 1.000318 amu (physical) = 1.000043 amu (chemical)
Sometimes the physical and chemical definitions and values of these units were distinguished as pmu (physical mass unit) and cmu (chemical mass unit).
An amu is approximately the mass of a proton. It's a little less because nuclear binding energy is a few MeV per nucleon, and that is the main difference between the mass of an atom and the mass of its constituents. The difference in mass between the heavier neutron and lighter proton is just 1.3 MeV/c2, the mass of an electron is about negligible (1/1837 of a proton mass, or 0.000549 u), and the mass equivalent of the electronic binding energies is at least a couple of orders of magnitude down from that except for the largest atoms (just let me know when you plan to fully ionize a uranium atom).
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