In Spanish, Italian and various other languages, the letter w is called by a name that translates `double vee.' It seems to make more sense than double-yoo, but yoo and vee developed from different glyphs of the same Latin character.
The letter w was invented by Anglo-Saxon scribes and adopted on the continent. Later English scribes revived the wyn and started to use that instead of the w. Eventually, the w was reborrowed from the continent. In continental Europe, the letter had in fact been adopted primarily by speakers of Germanic languages and by the Normans (close). Romance-speakers often used gu, especially for words borrowed from Germanic. The different practices of Norman and non-Norman French scribes gave rise to English word pairs like warranty/guarantee. An alternate French practice, particularly with words of Latin origin, was to continue with the u/v, but to insert a silent intial h when necessary to indicate that an initial u represented a vowel.
Because of these practices, the letter w is somewhat exotic in many Romance languages (including French, Spanish, and Italian). In the Braille alphabet, the dot patterns are ordered systematically as one goes from a to v and then x, y, z. Braille was French.
In electricity and electronics, one watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere (W = VA) as a unit. See, however, the KVA entry for a subtlety.
Hey -- did you ever notice that W written upside-down looks like an M? Wow, mom! For more amazing insights, see the 4 magic M's entry.
The Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy serves a page of Washington state government links. USACityLink.com has a page with quite a few city and town links for the state.
The jpeg archive of Washington University of St. Louis Missouri (MO) has an aerial view of Tacoma.
Washington is a community property state.
The wa/ga distinction is approximately like the the/a distinction in English. In particular, -wa tends to mark subjects that have been introduced before -- possibly long before. Japanese also uses -wa demonstratively, like the English word this.
It is also used to mark abstractions or types. This is much like saying ``the brain'' in English to mean brains in general, construed singular. ``Any brain'' or ``every brain'' might work as well depending on context. In English, the pattern in this use of the is irregular (or perhaps its regularities are obscure and complicated). The Japanese use of -wa in this particular sense seems to be more like Spanish in its regularity.
Japanese nouns don't have grammatical number, and so far as I know there's is no distinction drawn between countable and uncountable, so these are not issues in Japanese as they are with English determiners.
The wa/ga distinction is not made in objects. The standard direct-object marker is just -o. [The different treatment of definiteness between subjects and objects is not so unusual. In Hebrew, the definite article ha gives less information for subjects than the form et ha that must be used with objects. (There's a famous example; I'm trying to remember it.)]
In transliteration to romaji, a particle like wa is sometimes written as a suffix, sometimes connected to the preceding word by a hyphen, and sometimes separated by a space. WAKE UP! One minor complication when discussing the particle -wa is that it's spelled with the hiragana character for ha, even though it is pronounced ``wa'' (and sometimes just ``a'').
The ha/wa sound difference is not as great as it would seem to speakers of English. The general reason can be traced to the fact that Japanese has fewer phonemes than English. One consequence of this (and of the far fewer consonant clusters, and of the mostly CV syllable structure) is that average word in Japanese has many more syllables than in English. The Japanese seem to compensate for this by speaking more syllables per minute. Another consequence of the fewer sounds is that one can vary the pronunciation more without creating ambiguity. (Just as well if you're going to talk faster.) The Japanese do seem to take advantage of this liberty.
For example, intervocalic g can be nasalized into ng. In particular, some Japanese pronounce onegai as onengai, and this is considered an acceptable variant, if it is noticed at all. (I refer to the single consonant ng: the ng of song or singer, not the ng of finger.) You can take advantage of this even where the Japanese do not. Specifically, Japanese has a single liquid phoneme, transcribed r, which Japanese-speakers pronounce fairly consistently like the Spanish single-r consonant. However, you can substitute a similar liquid -- English l, for example -- and many Japanese will have difficulty even detecting a difference, let alone detecting an error.
More relevant is the broad range of fricatives acceptable for the consonant in ha, hi, fu, he, and ho. You can say ``huton'' or ``hune'' with an English aitch for ``futon'' or ``fune,'' and only a purist might object. (Though this, at least, is a distinction that Japanese actually tend to be conscious of. There's a bit more on this at the tsu entry.) The essential point is that the place of articulation of the consonant is vague, and may be bilabial. This is reinforced by the fact that kana symbols for syllables beginning in b or p (voiced and unvoiced bilabial plosives) are created by adding diacritical marks to the kana for the corresponding h (or f) syllables. (For example, ba is ha with the usual voicing mark top right; pa is ha with a tiny circle top right.)
In summary, the h of ha can be bilabial. The w of wa, on the other hand, is a voiced bilabial. (Or labio-velar -- please let's not get into that.) Hence, the only essential difference between ha and wa is one of voicing. (And as long as you're asking: no, I don't think I've heard -wa ever pronounced -hwa, but my exposure is limited.)
WAAIME does education-related charitable or promotional work -- funding book and library resources, and giving educational financial aid. It annually ``awards scholarships totaling more than $100,000 to students pursuing mining, metallurgical, or petroleum professions.'' The thing they do that has the highest humor coefficient, however, is sponsor an ``essay/poem contest ... to encourage students and teachers to read, think and write about useful minerals in their everyday lives.'' It's open to students in elementary and secondary schools. The theme for the 2001-2002 contest was ``My Most Useful Mineral.'' More than 10% of submitted entries won. ``Salt encompasses many things, / The oceans, relaxation aides, and chicken wings.'' ``Amazonite gives stamina, faith and compassion, / Comes in green to blue-green, the latest in fashion....'' The 2003-2004 contest has been cancelled. Darn, I was going to submit the poem I copied into the I (Iodine) entry.
Oh, you know who runs that racket. The fix is in. It's all based on SAT (Sludge Aptitude Test) scores.
Father says "Your mother's right, she's really up on things.Better yet, don't recall it.)
Before we married, mommy served in the WACs in the Philippines."
Now I had heard the WACs recruited old maids for the war.
But mommy isn't one of those, I've known her all these years.
In fact, the corps was originally designated the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps and apparently abbreviated WAACs, but eventually the ``Auxiliary'' was dropped and WAC (no ess) became the official acronym, possibly following popular usage. I'd have to do a little work to track down the precise chronology, but that's my best understanding as of now.
``One way to facilitate critical thinking [whatever that is]. ... [A m]ovement to broaden the scope of student writing beyond the confines of the English Department. [It's b]ased on the notion that writing increases subject area knowledge. [It's also b]ased on the notion that the subject area provides a necessary context for writing instruction.''
This reminds me of my experience trying to find out what ``AL'' (action learning) might be. At the time, I thought the circumstantial, almost evasive description was a symptom of business journalism.
Okay, after poking around some more, I've concluded that WAC is the practice of including inappropriate writing assignments in courses outside the English department, and the justification of this malpractice. WAC will take inches off your waistline and perform other wonders. Most of the people who advocate WAC sincerely believe that the process of writing is so intrinsically educational that adding writing assignments to a course is not an onerous distraction. (See WTL.) If I seriously believed this, I wouldn't assign any calculations. I'd assign homeworks like ``Think critically about the electronic eigenstates of the hydrogen atom. Consider alternative opinions. Present arguments for and against. Remember that in the real world there are no `right answers'.''
As long as we're going to have WAC, however, I think it'd only be fair to also have ``calculating across the curriculum.'' Students would be assigned calculations to back up the airy claims in their essays.
Since that time it's been headed by Dick Pound. Doping is detected by means of urinalysis.
Wageningen University (Wageningen Universiteit) was founded in 1918 as the Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (literally `Wageningen Agricultural High School'), continuing the earlier Rijksland- en tuinbouwschool Wageningen (something like `Wageningen Royal Country and Horticulture School'). It was called the Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (`Wageningen Agricultural University'; you should be getting the hang of this by now) between 1986 and 2000, when it assumed its current name.
``The members of WAGS are accredited institutions of high education in the western United States and Canada that offer Master's and Doctoral degrees. WAGS is a regional association affiliated with the U.S. Council of Graduate Schools.''
The organization has official names in Spanish, French, and German: Asociación Mundial Para La Salud Mental Infantil, Association Mondiale de Santé Mentale du Nourrison, Internationale Gesellschaft für Seelische Gesundheit in der frühen Kindheit.
The scores on Wechsler subtests are scaled to a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. They combine (and evidently rescale by a factor of 1/2) to get an overall IQ score with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15.
This test is not used as widely, but it's faster. This one takes longer.
See also WAIS-III, WAIS-R, WISC.
It was invented by Brewster Kahle, who eventually sold it to America OnLine (AOL) for $15 million. I really can hardly believe this -- I can't figure out what part of WAIS is sellable. (But more power to him!) Oh, well. This according to The Chronicle of Higher Education, 6 March 1998, in an article by Jeffrey Selingo on Kahle's subsequent venture, a nonprofit archiving of the web (the Internet Archive), and a suite of search tools, Alexa, that evolved out of that effort. Alexa has since been sold to Amazon, but still donates its archiving crawls (two months apiece) to the Internet Archive, with a six-month delay. Since the beginning of 1999, only text has been archived, and no images.
Certain terms are used to characterize the scores, of population fractions computed on the assumption that the distribution is normal (the mean and standard deviation are adjusted to maintain mean 100, standard deviation 15, despite changing raw scores that depend on questions selected).
|Designation||IQ range||population fraction so designated|
|Borderline intellectual functioning||70-79||6.7%|
Alternatively, the verb wait often takes a prepositional phrase in on. Traditionally, this construction had a different meaning and the preposition on took a different kind of object. To wait on a person is to serve that person. (See Waiting. Or read it; I don't think it's been made into a movie yet. Sorry.)
Sometime in the mid-1990's, I began to hear people in fast-food restaurants (you know -- hot food-item retailers) saying things like ``I'm waiting on the fries.'' Under the old rules, the ``on'' should have been ``for.'' I don't know if fast-food workers were the vectors that transmitted this language disorder to the wider public, but wherever it broke out originally, it's epidemic now.
One topic not discussed in the book is cigarette smoking (she does discuss cigars), even though it is an important seating issue. My impression is that most waiters and waitresses smoke, though rarely do they reek. More at the non entry. (I mean the entry for non.)
Other entries of this glossary that cite Waiting:
Some restaurants might use ``waitstaff'' because it's shorter than ``waiter or waitress'' or ``waiters and waitresses'' or whatever. Many probably use it because elegant language is not a specialty of the house. It wouldn't be a problem if the sexually marked (``gendered'') term waitress were not so common, because then waiter might be confidently regarded as an unmarked term. Just be glad that such gendered occupational terms are the exception rather than the rule in English. We have but a sample, a taste, of the problems and awkwardness that are widespread in languages like French, Spanish, and German.
The obvious word server, although indifferently male or female, has some problems of its own: some people dislike the associations of serve, particularly the word servant. Also, serving food is only one part of waiting table, and server is the natural word for the those who, in some restaurants, do a part of the serving that waiters and waitresses don't do. (And in small restaurants that are not dysfunctional, anybody in the ``front of the house'' will water tables and do similar stuff to take some of the pressure off any waiters or waitresses who are headed for the weeds.)
There are subtle indications, moreover (I seem to recall a suggestion in that direction in Waiting), of a semantic distinction that would make the term wait staff somewhat useful and hence not so ugly. That is, ``wait staff'' can be taken to comprise not just waiters and waitresses but other restaurant employees in the front of the house, particularly busboys, bartenders, and hosts (hosts and hostesses, maîtres d', seaters, greeters, choose your term).
Once past the want ads, in any case, one does not yet find the restaurant business to be roiled by sexual correctness. Managers at most restaurants do seem to be genuinely indifferent to whether they hire waiters or waitresses -- their problem is usually finding enough. (Certainly the ancient complaint about women not making a career of it doesn't matter: waiting is highly transient work.) On the other hand, most of the waiters and waitresses in the local restaurants are in fact waitresses (or waiters in convincing drag, I suppose). It seems that all of the front of the house is becoming increasingly feminized, with busgirls tending to replace busboys, and hostesses replacing hosts even on the night shift. The usual collective term for waiters and waitresses is ``the girls'' (as noted earlier). The last maps I saw of table assignments were labeled ``two-girl assignments, three-girl assignments'' and so forth.
In Plainville, USA, an anthropological study of a small, isolated farming town in the Midwest, there's a discussion of occupations, and naturally for the era (pre-WWII), the available options were more restricted for women than for men. Those options were further narrowed by societal pressures.
... ``Working out'' (housework) is considered undignified. It is not thought good for a girl to train herself for secretarial or office work in a large city. A few girls do get jobs ``outside,'' [out of the Plainville area] in factories and offices, or as waitresses, housemaids, and hotel maids, but with much difficulty because their families (and in a sense the whole community) must know much about the job in advance before feeling that their daughters will be ``safe.'' Parents of a girl doing housework for a city family sometimes boast about how ``rich'' the family is and how well they ``treat'' the girl, so that people at home will not think of her as simply ``working out.'' When a girl becomes a ``hasher'' (waitress) or hotel maid in Largetown or elsewhere, as some lower-class girls do, she is generally assumed to have become a prostitute also.
I was reminded of this when I read about a case study by the psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley, of a 20-year-old woman he referred to as ``Roberta.'' It was published in The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt To Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co., 2/e 1950), as the second of twelve chapters, one per person, in a subsection illustrating ``The Disorder in Full Clinical Manifestation.''
Roberta became his patient in the early 1940's, so her experiences coincide closely with the period of the first Plainville study. She left her parents' home one day without a word, going off to a distant town to visit a boyfriend who turned out to be away. Perhaps there was nothing in her behavior (before she became a petty thief and forger) that would have been strange if she'd been a girl from a poor family and had no home to go to, except that she hardly cared what anyone thought. She bumped around briefly, then took a bus to Charlotte, North Carolina. ``Reaching Charlotte, she had little trouble finding small jobs in restaurants and stores. She supported herself for several days by working but found her funds barely provided for room and food. She thereupon began to spend the nights with various tipsy soldiers, travelling salesmen, and other men who showed inclination to pick her up. With all these she had sexual intercourse.''
Wait, sucker! Your welcome screen and email inbox are infested with AOL ads!
Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DIS CO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Roc ks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DIS CO ROCKS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROC KS! Disco Rocks! DISCO Rocks! Disco ROCKS! DISCO ROCKS!
In 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 minute lengths. Volume and academic discounts also available. FM 95.9 in Youngstown, Ohio, claims to be the home of ``ALL THE HITS!'' I find this conceptually challenging.
I have to admit that I was slightly skeptical when I read this, particularly after a Google search turned up only one mention of the group, and that one was in a review of Ginsberg's book. It's nonfiction, but it's published by HarperCollins. (I did run across a clearly nonfictional Anti-Tipping Society of America that flourished in the first quarter of the 20th century.)
So you can imagine my surprise a few years ago when I received an email complaining that this entry was ``seriously misleading,'' and confirming all the details of Debra Ginsberg's description quoted above. My correspondent also judged that the ``members of W.A.N.T. were [praise the tense] certainly not extremists in any sense of the word.'' Well, I didn't call them terrorists. They were more like people who steal things for themselves not because they want to break the law but because they don't believe in private property. The group certainly never represented more than an extreme minority of diners, and in this sense its extremeness was a welcome thing. All one could ask was that they had become a more extreme minority more quickly.
According to my helpful informant, the group was founded by Richard Busemeyer in December 1987. Here is the text on the card (bifold, business size) that members of his organization distributed:
About Your Tip
Please do not be offended because you have not received a monetary tip. It has nothing to do with your service.
I am a member of WANT (Wages And Not Tips). We are against the antiquated practice of tipping because:
It is unfair to employees who are underpaid and, therefore, must depend on degrading themselves for tips.
It is unfair to consumers who are made to feel that tipping is a necessary part of certain businesses, even though the service provided is due the customer at the posted prices.
Unfair to the government (all of us) because taxes are often not paid on tips received.
It is unfortunate that you must suffer until the practice is changed and you are paid fair wages.
Please show this to your employer. Tell him you don't want handouts, you want a paycheck.
W.A.N.T. Wages and not tips
(There was a Cincinnati post office box address.)
In 1988, the US minimum wage for restaurant staff ``eligible for tips'' was $2.01 an hour. By 2010 it had soared to $2.13 an hour. (I double checked: Kellie showed me her pay statement.) At the local (Northern Indiana) family restaurants, the de jure minimum wage is also the de facto maximum wage. The IRS assumes that waiters earn tips equal to 12.5% of sales billed to their patrons. (Before you do the arithmetic, you may want to read the tipout entry.)
I remember once after a long afternoon at a Tempe pub, my Mancunian friend S. tossed a clearly inadequate quantity of change on the table and it dawned on me that he had performed no calculation. Some people seem to leap from the correct proposition that tipping is an approximate science to the fantasy that it is nonquantitative. (His wife, who once worked as a waitress, was there at the time; I'm pretty sure that his poor tipping habits weren't the main cause of their eventual divorce, but it probably didn't help.)
Ginsberg reports: ``I've actually seen fights break out over which country, France or Germany, has the cheapest diners.'' (Page 40; she considers and dismisses the ignorance alibi.)
For the first couple of years after Bernard Shaw moved to London, he managed to avoid holding a job. His first regular employment there was in 1879, when he spent some months working for the Edison Telephone Company. In the preface to his second novel, The Irrational Knot, he explains that he derived some enjoyment from the discomfiture of visitors, who were uncertain whether they ought to tip him after he demonstrated the operation of the telephone for them.
One suspects that he enjoyed their discomfiture in part because of his own severe shyness, described in the preface to Immaturity. (If you've never seen a GBS play between covers, you may not realize that most of his works were written as excuses for prefaces.)
(Before you judge all this discomfiture and shyness too harshly, recognize that the events and circumstances under discussion took place in the Victorian era, the high point in concern for propriety. By ``concern'' I mean that propriety was understood to be the larger part of morality.)
Returning home for the Summer at the end of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, as the Hogwarts Express pulls into the station, Harry gives his best friends his phone number. To Ron, a pureblood wizard, he has to give some clarifying information (is it okay if I call it a ``tip''?): ``This is called a telephone number. I told your dad how to use a telephone last summer -- he'll know.''
A search engine adapted for ease of use via WAP is WapItOut.
The old WARF page is still accessible.
Until the 1980's, about half the disposable chopsticks used in Japan were produced domestically. I'm not sure, but I imagine the rest came mostly from Korea or North America. Then China started supplying them at a much lower price: one to two yen -- less than one or two US cents -- per pair. Does that include a neat paper wrapper that you can fold into a chopstick rest?
Either way, by 2006, Japanese were using 25 billion pairs per year -- about 200 pair per capita per annum -- over 90% from China. In 2005, Chinese producers started raising prices in response to increased wood supply prices. The PRC government imposed a 5% tax on wooden chopstick exports, and warned that it would eventually ban waribashi exports altogether. (The Japanese newspapers Mainichi and Nihon Keizai reported that the cut-off might occur as early as 2008.)
I suppose that fractionally, 50% price increases are more shocking than the gas-price increases we've seen in the same period, but this still seems like a sandstorm in a ricebowl to me. If this were a news article, a few more lines would write themselves -- search for alternate suppliers (Russia, Vietnam, Indonesia), shift to bamboo, blah blah blah. Elementary economics isn't a required high-school subject, so the newspapers teach it on a daily basis. Plastic chopsticks cost about 100 yen a pair, and can be reused about 130 times, according to a spokesman for the Osaka-based restaurant-chain operator Marche Corp., which switched its 760 outlets to plastic in February 2006 after testing various after testing various alternatives. Don't soap and water cost too?
The word war, like the cold war, began during the last stages of the last world war. Large parts of the German lexical apparatus were dismantled and reassembled in the new enemy camps, recruited willy-nilly into the new war effort. Members of the Frankfurt school were given American citizenship, and many frankfurters were bought outright by the CIA (q.v.). Grievous two-page-long extended adjective constructions were quietly ``forgotten,'' though the authors had shown no signs of remorse.
The infusion of German word technology had varied but deep effects. For example, ``characteristic vector'' was definitively replaced by the superior ``eigenvector,'' and the clumsy, incomprehensible ``social sciences'' has begun to be superseded by the graceful, selbstverständliche ``Geisteswissenschaften.'' This is the kind of word that can make you proud of your work, no matter how humble the work really ought to make you feel. Words like Heideggerian, Freudian, and Schadenfreudian have enriched technical vocabulary by providing synonyms for obscurantist, sexual and nyah-nyah that are precise and dignified. The metric system has been introduced, and now the measure of words is taken accurately in gleaming modern meters, instead of stinky feet. (Similarly, weighty literary output is reckoned in kilograms, instead of the board-feet used in an earlier, more superficial time.)
Eventually, word warriors came to the startling realization that foreign words are unknown in the languages of adoption. It was realized that this is not a disadvantage but an opportunity: a foreign word can be regarded as a tabula rasa [Latin term, pronounced ``tucker,'' meaning `dry bucket']. That is, an authentic sequence of letters that constitute a foreign word, just as they are not (indeed, generally cannot be) pronounced as in the original language, also can be assigned fanciful meanings and nuances that did not exist in the original language. This idea was put most famously into practice with Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, reinvented by C. P. Loomis in his translation Community and Society (Lansing: Michigan St. U. P., 1957) of Ferdinand Tönnies's Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887). (Tönnies is spelled Toennies in German when ö is unavailable. ``Tonnies'' is a misspelling.)
(You know, I don't want to interrupt the careful logic of this intricate argument, but right around now I'm hoping that you've visited the floating signifier entry.)
Today, the war consumes ever-increasing quantities of precious national intellectual resources, in a never-ending race for the illusory security of the ``respectability high ground.'' For example, after organic chemistry revolutionized table-talk with the cis-trans buzz-dichotomy, sociological word wizards working without sleep rigged up etic-emic to reëstablish parity. Similarly, when Comte, knowing the proverbial small Latin and less Greek, combined the two in the transgenic coinage ``sociology,'' he established a standard of etymologic mischief unequaled until Electrical Engineering answered: first with electrocute and, finally and definitively, with television--whose language-destructive megatonnage is unquestioned and unrivaled.
It has been computed that current stockpiles of hot air and smoke are enough to toast the literate world's remaining gray matter to a cinder six and a half times over, and impose a mental ``nuclear winter'' longer than Andy Warhol's movie ``Empire.'' Nevertheless, terrifying new words continue to be mass-produced. In this balance of terrible words, there is not an exact parity, but the opponent sides have different weaknesses. For example, physics has a near monopoly on whimsy, while sociology edges out electrical engineering for acronyms -- well-named ``the concussion grenades of semiotics'' in the popular expression. This balance of terrible is well-characterized as ``MAD,'' to borrow the expression of war historian Robert Strange McNamara.
As the word race continues to escalate, still more dangerous locutions are
invented and quickly put into the field. Sometimes, in the rush to keep up,
corners are cut in the certification process. The
tragic incident involving [
CENSORED], which was quickly withdrawn
from journals, has been a sobering lesson to us all. (Do not attempt to speak
this word in your own mouth! A trained CPR
specialist must be present!) Accomplished polyglot linguists have been known
to bite themselves badly during alpha testing of powerful neologisms. Even now, not all details of the
hello,world particle project
debacle have yet been revealed. Maybe we don't want to know.
If you've read this far, you may need stronger insomnia medicine. Try Husserl's contemptibly ignorant, condemnably stentorian, and widely admired The Crisis of European Sciences. If you want to know the etymology of Geisteswissenschaften, see the calque entry.
To be fair, I think it was confusing because the story started out as a series of intermittent news flash interruptions in a music format entertainment. The whole thing had the authentic feel of the disorder surrounding a mounting disaster.
For a better account, try Hadley Cantril's The invasion from Mars: a study in the psychology of panic: with the complete script of the famous Orson Welles broadcast.
Although press accounts at the time suggested widespread hysteria, more recent research suggests that press reports were exaggerated.
WAS was first described in this pair of articles by Daly and Miller in volume 9 of Research in the Teaching of English:
There's also something related, called the ``Writer's Block Questionnaire'' created by M. Rose and detailed in Appendix A of his Writers Block: The Cognitive Dimension, (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984). However, there is an evident reluctance to abbreviate this by WBQ. I don't know why, but I can't bring myself to write an entry for it in this acronym glossary.
Welcome to The Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges Western Association of Schools and Colleges.
I should note that although eigo means `English,' it is not a derived from the word English. It's not a simplified pronunciation, just a coincidence. (On g for ng, see this ng entry.)
When the Moonies tried to recruit me in San Francisco, they accosted me with the line ``Haven't we met before?'' (This works on men, maybe that's why we expect it to work on women.) ``Have you ever been in Washington?'' Sure I'd been in Washington... the District of Columbia. Being from the East, I didn't think of Washington State. That's all I wanted to say.
Was it me, or wasn't it? Only my hairdresser knows for sure.
This joke is really very funny, and you should have laughed your head off. Seriously, you should be experiencing severe intestinal pain, and there should be dirt from the floor adhering to the clothing on your outer thighs. (I assume you are dressed, formally, as you read this. This is a decent glossary.) Let me explain: there was once an ad campaign for some hair product, sold to dissimulate youth and beauty, that had the catch phrase ``Does she, or doesn't she? Only her hairdresser knows for sure.'' This was a cultural reference. No longer at sea, you have your bearings in alphabet soup.
What color was Ronald Reagan's hair?
The consortium has used the WASP acronym productively, as in WASP0 (for a prototype instrument) and SuperWASP (for the current stage of projects. The acronym was originally used with the expansion Wide Angle Survey Patrol in an unsuccessful funding proposal by astronomers at Leicester University. This shows that it's not enough just to have a good acronym; there has to be a good expansion backing it up.
In the tenth of his ten Duino Elegies, Rilke wrote (ll. 44-48):
Wo? Und der Jüngling
folgt. Ihn rührt ihre Haltung. Die Schulter, der Hals--, vielleicht
ist sie von herrlicher Herkunft. Aber er läßt sie, kehrt um,
wendet sich, winkt . . . Was solls? Sie ist eine Klage.
From a translation published in 1939 (by J.B. Leishman, in collaboration with Stephen Spender)
Where? And the youth
follows. He's touched by her manner. Her shoulder, her neck,--perhaps
she comes of a famous stock? But he leaves her, turns back,
looks round, nods . . . What's the use? She's just a Lament.
We have local entries for DHMO, dry water, hard water, and heavy water.
In other languages, the English word water has sometimes been borrowed with the meaning of `flush toilet,' as a shortened form of water closet (W.C.).
Shock absorbers for this effect are called ``water-hammer arrestors'' (``...arresters'' is a common enough variant).
When I refer to Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry in this glossary, if I should ever happen to do so, I will mean the edition revised and entirely rewritten by H. Forster Morley, M.A., D.Sc. (Fellow of University College, London, and Professor of Chemistry at Queen's College, London) and M.M. Pattison Muir, M.A. (Fellow, and Prælector in Chemistry, of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge), assisted by eminent contributors, in four volumes, published in 1892 (London and New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.). Each volume is about 800 or 900 pages long and each page is loaded down with long cellulose fibers and words. Don't pick a fight with a chemistry librarian.
On second thought, maybe I'll just pop all that interesting text into every entry that mentions the work, making this entry, err, footnote, entirely superfluous.
All that in idea seemed simple became in practice immediately complex; as the waves shape themselves symmetrically from the cliff top, but to the swimmer among them are divided by steep gulfs, and foaming crests.
Another thing you probably didn't have in mind was the action of waves on surfboards.
As of this writing (January 2001), these are the twenty-nine countries in the visa waiver program:
Brunei? For now, I guess. When the oil runs out in another decade and they're poorer than Indonesians, maybe things'll be different. Interestingly, there's been no change in the list of participating countries in the five years since I put this list in.
Canadians don't get I-94 cards unless they request them, and are assumed to be in B-visa status.
Note that, in principle, this is ambiguous: if front and rear wheels are of different diameter, horizontal separation is not equal to axle-center separation. In practice, this only matters on dragsters. The reason is that the difference is what one calls a ``second-order correction.'' Suppose that the total centerline-to-centerline separation between axles is C, the horizontal separation between wheel centers on level ground is W, and the difference in wheel radii (under whatever load) is h. Then W and h are the legs of a right triangle with hypotenuse C, and
On a truck with two rear axles, WB is conventionally taken as the distance between the front axle and the midline between the two rear axles.
The World Bank sends a lot of money and stern, well-intentioned advice to a place called Africa. It's pretty certain that the well-intentioned advice is not diverted to Swiss bank accounts. In Africa as everywhere else, the World Bank is hated. There: three sentences to establish a transition to a tenuously (okay, gratuitously) connected issue. The issue was #92 of the quarterly magazine Granta. This was a special issue on Africa, with an article by Binyavanga Wainaina in the how-to-cook-a-potboiler genre: ``How to write about Africa'' (fiction or reportage -- but I repeat myself). A sample of the detailed instructions: ``Bad Western characters may include children of Tory cabinet ministers, Afrikaners, employees of the World Bank.''
In the 1990's the International Olympic Committee was moving cautiously but steadily towards making bridge a medal sport. (Yes, a sport: In 1995, the International Olympic Committee designated bridge, along with chess, as a ``mind sport.'') Anyway, to make a long story short so I can publish this webpage already, the effort was a house of cards, and it collapsed in 2002.
Wheaties! Bananas! Gorilla Milk! Bazooka!Back when I was in Boy Scout camp, the troops in mess were divided up into four competing shouting sections.
For the sake of a small joke, I made that entry slightly confusing, so let me try to make amends: tungsten carbide is a heterogeneous catalyst.
As of January 2005, the homepage has a photograph of two WCA apparatchiks with President George W. Bush. They're all wearing very similar light-blue ties. I know there are people who will look askance at this, but please -- don't dismiss the WCA until you have the complete story!
The match consisted of alternating rounds of chess (4 minutes) and boxing (2 minutes). According to the rules, a KO or checkmate could end the match; otherwise, it ended after eleven rounds. I have no details on how the judges were supposed to score it, but in the event, Tihomir 'Tiger' Titschko scored a check-mate over Andreas 'Doomsday' Schneider in the ninth round. (TTT used a dragon variation of the Sicilian opening, but further details were scarce.)
Apparently the name is old, of Native American origin, but Whatcom looks like the question that some dotcom would be the answer to. Bellingham looks to be closer to Vancouver than Seattle. Everyone has heard of Bellingham because SPIE is based there, right?
``The Cooperative advancing the effective use of technology in higher education.''
``The''? Interesting capitalization, too.
There are three major world conferences on photovoltaics (PV's) for solar energy conversion, one each in the US (PVSC), Europe (EU-PSEC) and Asia (PVSEC). Each of these meets once every year-and-a-half. Starting in 1994, the three conferences have been held jointly once every four years or thereabouts. The second one, in 1998, was hosted by the Europeans. Evidently because their big conference includes ``and Exhibition'' in the official title, their WCPEC was called the ``Second World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion.''
This has nothing to do with WKRP, but I put in a link anyway. You're welcome. Actually, there isn't any WKRP entry right now, so I sent you to the next-best thing -- QRP. Yes, I'm very thoughtful aren't I.
Still under construction, but already provocative: ``Alcohol is a gateway drug which may lead the user to experiment with illegal drugs.''
I think the WCTU should stop playing softball. The plain fact is, virtually everyone who smokes marijuana (``pot'') has tried chocolate first. Obviously, we must illegalize it. In fact, criminalization is clearly not enough. Experience shows that chocolate users will lie to hide their consumption. The testimony presented before sessions of OA, exceedingly reliable because it was obtained with the promise only of anonymity, without compromising the possibility of eventual prosecution, shows that chocolate is a `hard' addiction, leading sooner or later to obesity, heart disease, and death.
No, mere criminalization will not win this holy war; we must make chocolate unconstitutional, and we should enforce a policy of less than zero tolerance. That's right: anyone found with any nonnegative quantity of the substance, down to and including zero, will be deemed suspect and therefore guilty. In keeping with established practice in the hugely successful, or at least lucrative, drug war, anyone suspected of chocolate use will be liable to have their property confiscated. Of course, Constitutional due process protections apply: Property can be confiscated only if the suspect might have been in or near said property at or about the time that he or she may or may not have thought about illegal possession of chocolate.
Of course, the problem of jail space must be faced squarely. In the drug war to date, jail space has not been a problem, because mandatory sentencing laws that put the morally decrepit weekend toker away for life do not prevent the state from making space by giving early release to one-time murderers and child molesters. However, because of the widespread social acceptance of chocolate abuse, incarceration rates will skyrocket. Part of this problem will be solved by conversion of currently unused and underused space. Specifically, all states with fewer than seven electoral college votes will be converted to jails. Any unconvicted residents of Texas will be drafted for guard duty.
That will do for the users. For pushers -- dime store clerks (the CSP gang), vending-machine attendants, girl scouts and similar incorrigibles -- the electric chair. That'll teach'em.
Learn these warning signs:
BTW, if you came here from the B-2 entry, hoping for enlightenment on the French word gauche, then you sure have had quite a long detour, haven't you? Oh, alright, I relent: it means `lacking in social polish or tact.' You know -- savoir-faireless.
Everyone agrees that http://www.wisconsindental.com/ is the new site, but as of January 2000 there's some problem. If this is a really big disappointment to you, follow this link to the Washington Ozaukee County Dental Society. ``It promotes dental health and education in Washington and Ozaukee Counties [of southeastern Wisconsin]. WOzCDS is a nonprofit component society of the Wisconsin and American Dental Associations.''
Wisconsin (WI), of course, is known for cheese. A major cause of tooth decay is acidity in the mouth, from whatever cause (acid reflux, acidic foods, decreased salivation). Cheese is one of the foods that quickly reduces acidity in the mouth, and so prevents tooth decay. Kobe sells beef that's been bathed in beer, Wisconsin ought to try marketing cheese from cows raised on (and bathed in?) highly fluoridated water.
Back in 1995 or so, a study of carving boards found that wood was more antiseptic than plastic. This was a surprise, because it had been thought that (a) wood is a more tempting growth medium for microbes than plastic and (b) a plastic surface can be washed more completely. Maybe there is a persistent antibacterial agent in wood.
(Internal combustion engines are also heat engines, but the working fluid is exhausted rather than being returned to its initial condition, so the maximum theoretical efficiency, will still bounded strictly away from unity, is not such an easy question to answer.)
The ECMWF maintains a page of meteorology links.
[The term white plague typically refers, meteorologically speaking, to hail and not snow. But I have a poetic license.]
The Weather Channel. (TWC) has forecasts.
A quick place to get the current weather and related astronomical information is the Weather Underground. A good resource, but not a very good name. There was a US terrorist group in the sixties that called itself ``The Weathermen'' (their name was inspired by a Bob Dylan lyric -- you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows). Later, they changed the name to ``the Weather Underground'' because, hey, terrorists have to be politically correct -- isn't that the whole point? This Weather Underground and that are completely unrelated, but I wish they'd chosen another name. I'm more interested in the weather aboveground, outdoors. They also chose the domain name <wunderground.com>, which suggests the German word Wunder (BTW, the cognate of English `ground' in German is Grund).
Hot, Cold, Ha Ha Ha.
Sun, Clouds, Ha Ha Ha.
Rain, Snow, Wind, Hail, Ha Ha Ha, Ha Ha Ha.
Cold front, Low pressure system. Ha Ha.
Tomorrow's weather when we return after this word from our sponsor.
Ha Ha Ha.
Whatever it is, it's bad for you.
On the other hand, in one of Douglas Adams's HHGttG, Ford Prefect says: ``This must be a Thursday. I could never get the hang of Thursdays.''
Back in the days before quantum mechanics, there was a ``Quantum Theory'' that married ad hoc discreteness hypotheses to a fundamentally incompatible classical theory based on continuum models. To use this jury-rigged theory required a certain agile willingness to ignore discrete aspects during essentially classical measurement, and the inconsistent continuum aspects during quantum modeling. After 1925, most of classical mechanics was subsumed under quantum mechanics as an approximation thereof, but the measurement process has continued to contain some mystery. The apposite comment of Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) has been much cited:
We use the classical theory on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and the quantum theory on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.Observe the consistency.
I understand that this alludes to an earlier famous comment that I don't know, possibly of John Calvin.
I always forget the name. In principle, the term applies to any heatable receptacle that is sealed at the top with a long neck that extends sideways or down. Various shapes have been used for distillation. However, the classic alembic looks like a glass gourd with a tapering neck bent over so it points downward (toward the plane of the base of the gourd shape).
The initial al- in the name and the history of alchemy both suggest that the word is from Arabic, and it is, though the proximate source is French and ultimate source is Greek: < Fr. alambic < Ar. al anbiq (`the still') < Gk. ambix, ambik- `cup, beaker, cup of a still.' Ambix is an alternative word for alembic in English, and both Alembic and Ambix are associated with publications about the history of chemistry.
In particular, Ambix is the journal of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry. (ISSN 0002-6980). Over a period of decades, the Alembic Club published at Edinburgh a number of reprints of important documents in the history of chemistry. The earliest Alembic Club reprint I am aware of was published in 1898: Joseph Black's famous Experiments upon magnesia alba. The last, afaik, was in 1958: X-rays and the electric conductivity of gases; comprising papers by W.C. Röntgen (1895, 1896) J.J. Thomson and E. Rutherford (1896) With an historical introd. by N. Feather.
This axiom is typically disregarded when it is inconvenient. A much more popular axiom in nonscholarly Biblical studies is that texts written before an event are most trustworthy. (Hey -- they haven't been proven false!)
For example, Herbert Clark Hoover might be described as the well-known commentator and co-translator (with his wife Lou Henry Hoover) of De Re Metallica. A related but distinct rhetorical situation occurs in the Barbarossa entry, where I rightly describe Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus as ``famous.'' You've heard of him.
Next on the list might be Ossining Village and Ossining Town; they aren't so well-known directly, but on account of the state prison known as Sing Sing. The village of Sing Sing was incorporated in 1813. (Named after the Sint Sinck Indian tribe.) On the basis of a respected authority, a different form of the the name, Ossinsing, was chosen for a town incorporated in 1845, north of the village. This was changed to Ossining (considered easier to pronounce) the next year. The state prison was built there in 1825-1828, the site being chosen on the basis of quarry resources that would provide work for the inmates (marble quarries and also some galena, indicating the possibility of silver). Other industries were introduced. The growing labor movement in the late nineteenth century opposed competition from prison labor and promoted boycotts of goods from Sing Sing. To avoid the bad business associations, the village of Sing Sing changed its name to Ossining Village in 1901. In 1970 the prison followed suit, becoming the Ossining Correctional Facility. There was an uprising and hostage situation there in 1983, and apparently one of the lessons taken from that tragedy was that no one was ever going to stop thinking of the place as anything but ``Sing Sing,'' and in 1985 it was renamed Sing Sing Correctional Facility.
Sing Sing was home to many of New York's most dangerous felons, and is famous as the place which first used the electric chair. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, executed there in 1953, are probably the best known.
Interestingly, the first New York State prison (Newgate, opened 1797) was built in Greenwich Village.
``What a great traveller you must have been, ma'am!'' said Mrs. Musgrove to Mrs. Croft.
``Pretty well, ma'am, in the fifteen years of my marriage; though many women have done more. I have crossed the Atlantic four times, and have been once to the East Indies, and back again, and only once; besides being in different places about home: Cork, and Lisbon, and Gibraltar. But I never went beyond the Streights, and never was in the West Indies. We do not call Bermuda or Bahama, you know, the West Indies.''
A lot of the world's species are disease bacteria. We must protect them!
I never hear about this organization. It's probably the labor organization for makers of western europeans. They've probably been on strike.
You know, all the major continental European countries have achieved (or suffer, if you're a national pension-fund analyst) fertility rates that should eventually lead to negative population growth. (Most of the countries are still growing, partly because of immigration and partly due to the shape of the age distribution. Among the largest EU countries, France boasts the highest rate of natural increase, but in the Basilica of Saint Denis, Pippin the Short spins.) Italy is at about 1.3 children per woman, equal to Japan. In Sweden, with a package of generous incentives, the pension-fund analysts were handing out cigars (figuratively speaking, okay?), but fertility collapsed in the recession year of 1990, and it never came back. The US has fertility rates slightly below replacement level as well, but the effect of immigration is enormous, particularly because the immigrant population tends to be skewed toward young adults, so the US is growing at the highest rate of any industrialized country.
Normally, about 105 baby boys are born per 100 baby girls. Thus, population equilibrium requires an average of 2.05 children per woman. Depending on how one deals with childhood mortality of females, that can nudge the equilibrium fertility rate up a bit. People normally talk of 2.1 as the replacement level.
Of course, in China, the sex ratio is higher; it appears to be in excess of 1.14. The cause is understood to be the traditional preference for male children, combined with a severe (though unevenly enforced) government policy to limit births. The precise mechanism is a ``mystery,'' but the main question is whether female infanticide or selective abortion is the more important factor. Ultrasound testing is widespread, but operators are forbidden by law to identify the sex of the fetus. In practice, the law doesn't impose any significant barrier to the communication of that information. Under-reporting of female births has also been suggested.
Moreover, thousands of baby girls are abandoned in China every year. (They're Chinese girls. It's not as if people from neighboring countries go to China to ditch their children. I just put the prepositional locative in there so you'd know that we are still on the subject of sex-ratio in China, even though it's a new paragraph. I mean, for all you knew we might have switched to another topic altogether, such as the WEU.) It reminds me of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club, although that was a different situation.
Look here: even though I'm just a lowly lexicographic drudge, I've got a heart too. Set aside the asides and the replacement levels, and we're still talking about thousands of little girls with no one to hug.
In the mid-1990's, the PRC relaxed its rules on international adoptions. In Hong Kong, you would see a lot of Western couples with a Chinese child they had come to adopt. I've actually read of one instance where the adopted child was a boy (but ``a special needs'' child -- with a surgically correctible congenital condition, in that instance), but this is quite exceptional. (Interestingly, in Japan there is a preference for girl adoptees. The reason given is that parents feel they will be less independent and more loyal and likely to help the parents in their old age.) More than 5,000 Chinese children were adopted by US parents in 2002, making China the largest source of international adoptions in the United States. Between 1997 and April 2003, over 30,000 Chinese children were brought to the US. These numbers are from the State Department, whose main involvement is in giving out visas and in swearing in the new little citizens. That couldn't wait?
An entire industry has grown up around the international adoptions. US parents have been required to go to the American consulate in Guangzhou for the swearing-in. There most families stay at the White Swan Hotel. In addition to expenditures for travel and such things as ``home study'' (US adoption agency's investigation of the environment the child would be coming into), there is a ``donation'' of as much as $15,000, less than a third of which may go to the orphanage. Many adoptive parents are moved to make voluntary (not ``voluntary'') donations to the orphanages.
In March 2003, responding to the SARS epidemic, the State Department eased rules a bit, not requiring adoptive parents (when there are two) to both travel to Guangzhou. On Friday, April 25, 2003, the PRC's China Center for Adoption Affairs (yes, China is part of the name) shut down for nine days -- the week of the May 1 holiday (you know -- the annual holiday that was cancelled in 2003 on account of SARS). They didn't get back to business the next week, though, and on May 15, they officially suspended adoptions. Unofficially, it was estimated that adoptions would resume in August. I don't remember when things finally got back to normal. It was probably late Summer, but friends of mine who were going to adopt in May only finally adopted in November, although there were unusual glitches in their case.
I really don't know what the WEU is, but I hope you have been entertained and or informed.
What is just as amazing, fertility rates have dropped world-wide, even in many underdeveloped countries like Pakistan. Population growth has been accelerated by advances in public health (mostly hygiene -- clean water).
Well, someone dutifully wrote to tell me what the WEU is, but things crashed and I lost the email. As I remember it, it turns out that WEU is a defense force. In fact, if I remember from a few years back, they were putting together a joint German/French rapid deployment force. It seems the basic role played by WEU was to give France a way to coordinate with its natural allies in NATO without having to tolerate US commanders. (De Gaulle took France out of the NATO military command in the 60's, although not technically out of NATO.)
If this weren't already a military term, it would be a great euphemism for her paw's house just'afore the shotgun weddin'.
Local currency is issued by France. A classicist's South Pacific paradise: no TV stations.
Exports in 1995, about a third of a million bucks f.o.b.. Imports, over a dozen mill's, c.i.f. When France finally knuckles under to the market, they're going to have to restructure, maybe consolidate the two big islands into one, I don't know -- is there an exit strategy?
Inoffensive data on Wallis and Futuna is found in the factbook entry from the latest edition of the CIA Factbook
Similar mathematics has application in optics.
Balescu gives a nice treatment based on the Wigner-Weyl transform.
The Wigner function first appeared in print in a fairly general, many-particle (albeit only first-quantized) version as eqn. 5 (p. 750) of ``On the Quantum Correction for Thermodynamic Equilibrium,'' by E. Wigner, The Physical Review, 40, pp. 749-759 (June 1, 1932). In a footnote to that equation, Eugen Wigner states that L. Szilard and he had found the expression ``some years ago for another purpose.''
Wigner observed immediately that no bilinear function of the wavefunction depending on 2N phase-space coördinates, could reproduce the expectation values found from the N-variable-dependent wavefunction and also be positive, so the necessity of having a quantum distribution function that could be become negative was unavoidable.
An important early paper on Wigner functions is ``Quantum Mechanics as a Statistical Theory'' by J. E. Moyal, in Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 45 pp. 99-124 (1949).
Can I have fries with that?
``The WFCC is a Multidisciplinary Commission of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and a Federation within the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS). The WFCC is concerned with the collection, authentication, maintenance and distribution of cultures of microorganisms and cultured cells.'' Oh.
I've been asked about the eff. Cf. RTFM.
Haven't paid your UN dues lately? Assuage your guilt feelings cheap at The Hunger Site.
See also WFUNA-Art.
Membership description sounds a bit like an old pre-breakup song about the geographic constitution of Yugoslavia. I guess they noticed. The homepage now has a simplified phrase ending with ``18 States and 3 US-Flag Pacific Islands.''
There's always the possibility that a screenplay will be produced, and thus almost certainly botched. Therefore, writers should keep in mind the WGA's rules on pseudonyms. As of 2004, the $200,000 limit (below which a writer has an unnegotiated right unilaterally to choose not to be credited) is unchanged since at least 2000. Those poor screenwriters are suffering bracket creep.
One movie with a surprisingly messy writing situation was Casablanca. The history is reconstructed in the Harmetz book's chapter 3: ``Writing Casablanca: A Survival of the Fittest Script.'' The movie is based on a play by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison, ``Everybody Comes to Rick's.'' The project of making a screenplay from the play was originally given to Wally Klein and Aenas MacKenzie. They worked seven weeks and produced a script that was never used. The screenplay that became the movie was written mostly by the Epstein twins (Julius J. and Philip G., each employed 12 weeks on the script). The Epsteins were known for bright dialogue. It was common practice to use multiple writers, and Howard Koch was hired to rewrite the first Epstein script as soon as part I was available. Koch eventually spent seven weeks on the script. The script was written in an iterative process with each side tugging in a different direction (Koch preachy and political; the Epsteins light, too comic for Koch's taste). At a certain point, revisions came daily in typically unsigned replacement sheets. Who suggested or changed what is often impossible to reconstruct. Except for MacKenzie and Klein, the preceding writers are listed at IMDB, along with Casey Robinson, who is listed as ``uncredited'' under ``writing credits.'' Harmetz writes (p. 56) that he ``would shape the love story.'' Lenore Coffee was an uncredited ``uncredited writer.'' She spent a week employed on the script and was one of those by whom ``the broth was stirred,'' according to Harmetz, but no specific contribution is mentioned. The process seems to have balanced out nicely.
News update: November 2, 2007: the WGA board voted a strike to begin at 12:01 Pacific Time the following Monday. In other news, Republican presidential hopeful and former actor Fred Thompson announced a temporary suspension of all televised public appearances starting next week.
Then again, ``express'' may express a selling point: visitors nowadays reportedly have shorter attention spans; the old ride lasted 50 minutes. (That's not counting the times in December 2004 and August 2005 when breakdowns left riders stranded for hours -- long enough to rework the lyrics of the theme from ``Gilligan's Island.'') That ride had featured both the Africa and Asia ``ranges.'' At the beginning of May 2006 a track modification was completed and the 50-minute omnibus monorail tour (yes, I wrote that because one shouldn't pass up the opportunity to make a rarely-appropriate equivocal collocation) became two separate half-hour tours -- one through the Africa-themed area and one through the Asia-themed area.
The Asian range of the Wild Animal Park gets less attention (possibly for good reason), so I'm not sure of the project status there. A separate new tour for the Asia range was planned, with the entire project scheduled for completion in 2008 sometime. There are no signs that they will call it the ``Asia Express.'' This is good, because otherwise people will think that a half hour after getting on, they'll feel like they didn't see anything and want to take another tour. They should call it the Wa-Te-Fu tour, because that sounds Asian. (Okay, I wouldn't object to ``Orient Express.'' You know, if it weren't for that Agatha Christie mystery, this might be a common name for Chinese buffet restaurants -- especially diners.)
Other differences between old and new rides: the African Express goes through rather than around the park, bringing tourists close to the animals; it also visits the pens where the residents are taken for veterinary care, and breeding-program areas in the ``hinterlands'' that had not been visible from the monorail. From the monorail, the animals were several hundred yards away. On the down side (if you're a visitor): there's a fare for the new ride; the old ride was included in the price of admission.
The Wgasa Bush line got its name during a meeting or a memo exchange (details lost to history) conducted to come up with a name for the planned monorail. However, ``Wgasa'' was not originally proposed as a name; instead, ``WGASA'' was apparently proffered as a comment on the effort to find a name. (The acronym is expatiated upon in the preceding entry.) The story is retold and evaluated at <Snopes.com>.
``Wgasa'' was regarded by some as ``African-sounding.'' This probably reflects (a) the salience of initial consonant clusters like mb, mp, nd, ng, and nk that are common in many African languages and generally absent (and possibly difficult) in European languages, and (b) the fact that the initial consonant cluster wg is also generally absent (and possibly difficult) in European languages. Heck, sounds good to me! (No, wg is not a common initial consonant cluster in African languages.) There is also (c) the distinctive ending -asa seen in the African proper nouns Nyasa, Mombasa, Kinshasa, and Casablanca (< Casa Blanca).
Oh, now I remember -- it used to broadcast that insipid religious music. I hear that's very popular. I guess it's possible to get too much of a good thing, huh? Hmm: ``2/18/2002: Local Marketing Agreement ends with LeSea Broadcasting. Contemporary Christian 'Pulse FM' format is dropped in favor of Classic Rock. Old web site: http://www.pulsefm.com [still in service for 96.9 MHz broadcasts.''
Technically, it seems they were really WZUW starting January 23. And since April 2002, they've been broadcasting the same signal as the classic rock station at 97.7 MHz, which has the call letters WZOW. Hmmm, you don't think maybe they were angling for the new business? Hmm... they became ``double rock 97.7 and 102.3'' and various related gimmicks. And split again in March 2003. A frightfully fast business, always a step ahead of the glossaries.
That's the trouble with long sentences -- by the time you get to the end you forget what you already said and start to repeat what you already said in long sentences.
It claims ``Western Governors University is a unique institution that offers degrees and certificates based completely on competencies -- your ability to demonstrate your skills and knowledge on a series of assessments -- not on required courses. We make it possible for you to accelerate your "time to degree" by providing recognition for your expertise.'' Sounds a lot like Thomas Edison State College in Trenton, New Jersey, founded in 1972.
I remember that my friend Dilia mentioned back in 1978 that it bothered her. In 1999, Mary Schmich had a column on the greeting in the MetroChicago section of the Chicago Tribune. In a follow-up column on June 18, about favorable response to her earlier column (columnists like to coast too), she reported that many letter writers suggested the response ``Fine.''
Writing to her husband Tom, Mrs. Carlyle began a letter of September 20, 1860 thus:
I do hate, Dear, to tell about myself every day! as if I were ``the crops,'' or something of that sort.
Works best in Iceland and North Korea. (WINK.)
These are just as bad. Or were, before the link died.
Okay, okay: another new one. I picked this one out of my spam filter. The original version begins like this:
From: Mohammed Houndstooth Goldstein
Subject: Beach Chair To Whom It May Concern, We have learned from the Internet that you are interested in tents. We have been in the tent manufacturing business for many years and are currently in the process of expanding and our customer base. We are quite excited about
With a few little changes, I'm sure this could be turned into a great new line for picking up MOTAS. And if not, maybe you'll sell some beach blankets.
A person employed by a newspaper whose business is to separate the wheat from the chaff and to see that the chaff is printed.This aphorism is precisely the kind of mechanical cleverness that you get from the harnessing of great ambition to mediocre talent.
The answer is very simple. You have to use special sophistication phrases. These are secret phrases that automatically make people and attractive members of the opposite sex respect you. For a complete list of these phrases, you'll have to buy the book, but here for free is one of those powerful phrases: ``when compared with.''
The way to deploy this phrase is to take anything you were going to say with the word ``than'' and replace ``than'' with ``when compared with.'' This has no effect on the meaning of whatever you were saying, but it automatically increases the sophistication exponentially.
Some people object that saying ``the losing team scored less points when compared with the winning team'' implies that there is some useful sense in which the losing team might have scored more points when not compared to the winning team, and that the longer (more sophisticated) form unnecesarily draws attention to that fact. Ignore these people. They're just jealous because you have greater sophistication when compared with they do.
I only wanted to mention that in the old Soviet Union, a term meaning `white gold' was used as an epithet of cotton. The idea was that the crop would make Kazakhstan (or rather, the workers of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic) rich. Just like Mississippi, I guess.
John Adams was the first to occupy the still unfinished mansion, moving there from Philadelphia on November 1, 1800, for his last months in office. The building was burned by the British during the War of 1812. (I might point out that there are a number of places that are called Casa Quemada in Spanish, `burnt house.' But I better not, or I'd only end up adding more glossary entries.) US history textbooks have often neglected to point out that the burning of the White House and other Federal buildings in 1814 was an act of retaliation for a similar act committed by US troops in York, Canada. (In 1834, York was incorporated and renamed Toronto. North York, different story.)
James Madison (president from 1809 to 17) wasn't able to move back in. The White House wasn't ready for occupancy again until the term of his successor James Monroe (1817-25). There is a popular story that the Executive Mansion only came to be called the ``White House'' after the fire. The idea was that it was whitewashed to hide the burn marks on the gray sandstone walls. This is at least partly incorrect. The sandstone had been whitewashed as early as 1798, and there are some letters extant from as early as 1811 in which it is called the white house.
The White House is called la Casa Blanca (q.v.) in Spanish and la Maison Blanche in French. What strange names.
``White'' monks in reference to their robes. The Benedictines wore black robes (hence, ``black monks'') and were ridiculed by the white monks for their rich living.
Life Style. I like the sound of that.
I saw a Cistercian in the library the other day. It's really more a cream color than white.
In The Picture of Dorian Gray, the painter Basil Hallward speaks to Lord Harry: ``With an evening coat and a white tie, as you told me once, anybody, even a stock-broker, can gain a reputation for being civilized.''
Fully 12% were recorded as having said they would vote for ``other,'' while only 3% were ``undecided.'' I very much doubt that 12% of the vote will go to third-party candidates. I'd like to think that one in ten people surveyed answered ``Whom!''
To understand the archaism of the original form, it helps to recognize that English has three kinds of relative clauses:
Adnominal relative clauses are the most common, and in these the relative pronoun is usually who, whom, which, or that. The relative pronoun has an antecedent in the sentence outside the relative clause. In the example given, the antecedent of who is clearly ``the person.'' In alternative form 1 of the proverb has the same adnominal relative clause, with ``he'' as antecedent.
Sentential relative clauses modify entire clauses rather than noun phrases, much as sentence adverbials modify entire clauses rather than verbs. Thus, in the example given, the antecedent of the relative pronoun which is the entire statement preceding the comma.
Unlike adnominal and sentential relative clauses, nominal relative clauses do not have an antecedent outside. Instead, they are said to ``contain'' their antecedents. Most of the words that function as interrogative pronouns (``wh-words'') can also serve as relative pronouns for nominal relative clauses. (The interrogative pronouns form a closed class, but not really such a small one: what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why, how, and a few less common or archaic words like whence and wherefore.) In addition, most of these have forms ending in -ever or -soever that may be used. The doubling of ordinary wh-words with their -ever forms accomplishes something that English is prone to: marking for definiteness or specificity. This is most prominent in the distinction between definite and indefinite articles. It also occurs between anyone and someone (a distinction difficult to render reliably and compactly in other European languages such as Spanish or German). Similarly, for most wh-words occurring in nominal relative clauses, the -ever form provides an indefinite variant. Compare ``give me what is on the table'' and ``give me whatever is on the table.''
Some of the wh-words are not commonly used, or are only marginally acceptable, as pronouns for nominal relative clauses. To some extent this is avoids ambiguity. In particular, the words which, who, and whom can all serve as relative pronouns for both adnominal and nominal relative clauses. There has been a degree of load-leveling with whichever and who[m]ever, and today who[m] and which usually occur only in nominal relative clauses with verbs like choose, please, etc. But not pay. Hence the confusion.
With the Supremes, Diana Ross sang ``This time I'll live my life at ease / Being happy loving whom I please.'' Come back later for an in-depth discussion of Holland, Dozier, and Holland.
Two months later, Ronald Wilson Reagan was inaugurated president of the United States. He was eventually also shot, but survived. He became the first US president since 1840 to be elected in a year divisible by twenty who did not die in office.
``Founded in 1975, WHY is a leader in the fight against hunger and poverty in the United States and around the world.'' Organizational self-descriptions are, it goes without saying, to be taken with a grain of salt. Salt is a flavor enhancer. Then again, they didn't say it is the leader. It was ``founded by radio talk show host and present Executive Director Bill Ayres, and the late singer-songwriter Harry Chapin.'' Among other things, one of their annual events is a dinner. That seems especially appropriate for a hunger organization. I'd like to know what they serve. Or is it pot luck? Okay, it's an awards dinner. They've been making media awards (and serving them, I guess) since 1982, to encourage the media to ``tell the story of hunger and poverty.'' They used to be called the World Hunger Media Awards, but now they're called the Harry Chapin Media Awards.
Harry Chapin died in a 1981 car crash, at the age of 38. I suppose this might be adduced as evidence for the proposition that ``only the good die young.'' Billy Joel released his song of that name in 1977, in the album entitled The Stranger. The song had to do with tasting forbidden fruit or satisfying one's appetites or something.
Either this entry or the previous one is out of alphabetical order. Once I can decide which one of the two is out of place, I'll move it. But not to Wisconsin.
It's probably fair to point out that these market-value comparisons can be deceptive. For example, in 1992, US sales of ``Mexican sauces'' eclipsed sales of ketchup (each at about three-quarters of a billion bucks total final sales). However, the retail price by volume is four or five times as much for salsa as for ketchup. [Data from Jeffrey Steingarten: The Man Who Ate Everything (Random House, 1997).]
Ketchup is fat free. Cheese is not. For more encouraging news about health aspects of cheese, visit the WDA entry.
Some years back, the state sponsored a competition for a new motto and motor vehicle license plate logo. Everyone knows that the one that should have won was ``Eat Cheese Or Die,'' but they WImped out: their motto is ``Forward.'' Yick. And they're not ``The Cheese State'' either, they're ``The Badger State.'' It's enough to make you move to Minnesota (MN).
Fans of the Green Bay (Wisconsin) Packers are known as cheeseheads; their ceremonial headgear is in the shape of a large wedge of yellow cheese.
The Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy serves a page of Wisconsin state government links. USACityLink.com has a page with some municipal links for the state.
Wisconsin is a community property state.
Mmm, here's something: according to the US Economic Census of 1997, in 1996 the top exported commodity category of the state of Wisconsin was nonelectrical machinery, for $3.167 billion, making up 37.7% of its $8.410 billions in total exports. Neighboring Minnesota's top exported commodity category was agricultural products, at $4.943 billion making up 35.6% of that state's $13.884 billion total exports. ``Food and Kindred Products'' is a different category than ``Agricultural Products.'' Arkansas and Nebraska are the only states for which this constitutes the largest export commodity category.
Since the Iraq war of 2003, close US presidential advisors have been giving subtle little diplomatically worded hints that France's obstructionism might redound to that country's disadvantage. Here's the secret plan, based on the Joint military doctrine of flexible (and sometimes rubbery) response: we shall bombard them with American cheese product! This will be called Operation Eat Cheese And Die.
Not normally an allusion the Beach Boys' ode to marriage, Wouldn't It Be Nice.
Judging from occurrences in the LION literature database of English poetry, drama, and prose, the term `West Indies'' has typically been two to four times more common than ``West India'' in all of the last five centuries. However, WIC was always translated as the ``West India Company.''
I heard that! Watch what you say or I'll put a spell on you.
Perhaps you were looking for wic.ca, Western International Communications (WIC), Ltd. of Canada.
It's my impression that Wicca is especially popular in the Northwest.
Of course, if you're Catholic, in the eyes of the church you're never divorced: either you're still married (and possibly a bigamist) or you got an annulment and you weren't really married in the first place. What this means is that in a sense, the church is a widowmaker. (At least a widowconstruer.)
The name Wii is supposed to be pronounced like the English pronoun we, or the English verb wee, meaning to urinate, or the English adjective (Scottish dialect) wee meaning small, or the French oui meaning `yes.'
The product now called Wii, a wireless video-game console, was known until April 27, 2006, by its development codename, ``Revolution.'' On the day that the new name was announced, the company website explained that the ``we'' pronunciation ``emphasizes that the console is for everyone.''
Other stupid comments on the site included this: ``Wii can easily be remembered by people around the world, no matter what language they speak. No confusion. No need to abbreviate. Just Wii.'' One could ignore a little bit of over-optimistic linguistic ignorance, but there is a nice irony in the fact that the sound ``wii'' or ``we'' does not occur in Japanese, a language familiar to the management of Nintendo, a Japanese company.
[Historically, there have been kana for at least four syllables beginning in w. However, the kana for wi (pronounced ``we'') and we (pronounced ``weh'') are as obsolete as the Old English wynn rune, and the kana for wo is now pronounced o. That leaves only the kana for wa, which is not appropriate for constructing a two-kana representation of wi. No wi sound occurs among the standard 1000 kanji approved for ordinary use. In principle, a wi sound might lurk among the kanji that occur in family names, but it's rather unlikely. To spell this sound in Japanese I'd figure you'd have to use romaji -- Western characters -- and some version of, say, the Hepburn transcription scheme. Then it could indeed be spelled ``wii.'' And most Japanese can probably pronounce that.
However, there's also a French-style solution for Japanese, discussed below. The w is not part of the traditional French alphabet. On the other hand, having the letter w (which was invented by Norman scribes in England, and was readopted in England after catching on on the continent) is no guarantee; there are many languages in which the semivowel represented by w in English does not occur. In modern German, for example, the letter w has a vee sound, and many German-speakers have difficulty producing the English w sound. (``Vee don't haff vays aff making ahss tock.'')]
There's no need to wonder about the linguistic competence of someone who could approve or promote this name. Here are the words of Perrin Kaplan, vice-president of marketing and corporate affairs for Nintendo of America, as quoted by Daniel Terdiman, staff writer for CNET <News.com>:
The goal is we are a highly innovative company and we want the name to speak to that innovation and uniqueness. If you were to look at [the name of the controller] visually, the point isn't just how you pronounce it, but it symbolizes the controllers, which are one of the most innovative and unique parts of the system.
WIMPS have been hypothesized in the attempt to solve the dark matter problem. See, for example, this.
Fully loaded and crewed (normally five men), the Wimpy was normally used to carry up to 4500 pounds of ordnance, typically nine 500-lb. M.C. bombs or 810 four-lb. incendiaries (yes, small bombs -- they were dropped from small-bomb containers, SBC's), to medium range. Records show that it was used for bomb loads as large as 6500 lbs. over short distances in 1944. It could also carry a pair of 1000-lb. naval mines. With special modifications, it could carry a cookie.
The 4500-lb. payload was about the same as that of the larger B-17 and B-24, but it was a smaller, lighter, and cheaper plane, in significant part because it carried much less defensive armament -- it was used for night bombing. USAAF crews had other names for it, including ``rag bomber,'' ``paper-covered kite,'' and ``canvas-covered coffin.''
Basically, after Windows 3.X there were two parallel OS paths for desktop machines: more reliable commercial-grade software (NT, 2000) and higher-functionality OS's more popular in home use (95, 98, Me). Windows XP is supposed to build on the 2000 core but provide the functionality of the 95/98/Me versions.
Win NT was available before Win 95, but its look and feel corresponds to Win 95 more than Win 3.1. I'm not sure what earlier versions of Win 3.1 looked like.
In Japan, Sony Vaio machines replaced the worthless Microsoft error messages with their own haiku. For example:
That part of the entry is frozen in time, because that way I don't have to update it. However, I can report here that although it did take some time, the strategy finally worked: In June 2003, Robert installed XP on his old laptop and various peripherals stopped working. Even though he eventually got everything except the tape back-up to sort of work again, the effort elevated his frustration level to the point where he was no longer tolerant of other things that he'd been putting up with for years, so he went out and bought a new computer. Interesting how that works.
What do you mean, ``Who's Robert?'' Who are you?
Attendance is by invitation only. Here's a bit from an email announcement of WINDS2012:
The Workshop on Innovative Nanoscale Devices and Systems (WINDS) is a 4 and 1/2 day meeting with morning and evening sessions, and with afternoons free for adhoc meetings and discussions among participants. WINDS follows the tradition and format of AHW (Advanced Heterostructure Workshop). In 2008, there was a transition as the workshop name morphed from AHW to AHNW to WINDS in order to attract more participation from industrial labs. The format of each session involves one or two overview presentations plus lively discussion (about 15 minutes for each paper) based on recent data. To ensure enough time for discussion, short presentation of data is encouraged. Each participant is expected to engage in these discussions and is strongly encouraged to bring three to four overhead transparencies or a PC with PowerPoint files showing most recent results that can be incorporated into the discussions. Titles, introductions, summary and acknowledgements are strictly discouraged. The total number of participants will be limited to around 80 to keep the discussions lively in the single session.
[Italics in original.]
On October 19, 1901, thousands of people turned out to watch Alberto Santos-Dumont attempt to circle the spire of the Eiffel Tower in an innovative flying machine. When Santos-Dumont made it around the tower, he became the toast of Paris. Jules Verne and H. G. Wells sent him congratulatory telegrams. But what started in glory would end in a descent into madness and despair.
Fine print at the bottom of the back flap lists the perpetrators:
Jacket design by Julian Humphries (c) Fourth Estate 2003. Jacket photograph: A composite image of Santos-Dumont flying the Demoiselle, the world's first sports plane, and the crowd that watched him circle the Eiffel Tower in a powered balloon in 1901. (c) Collection Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, le Bourget 6/03.
Winnie Mandela was named Winnifred at birth, in case you were wondering.
For more related to ``dead metaphors'' like dependent, see the calque entry.
Kind of an old term that stuck. Here's a list of links.
``Wireless'' also excludes fiber-optic cables, by conventional agreement.
The term ``telecommunications'' sort of has a connotation of wireline communications, from the association with telephone and telegraph, but not with television. Just a reminder that language doesn't have to make sense.
Not quite equivalent to a common saying.
Nicklaus Wirth, a professor at ETH, developed Pascal as his notion of how Algol should evolve, as mentioned in the DBPL entry.
In the US, his last name is pronounced ``Worth,'' while in Central Europe, this German name is pronounced (writing here in English eye dialect) ``veert.'' When asked if the differing pronounciations bothered him, he is reputed to have replied:
Not at all, in Europe they like `call by name,' and in the US they like `call by value.'
The graduate student lounge on the fourth floor of Princeton's Jadwin Hall was named in memory of Wittgenstein, for no particular reason that I am aware of. Once, I was standing there staring out the window and across the courtyard, and Robert McKay asked me what I was looking at.
``Brick,'' I said....Bloody Limeys with their sesquipedalian ripostes. What I really need is a deep philosopher whose name begins in cue or wye. (No, no, I've disqualified Quine.)
``Ah, yes -- poignant brick,'' he replied.
It was quite brown, as usual.
The raison d'être of all this verbal dross here is so it is very clear that the illustration at right is not of any person in what was once the entry immediately following this. We wouldn't want any such errors on our conscience.
It may be of interest to those who gave up and did not read down to this point that there is a mailing list for the discussion of analytic philosophy. Its web page is here now.
According to the Sherman brothers' lyrics, during his ladship Bert (played by Dick van Dyke in the movie version of Mary Poppins) was subjected to physical and emotional abuse by his father (``gave me nose a tweak and told me I was bad''). A social worker taught him a magic word that saved his nose; he survived and grew up to become a productive member of society (a dancing chimney sweep). The End.
Jones ends this paragraph of his introduction thus: ``So here, as it were, pickled in its own juice, is Scientific Intelligence in World War II as I saw it, under the Churchillian title The Wizard War.'' (That sentence, at least, must be different in the first published version of Jones's book, sold in Great Britain under the title Most Secret War.)
This is a citation entry: information about a source to be referenced multiple times is sequestered in a single location for convenience and efficiency. If you want more substantive information about the book's contents, you'll have to look at the entries for
I have one bit of practical advice about mentioning the book in conversation: don't refer to Jones as the title page does -- ``R.V. Jones.'' If your listener is familiar with him, ``Jones'' will do. Otherwise, he will almost invariably suppose you said ``Harvey Jones.'' Say ``Reginald Victor Jones.''
An approximate method for finding solutions of the Schrödinger equation, appropriate for potentials that vary either very smoothly or very rapidly in the vicinity of classical turning points. Instanton and soliton methods can be regarded as a generalization of WKB to multiple dimensions. Similar methods applied to other differential equations are known as multiscale methods. Boundary-layer theory in hydrodynamics bears mathematical similarities, with the boundary layer analogue in the Schrödinger solution being the region near the classical turning point where Airy function solutions can be matched to the actual solution.
Sports announcers and commentators being the sort of people they are, the W-L record will occasionally be called a ratio, after the pattern of ``take-away ratio,'' which is always the difference in turnovers.
In ice hockey, where ties are frequent, standings are computed by assigning two points for a win, one point for a tie and zero for a loss. This means, for example, that a team that's gone 0-1-5 (no wins, one loss, five ties) is ahead of a team with a record of 2-0-0, so if games are played on a very uneven schedule the ``points'' approach can be a poor measure for comparison.
We have decided to streamline the RE/MAX championship in 2009 by eliminating two divisions, grand champions and women. We salute 2008 RE/MAX world champions Rick Barry and Lana Lawless for their victories, and we thank all the grand champions and women's division entrants for their support.
Eliminating these divisions was a difficult decision, but one we felt was necessary going forward. The fact is that participation in those two divisions has fallen well short of expectations. Simply put, we are unable to envision a reversal to that trend. It's time to move on.
At the time, LDA also canceled the 2008-2009 Exceptional Driver Championship (EDC), a driving contest for amateur golfers that rewarded accurate power. Sellinger had created the competition in 2005, but apparently had trouble selling it. ``The reality is the tournament lacked sufficient financial underpinning to sustain itself during the coming year. Prospects of finding new tournament sponsors in the current financial environment were slim to nonexistent. Eliminating the EDC after its promising three-year run and its move to Golf Channel is an act of necessity dictated entirely by economic conditions.''
Y'know, I'm reminded of something that happened one day at a phonons conference, when Claire introduced me to some of her friends. I said to one guy, ``your accent sounds familiar! Don't tell me, you're from, uh, uh -- you're a Walloon!'' He said ``Walloon''? Beginning to be disheartened, I said ``yeah, you know: French-speaking Belgian.'' He replied ``oh -- wallon!'' Turned out he was a Francophone Swiss. Thinking it over later, I realized that l'anglais québécois resembles those other two as well, though not as closely. There seems to be something in common among the English accents of Francophones from French/Germanic bilingual countries, though I find it hard to define precisely what. I should also mention Finns here. In my experience, the range of Finnish accents in English is astonishing. A Finn speaking English could be mistaken for a native speaker of almost any Germanic language, and quite a few other north-central European ones. I think this has a little to do with varying degrees of familiarity with Swedish as a home language, and something perhaps to do with the sheer foreigness of Finnish. (Estonian is similar to Finnish, of course, but Hungarian, the only other demographically significant language remaining from the Finno-Ugric language family, is very distant. Hungarian and Finnish are not mutually intelligible, but one Finn has told me he senses a ticklish sort of familiarity in the general sound of Hungarian. Both languages have vowel concordance, but to a nonspeaker of both [me], their sounds and song are very different.)
Once my mother attended a talk by an English fellow who, so far as she could tell, had a perfectly standard educated British accent, except... something. She approached him after the talk and asked if he was from Vienna. Turned out he had been a child there. In German, of course, Viennese speech has a distinctive melody, but it's surprising to have it color English recognizably. I also feel that the way Italian sounds in Rome (and not anywhere further north) is very suggestive of the Argentine accent (Argentina had an enormous Italian immigration, of course), but I can't claim to have conducted anything like a test of this hypothesis unless eating in small Roman tratorie counts.
Well, this next story has no connection with WLU that I'd care to try to define, but I haven't written it anywhere else in the glossary. Visiting family in the Los Angeles area once, I walked into a little take-out place on Van Nuys Boulevard just south of Ventura. All I said was ``¡Qué hay de beber?'' [`what is there to drink?'] and the woman behind the counter asked me if I was Argentine like her. This had nothing to do with accent or melody or vos conjugations. It's just that de instead of para in that phrase is Argentine.
This has degenerated into bragging, hasn't it -- language dropping. Let's veer in another direction: Waterloo. I just had a thought I wish I hadn't, and now that I've had it I'd like to be rid of it. So I'll do the usual thing, which is stick it in the glossary and hope some visitors will take this thought away with them. (It's free!) Don't say I didn't warn you. The thought is that Waterloo can be analyzed as Water + loo, and that water is French slang for `bathroom' [< Eng. water closet], while loo is British slang for the same. Remember to flush.
(Just as an aside to that, notice that ``now that'' in a sentence above would often be contracted to ``now'' in British but not in American. Eliding a had just before the comma in that same sentence is also more British than American. We now break back out to the aside this aside was nested in. Sorry for not indenting my statement blocks.)
(Oh, another aside, same nesting depth as previous. It's been suggested that there is an etymological connection between loo and Waterloo. In the October 1974 Blackwood's Magazine (vol. 316, #1908), Alan S.C. Ross had an article entitled ``Loo'' (pp. 309-316). This article seems to be mostly about a military chap, one Gen. Public. Ross has some really quite insulting things to say about this poor benighted fellow, considering him, as we Americans would say, a low-grade moron. I won't say anything at all about my opinion of Alan Ross, except that, to judge from this article only, he was a pretentious fool. Ross proposed incoherently that loo is derived in English from a rare muddled French pun on Waterloo. A difficulty with most of the explanations is explaining why the word loo is first attested in English no earlier than 1947 or so. The etymology of loo is unknown.)
Now about WLU... Wilfred Laurier was prime minister of Canada from July 11, 1896 until October 6, 1911. He apparently had nothing to do with the founding of Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, which opened its doors on October 30, 1911. The seminary grew and spawned other educational institutions in the usual ways, with an eventual renaming and promotion (to degree-granting status) yielding a ``Waterloo Lutheran University'' in 1960. In 1973, this was renamed Wilfred Laurier University, and the only connection ever offered between the school and its current eponym is the coincidence of W and L initials, allowing the school to keep its monogram.
By the way, if you came here for information about Washington and Lee University, you got the wrong entry. You want W&L.
The German word for WMD is Massenvernichtungswaffen. If you wanted to be strict about it, most German acronyms would have to be one letter long. Dial M...
Clement Wragge, an Australian meteorologist of the early 1900's, is believed to have originated the practice of naming hurricanes and other tropical storm cyclones. He started out using Greek letters. (This worked, of course, because in a typical storm season, the storm systems in any region number fewer than 24.) Later, he switched to names from Greek and Roman mythology, and finally to ordinary names in alphabetical order. The practice was continued informally until 1953, when the WMO started doing it. For each storm region, a separate WMO committee of local representatives chooses the naming procedure and names.
North Atlantic hurricanes and tropical lows are named in alphabetical order from a list. There are currently six lists, used successively so that the storm names for 2001 are taken from the same list as those of 1995. Any country affected by a storm can request that the WMO retire a name -- not use it again for at least ten years. Hurricanes Gilbert (1988), Hugo (1989), and Mitch (1998) have all been retired. Starting at the beginning of the alphabet every year has the advantage that you can tell from the name approximately when in the season the storm was born. From the names retired, one can guess (correctly) that the first few in each season are not usually the worst. The storms originate off the west coast of North Africa and drift west, then take less predictable paths when they approach the Caribbean. Sometimes, when two storms in close succession take very different paths, they will arrive in Florida out of alphabetical order.
Central north Pacific typhoon names are taken in order from four successive lists of alphabetically ordered names. However, naming proceeds to the next list only when the current list is exhausted, rather than switching with each new annual season. This means that there is greater variety in the first letter of name used, and that must be good news for people who find the first half of the alphabet old-hat. However, anybody whose name begins in wye is probably stuck with having a typhoon namesake every four years. Australia uses a similar system.
I was in graduate school in 1979. A friend of mine was in graduate school for Mathematics in California. Back East, we would whisper ``Pssst! The eighties are going to be like the sixties! Pass it on!'' In 1980, Ronald Reagan was elected to his first term in a landslide; Carter conceded as my mathematician friend was driving to the polls to vote. Every decade is special.
The mailing address is in Oak Brook, Illinois, identical with the ENRS. Different extension on the phone number. Related to the ASNR.
It began its broadcast life in 1962 as WSBT FM, simulcasting WSBT AM. After a series of format and call-letter changes, it ended up as WNSN FM in 1984.
The virus was first detected in the US in 1999 in New York City. WNV usually causes mild or no illness in humans, and most people infected don't know they're sick. However, a small fraction become seriously ill and a few die from virus-related encephalitis. In 2004, WNV was found in 47 states of the US, where 2370 people were known to be afflicted and 88 died of the disease.
``The Washington Office on Africa (WOA) is a church-sponsored not-for-profit advocacy organization seeking to articulate and promote a just American policy toward Africa. We monitor Congressional legislation and executive policies and actions and issue action alerts to advance progressive legislation and policy. We seek to work in partnership with colleagues in Africa, the Africa advocacy community in the United States, and grassroots organizations concerned with various aspects of African affairs.
WOA was founded in 1972 to support the movement for freedom from white-minority rule in southern Africa. Today, we have an expanded mission which seeks to address issues affecting grassroots African interests throughout the continent. A key focus of our energies presently are economic justices issues in Africa, including questions of aid, trade, and debt.''
That episode was entitled ``Woe to Wo Fat,'' and first aired April 5, 1980. McGarrett was able to arrest Wo Fat by posing as theoretical physicist Dr. Elton Raintree. I'm not sure how the name ``Elton'' was chosen, but Elton John's stardom, and the fact that he often performed in costumes that might be regarded as disguises, could have had something to do with it. I imagine that ``Raintree'' was chosen to evoke ``Rainwater.''
James Rainwater was a (nonfictional) theoretical nuclear physicist who predicted that some nuclei are not spherical. This was confirmed experimentally by Aage Bohr (son of the great Dane Niels Bohr -- sorry, had to) and Ben R. Mottelson. All three were well-known to fellow physicists, but in 1975 they shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. Bohr and Mottelson were Danes (in fact, Mottelson was born in the US and became a naturalized citizen of Denmark), but Rainwater was American, and I suppose that may have counted for something with the writers of Hawaii Five-O.
Most of the Nobel laureates in physics between 1975 and the final season of the show were also Americans, so there was plenty to choose. But I think that at the time, most nonphysicists (and I believe that most of Hawaii Five-O's audience were nonphysicists) would have thought that theoretical nuclear physics was the summa plus ultra of physics. Rainwater may also have had some additional popular renown from his participation in the Manhattan project, and it might have counted for something that he looked a little bit more like Jack Lord (who played Steve McGarrett) than the others. Then again, the name and profession might be simple coincidence.
Patricia Crowley guested in ``Woe to Wo Fat.'' She later went on to fame in the TV series ``Don't Eat the Daisies,'' based on a book by Jean Kerr (see pancreas).
This is actually just a longer version of the WOFAT definition, as befits WOFAT.
In Saturnalia 2.4.29-30, Macrobius tells the story of some birds. Here is Michael Hendry's summary of the story (posted to the Classics List):
A man trains a raven to greet Augustus after Actium with "Hail Caesar, victorious general!" The emperor gives him 20,000 sesterces. His partner, who got no share in the money, then comes forward to tell Augustus about his other raven, trained to say "Hail Antony, victorious general." Augustus makes them split the money. Augustus then buys a parrot and a magpie trained by others to say the same. A poor tailor is inspired to try the same with a raven, but his bird is too stupid or stubborn to learn its lines, and the trainer keeps muttering "Wasted trouble and expense" (opera et impensa periit). When Augustus is passing in the street, the raven manages to say the proper "Hail Caesar," the emperor says "I get enough of that kind of stuff at home," and then the raven says "Wasted trouble and expense." The emperor is so charmed he pays more for it than for any of the other birds.
The relation of the new to the old, before the assimilation is performed, is wonder.
It has taken literally years (about three, actually) for the Stammtisch to achieve this definition.
Common use: ``Clinton administration policy wonk.''
Etymology: Antonomasia with elision of unstressed syllable, based on ``Willy Wonka,'' owner of the factory in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, a moral parable in the form of food science fiction (1964) by Roald Dahl. A movie was made. [This etymology was discovered by a process of careful imagination.]
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was read to one of my classes in grade school. Many years later, two of my former classmates were arrested on weapons charges. In fact, I just heard that one of them is in trouble again. And of course, there's me. I remember when my college roommate Dennis, who's from the same hometown but went to a different grade school, looked at my fourth grade school class picture. He said: ``What a bunch of losers''!
Another datum respecting the etymology of wonk is that the term is widely believed to have originated at Harvard at least as long ago as The Sixties ®. Then, it was a synonym of nerd: a bright, hardworking, socially maladroit student. It's not clear what could have made Dahl's book such an underground hit at Harvard.
It has been observed that ``wonk'' is ``know'' spelled backwards. Similar observations about ``dog'' and ``knurd'' (a variant spelling [ftnt. 25] of ``nerd'') have proven to be irrelevant to the etymologies of those words. Come think of it, the word nerd occurs in the work of Dr. Seuss.
Kinsky based himself on the ``Complete Edition'' of Beethoven's works published in 1888, which was in fact incomplete. (At this point, you could hardly be surprised.) In 1957, Willy Hess published Verzeichnis der nicht in der Gesamtausgabe veröffentlichten Werke Ludwig van Beethovens (`Catalog of works of Ludwig van Beethoven not published [i.e., included] in the Complete Edition'). This listing included some lost works, unfinished pieces, and alternate arrangements of previous works. Many of the works listed by Hess and not in the original Kinsky compilation were eventually assigned WoO numbers; those which were not are referred to by their Hess numbers. (In 1959, Hess also published the scores in a fourteen-volume Supplemente to the Gesamtausgabe.)
Hess also published an appendix (Anhang) to Kinsky's catalog, listing ``Beethoven works'' of questionable authorship. Works listed there are referred to by AnH numbers. Numbers make everything systematic and straightforward.
``Bow-wow'' is not used. It can hardly be considered an onomatopoeia at all. It's like trying to imitate a New Jersey accent by saying ``Noo JOYsee,'' when in fact the only people who speak like that live on Lawn Guyland.
> If your machine does not have a "delicate" cycle, I would throw them > in 5 minutes before the rinse. Warm water should be OK. BTW wool is very > absorbent and you don't have to wash the socks after each use (if your > American upbringing allows you to conceive of this possibility).
It's so secret, it's not even called the World Bank. It's actually the IBRD. It's based in Washington, D.C. [Sober aside: the World Bank name might be official by now, and IBRD was joined by the IDA in 1960, and later by some other international financial institutions. See the WB entry.]
By tradition, the World Bank president is nominated by the US. The appointment is then voted on by the Bank's executive directors, who represent shareholder countries. Also by tradition, the nominee is an American.
In 1995, Bank President Lewis Preston became ill and the White House began a round of interviews. There was wide agreement among both Clinton administration officials and World Bank insiders that his successor should be selected with a view to serving 10 years, regarded as the kind of time necessary to have a meaningful impact on such a complex organization.
The person selected and accepted to replace Preston was James D. Wolfensohn, and the rest of the content resources that ought to have gone here were retasked and deposited under his name.
The following showed up in my email; I thought you'd enjoy it:
MANAGEMENT EDUCATION AND DEVLEOPMENT IN THE DEVELOPING NATIONS A conference co-sponsored by the Academy of Management's Management Education and Development Division and the United Arab Emirates University, College of Business and Economics to be held in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, April 2-3, 2000.Personally, I think that avoiding typographical errors and awkward constructions, at least in official announcements, is part of being world class. But then, I'm not a manager's manager or a developer's developer; I'm just literate. If I were illiterate, I would be qualified to write some of the stuff in the management self-help/inspiration genre. The announcement continues
Proposals should be 200 words describing a presentation, symposium (panel discussion), or workshop (demonstration) of research or theory relevant to World Class Management Education and/or Management Development in the 21st Century in its relevance to the developing nations. ...See? The term ``world class'' is not just for unsophisticated folk and the ironic. It is also used by those with a weak grip on the language.
... Presentations and proposals may be in English or Arabic. Though, English is generally recommended to provide wider access to sessions by all international attendees. ...
If I were defining world class quality, I would make it the quality of being a global class, but I'd make it nonheritable.
CRITIQUE! CHALLENGE! A world as prize!
You think I'm going to spoil the excitement by reading the book? Get real.
(Yes, sure I mean ``subtilted.'' It's not a typo. You've heard of tilting at windmills and other worthy opponents -- that's violent too.)
Okay, I'll tell you something about the book. The dust jacket (dj) is done in earth tones, basically -- dark brown and purplish grays, some orange. The name ``Lilian Alweiss'' appears on the front, below the aitch names.
This book grabbed my attention because it reminded me of a very bad movie I liked -- ``Bridget Jones's Diary.'' That also featured two men in conflict over a woman, and at one point they come to actual blows. It's never made clear why these two characters are so hot for Bridget Jones, a character that is a fat, chain-smoking, stupid sot. Then again, incredible casting may have made the script credible. You could believe that they're crazy about her because she's hotter than Renée Zellweger. (I mean, hotter than Renée Zellweger is when she's skinny. Tastes vary, you pervert. More discussion of this important psychosocial landmark event can be discovered at the entry for Car Door Slam Method.)
Anyway at the start of the fight, Bridget's ahem, slightly effeminate male friend (he calls himself a ``hag fag'' in the book -- moderately clever, but pretty uncomplimentary all around) runs across the street and alerts the waiters in the ethnic restaurant. So they all rush out and enthusiastically begin to handicap the contest in some distant foreign language. It's one of the rare genuinely funny moments in the movie, so I figured I'd spoil it for you. Of course, if you get your jollies from watching people be genuinely embarrassed, then this will have you rolling on the street.
I hope The World Unclaimed is funny like that, and not about lost luggage as the cover illustration seems to imply. You know, there's a company in Alabama that buys all ultimately unclaimed luggage in the US and auctions it off.
What the heck, let's crack it open at random and see if there's anything valuable inside. Page 122 bears the running head ``The Final Loss of the World'' (mixed-caps, but I can't be bothered to reproduce the formatting) and page 123 has ``The Distinctiveness of the World'' at the top. Random text from page 123:
`Nearness' cannot be measured or calculated, but is defined in relation to what is environmentally closest to Dasein (i.e., the book on the desk rather than the glasses I am wearing) [SBF says, concrete examples are soooo helpful]. Equally, equipment is not merely present-at-hand, occurring at random in some spatial position ..., but all equipment has its place (Platz) in a specific region (Gegend): ``In each case the place is the definite `there' or `yonder' [`Dort' und `Da'] of an item of equipment which belongs somewhere....
I feel like I ought to photocopy some of this stuff and send it over to the boys at baggage claim to see what they can make of it.
Have I ever mentioned ------? (Oops. I had.) Her luggage was lost for a few days when she visited Greece, but fortunately she had a new package of panties in her carry-on. (Look, I just report this stuff. I don't know if Greek panties are not part-compatible or something.) Eventually she got her suitcase back and it had a mark across it as if a tractor tire had rolled across it. Later when she was talking with the airline's adjuster about her losses, she mentioned that ``it looks like a tractor ran over it.'' The adjuster said ``yes, that's probably what happened.'' I guess when you're a claims adjuster, the mysterious becomes ordinary. Dasein -- don't leave home without it. (And stuff a couple in your carry-on -- you never know how far ``nearness'' may be.)
Actually, I do have some information relevant to the part-compatibility issues. My mother's stepfather was a tailor, and he spent long stretches of his career in Germany, then Latin America, and finally in the US. With each move, he had to change his dress patterns. Generally speaking, in Latin America the patterns conformed more closely, so to speak, to that health ideal called the ``pear-shaped body.''
Hmmm, could be I inhabit an alternate social universe. In the movie ``The Opposite of Sex,'' Dede (played by Christina Ricci) has seduced her gay half-brother's boyfriend Matt (played by some guy, okay?). She gets pregnant and breaks the news to Matt while they're lying on the bed fast-forwarded after some PG-level lovemaking (I don't know how the movie earned an R), and he asks ``Is it mine?'' She answers ``See? Only straight boys ever say that line. You're in!'' On the other hand, the movie is advertised as a comedy because you can't take the plot or many of the premises too seriously. We'll have to go on collecting data. Later, in a heated discussion with Dede's half-brother and a friend (Lisa Kudrow) who hangs around so the movie can have multiple plot lines, Matt insists, with a bit of umbrage, that he's not gay but bisexual.
I should note that Matt asks whether he's the father even after Dede has explicitly implied that he is. To find out how she implies explicitly (it's easier than explying implicitly, I'm sure), see the pregnant we entry. Yes, it does seem that I'm milking this scene for all and more than it's worth, but Ricci has the udders for it, especially when she hasn't slimmed down for some thin role.
Oh, and -- ladies? Here is something for you to avoid doing. Do not interrupt sex to answer the phone. It spoils the entire act, if you know what I mean.
I never realized what an old-fashioned romantic I was until recently, seeing couples walking through the scenic campus hand-in-hand. They are immersed in worlds of their own, oblivious to everything except the cell phones they hold in their other hands.
Oh wait, that's ``Wozniak'' with a k! Never mind, then.
Gee, seeing as how the connection between this entry and the -IAC machines is kinda tenuous, we might as well mention some -AC machines: BINAC and EDSAC (1949); EDVAC, an early machine; and UNIVAC, which had some name recognition into the 1960's. There's also a much later CMAC.
Frankly, the ILLIAC's don't really qualify as -IAC machines, since the second I stands for ``Institute'' instead of ``Integrator,'' or as -AC machines, since the AC stands for ``Advanced Computation.''
The Washington Post was founded in 1877. William McKinley, who was president of the US from 1897 to 1901 (September -- he was assassinated), kept a parrot named Washington Post in the White House that whistled ``Yankee Doodle.''
WordPerfect was the word processing program that became dominant on the PC platform while MS Word became dominant on the Macintosh. Now the platform base is expanded for both, and they're fighting it out. In the process, version 6 of MSWord was written for the PC, and the Mac version apparently used a crude translation of the PC code. This made a significant deterioration in performance, and the code didn't really have Macintosh look-and-feel, let alone satisfy Macintosh human interface guidelines. Time to try something new.
Name based on similar action of food processor on food.
Perhaps I should write a couple of words about this Depression-era relief program. The words would be ambitious and unprecedented. If I could have an adverb I would definitely go for an intensifier like utterly. Of course, the Great Depression was itself, for combined duration and depth, unprecedented (and happily unrepeated) in US history. FDR was no economist, but he had the reasonable idea that a big problem would require a big solution, and he had a sense that the urgency of the problem justified testing audacious solutions.
The WPA was a relief measure established on May 6, 1935 by executive order 7034 of Pres. Roosevelt. It was a make-work program, but not so sharply focused on construction projects as programs created earlier in FDR's administration (FERA, PWA, and CWA). It included
The WPA was also much larger than the previous large programs. By March, 1936, it was providing employment for more than 3,400,000 -- about of third of workers without nonrelief employment. Of course, there was still plenty of construction work in the mix. Over its eight years of existence, the WPA built, repaired or improved
This all cost money. The WPA spent about $11 billion in its eight-year life, employing at one time or another a total of 8,500,000 different people on 1,410,000 different projects.
It was reorganized in 1939 (see WPA infra). Once the US got into WWII, military spending became the big spending program, and war production took up the labor supply that didn't go into uniform. The WPA went out of existence on December 4, 1943.
Hmmm. A faithful reader of the glossary has sent in a, uh, comment. I was right, of course, that Winnipeg is a given name (but the name was given to a Canadian city).
Since I haven't anything enduringly interesting to say about world records, let me say something about the word world. Like a large fraction of Modern English monosyllables, it's an eroded version of a proto-Germanic disyllable. In Old English, it still had spellings like weorold and worold, reflecting were, `man,' and ald, `age.' The first part of the compound normally meant a male person, and not man in the generic sense. The word fell out of use, though it is recognizable in werewolf, and in words derived from the Latin cognate vir, such as the English words virile and virtue (the latter originally referring to the virtues identified with `manliness').
The second element, ald, gave rise to the modern adjective old. The OED describes this combination, with an etymological meaning of ``age of man'' or ``life of man,'' as ``a formation peculiar to Germanic.'' It may be, but the association of long time with world is not unique. In Hebrew, the common word olam has the meanings of `forever' and `world.' On the other hand, world records in sports are not associated with long time. They're associated with short time -- that's the whole point, in races at least. And world records in popular sports seem to fall on a regular basis. They don't even just seem to. You can do a linear regression of best times as a function of time and predict what the world record will be a few years in the future with fair accuracy.
As implied earlier, incidentally, world has cognates in other Germanic languages -- in most of the well-attested ones, at least. In German, the English adjective old has a cognate alt with the same meaning, and world is Welt, the r having been lost during the Middle High German period. The devoicing of final consonants in German is standard. (Bavarian and Yiddish are the prominent exceptions.) The main reason to spell a German word with the letter or letters for a voiced final consonant is so that one will know to revoice it if an inflection puts a vowel after it.
So the unusual thing that happened to Welt is not that its final d was devoiced, but that its plural went from Welden to Welten. This seems unsurprising, since the plural would be used infrequently and the status of the final consonant of the singular as devoiced d rather than simple t would presumably be forgotten. But it turns out not to be so unusual, and this special pleading is apparently unnecessary. Many (not all) originally -ld words I can think of offhand are -lt words in Modern German. Here's a sampling (the German words are translated by their English cognates, where possible):
bald, `soon' (cognate with Eng. bold)
Bild, `formation, picture' (cog. w. build)
Wald, `forest' [cogn. w. wold, which was deforested somewhere between Old English and Middle English]
Many -l words in Middle High German became, or became once again, -ld words in Modern German. It doesn't seem that one can say much more than that the distinction was subject to change.
By the way, I am not a scientist, nor have I ever been. I did want to become one, but war and the camp prevented me. I had to limit myself to being a technician throughout my professional life.
I'm glad to have some relevant personal experience to contribute to this entry. My high school electronics shop teacher, Mr. Coulter, was in the Signal Corps in 'Nam (.vn). He always said
Ten percent is good enough for government work.
In the usual color code, 10% tolerance is represented by a silver band immediately following the bands for the nominal resistance value of the resistor. Oh! WRL is for war ``resisters''? Sorry.
Mr. Coulter used to argue with the physics teacher, Mr. Taylor, about which direction current really flows in. But the temptation to escalate the argument to outright war was resisted successfully.
The World Almanac was originally published by the company that published the New York World. In the time before television, New York City had as many as fifteen newspapers. The World is one of the ones it doesn't have any more. In many important respects, the modern game of baseball originated in New York, but the ``World'' in the series name does not refer to the New York World or any other newspaper.
The American game of baseball evolved from the English game of rounders, introduced to the British colonies some time before 1744. Rounders was also called round ball, goal ball, post ball, town ball, and base ball, and the rules were about as standard as the name. It was something vaguely like tag or war ball played on a cricket pitch, or like stick ball. With one, two, or three bases besides home, it was called one old cat, two old cat, or three old cat.
The American game became standardized in something approximating its present form after 1845, when Alexander J. Cartwright, a member of the New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, drew up rules that were soon widely adopted. Until the Civil War, the game was popular primarily in the New York and Boston areas, but it spread behind Union lines and the veterans brought it back home across the country. The original postseason series, between the pennant winners of the National League and the American Association, was played in 1882 and annually from 1884 to 1891. The first ``World Series'' to carry that name was a postseason series played in 1903 (Boston over Pittsburgh, five games to three). No WS was played in 1904, but in 1905 the National Commission established it as an annual event. Also established in 1905 were the ``Brush rules,'' which included some traditions that continue today: that the WS is a best-of-seven series, and that 60% of receipts for the first four games are paid directly to the players. (No you don't make out a check directly to a player. If you did the endorsed canceled check might be worth more than the price of admission.) Since 1905, the series has been canceled only in 1994 (due to an owner lock-out in response to a player strike).
The game was introduced and grew quickly in popularity in Japan and Cuba before the end of the nineteenth century, so by the time the WS was inaugurated, baseball was not just a US sport. Still today, only US major-league teams are eligible to compete in the World Series. However, the series is played in the world.
For 1919, in a move that may be interpreted as motivated principally by greed for gate receipts or by a desire to satisfy heightened post-war demand, the World Series returned to the best-of-nine format used in 1903. That was the year of the famous ``Black Sox'' -- eight of the Chicago White Sox players conspired to throw a series that, until word of the fix leaked out, they had been heavily favored to win. Toward the end of the 1920 season some of the conspirators confessed. In 1921, with the records of all three confessions stolen from the prosecutor's office, they were acquitted of conspiracy in criminal court, but all eight players were subsequently banned from professional baseball for life. In 1922, the series returned to best-of-seven.
The Sporting News (TSN) archives have brief summaries of all past World Series since 1903.
We have other 1919-related entries. It was a big year for scams; cf. IRC.
WSBT began broadcasting as WGAZ in 1922 and became WSBT in 1925. In the radio station's early days, South Bend was not quite the backwater it is today, and the station racked up one or two firsts or near-firsts.
They seem to have petered out.
Founded in 1906...'' when neither Arizona nor Hawai'i had attained statehood.
Just like the WB status, which see for the list of participating countries.
In 1960, Victor Faber founded the World Twirling Association. He left his mark on the sport of baton twirling by founding TWO twirling organizations [I guess the other one must've been the IERS] and for being the only person in his field to lead a twirling organization who had been a championship baton twirler.
Ladies prefer to keep silent while they queue up all their lives at public toilets, missing the show after [intermission], doing kung-fu stances to pee because the seat cover is too filthy. We don't talk about [public restrooms]. And what we don't discuss, we can't improve.(It's not my mess; I didn't do it. The square-bracketed bits are in the original article.)
Jack Sim established the Restroom Association of Singapore (RAS) in 1998 and discovered that there were other toilet associations in existence around the world, but that there was ``no channel [good word!] to facilitate information-sharing and gathering of resources.'' (Okay, the last square-bracket thing is my fault. I'm quoting here from a WTO page on the Founder.) So he founded the WTO in 2001. ``Today, WTO comprises of [aaagh!] 54 members in 41 countries.'' By now (August 4, 2007) it may be up to 42 countries (Time). The memberships are piling up! The American Restroom Association (ARA) represents the US in WTO.
The homepage also bears the UN logo. It's not clear that WTO has UN recognition, and one reason may be that the UN has (or had) two other WTO's (explained here). My view, however, is that the WTO nameturf war is the UN's greatest success in defusing a conflict so far this century, and they should build on it. Later, as a further confidence-building measure, they can send some blue helmets to keep Liechtenstein and Andorra from going to war. (That's not a synecdoche. I mean just send the helmets. That's enough, and almost all the UN can handle logistically.)
of Logo: `LOVE OUR TOILET'
The logo of the WTO is the image of a toilet seat-cover viewed from an angle as how most people would see it. The ring in the middle of the toilet seat-cover signifies a connected circle of members. Blue was chosen as the colour of the toilet seat-cover as a symbolization of water and how WTO is also closely-related to water issues.'' It's deformed slightly at the top so the outer outline resembles the ``heart shape.'' On some pages it's compressed vertically so it looks like parted metallic-blue lips.
Visit the entire website, hopping from one virtual foot to the other if necessary. It's a gas! Observations on the homepage menu bar links: ``Useful Links'' is unnecessarily graphic. ``Toilet Entertainment'' is all clean. About Us > Our Team shows pretty much everyone smiling except Philip, who is the lead trainer in World Toilet College.
You will be assimilated. Resistance is futile. In fact, it's so futile it's downright amusing.
For amusement, visit the Responsible Trade Campaign Home Page of the Sierra Club, the Mobilization Against Corporate Globalization, the Earthjustice Legal Defense Fund, United for a Fair Economy (UFE), or Global Exchange (GX).
What, back already? Okay, here's something: the WTO was created by the Uruguay Round to succeed GATT (q.v.) on January 1, 1995. The WTO expanded GATT's rules to apply to trade in services and IPR, and includes a tribunal to misadjudicate trade disputes.
The Tindale translation is not to be confused with the translation of Reverend Dimmesdale, which also was not completed. Indeed, it wasn't even begun, so far as is known, but Hester Prynne apparently red a letter or two in it, with an alternate recension of the commandment concerning whether adultery should be committed.
is the largest body of religious Jews in the world. Its basic aims are, first, to create common ground between its constituents and, second, to promote Progressive Judaism in places where individuals and groups are seeking authentic, yet modern ways of expressing themselves as Jews.
The World Union for Progressive Judaism serves congregations and communities in nearly 40 countries, encompassing more than 1,200 Reform, Progressive, Liberal and Reconstructionist congregations and more than 1.5 million members throughout the world. Its international headquarters is in Jerusalem, with regional offices in London and Moscow and New York.
Progressive Judaism is rooted in the Bible, especially the teachings of the Hebrew Prophets. It's founded on authentic manifestations of Jewish creativity, ancient and modern, particularly those that stress inwardness and desire to learn what God expects from us; justice and equality, democracy and peace, personal fulfillment and collective obligations.
The practices of Progressive Judaism are anchored in Jewish thought and tradition. They seek to extend the range of observance - e.g., by granting full equality to all Jews, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation - while challenging laws that are contrary to Judaism's fundamental principles.
Of the twelve million Jews in the world today, nearly one-third live in countries where Jewish life is weak and where there are few opportunities for meaningful Jewish practice. It is the World Union's goal to ensure that all Jews have access to the vibrant Jewish life that can best inspire them spiritually and bring their communities together practically. We are committed to this sacred task.
The word authentic appears twice. Whether it's protesting too much a revealing insecurity, or asserting what is confidently believed, it points to a real issue of authority or legitimacy.
I think this is the first softball entry, so here's where I'm going to mention it: according to international softball rules, in all innings after the ninth, each team starts with a runner on second. (There are seven regular innings of play.)
The Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy serves a page of West Virginia state government links. USACityLink.com has a page with a few municipal links for the state.
``Where Greatness is Learned.''
They're obviously not going for the small potatoes at WVU.
In early March 2006, Classics-L (``Classical Greek and Latin Discussion Group'') had a discussion under the subject head ``vomiting courtesans,'' prompted by an image of Würzburg L 479 at the blog Laudator Temporis Acti. One posting included the following:
> ... Your subject line looked at first glance like more porn spam. (Yes, > Virginia, there are newsgroups and websites for those who like to watch women > vomit. TMI, but if I have to know this, so should the rest of you.)
Actually, it was clear from the original posting that what was meant was something like ``vomiting onto the feet of ancient Greek courtesans.'' The author had meant to write ``vomiting komast'' (the one interpreted as vomiting on the girl).
Yeah, you needed to know all that, else you wouldn't have read it. There's an old joke that still makes some sense even with Caller ID. The punch line is this: ``Well if this is the wrong number, then why did you pick up the phone?''
Commentator? Provocateur? Firebrand? Wacko? Planter's variety-pack? It's a matter of point-of-view. An old friend of mine, who over the years has drifted off to the left, recently asserted that Rush Limbaugh is a liar. So I asked him to give me one example of a lie that he had told, and he replied that he really didn't want to get into such a bitter subject just before dinner. Good gambit! I'll have to try that some time.
One of the events at the first YearlyKos (see Kos) was a workshop called ``Pundit Project Training,'' run by the Center for American Progress. According to a handout distributed there, when you appear on television you mustn't wear pyjamas (I think they only imply that). Men are advised to wear blue shirts, and to accept make-up if it's offered. [As many talking heads -- white ones, anyway -- have noticed, you can look sickly pale without it.] Women are advised, ``don't dress like Ann Coulter. Cover up for God's sake, preferably with a neutral-colored jacket and a bright shirt.'' (See the Matt Labash report from YearlyKos: ``Riding with the Kossacks,'' in the June 26 Weekly Standard.)
I guess the WWU initialism could be summarized as quintuple-yoo, but that wouldn't work in every language. In Spanish, for example, the letter w is called doble ve (`double vee'). While we're on the subject, and since there are so many above, I'll mention that the double el (``ll'') in Spanish originally represented a palatalized el (like ``gl'' in Italian), but it lost the el and now sounds like an English consonantal y in most of Spain and Latin America, zh (French j) in Argentina, Uruguay, and thereabouts, and English j in various others. (Puerto Rican ``ll'' sounds like j softened a little towards zh, to my ear, but it's a while since I heard it.)
The ll sound originally developed from pl and cl consonant clusters, as well as from some plain old l's and ll's. (In Latin, not only vowels but some consonants were subject to a quantity distinction. Double consonants represented a longer pronunciation. No method of representing the distinction between long- and short-quantity vowels ever caught on.)
The letter y arose in different contexts than ll, but today it's a pretty reliable rule that ll and consonantal y are pronounced identically, however they are pronounced (i.e., as zh in Argentina, etc.). Nevertheless, there's a word yeismo, which describes the practice of pronouncing the ll like a y. I'm going to have to look into this.
Vocalic y, pronounced like Spanish i, is largely obsolete in Spanish. It occurs in a number of surname variants (e.g., Yglesias for Iglesias). Greek loan words with y in English use i in Spanish (also, ph and th appear as f and t).
Gee, Walla Walla must be a pretty interesting place!
When I say ``USA won,'' naturally I mean that the entire country was out on the field. Each American woman was on the field, usually for about 0.4 milliseconds. It was a traffic jam, but the team stayed fresh. It's because of this kind of participation that all American women can take pride in our victory.
Gee, it seems I neglected to mention that WWF press releases bear as close a connection to reality as the next WWF bears to authentic wrestling.
Mr. Jesse Ventura, governor of the state of Minnesota (MN) from 1999, and the first head of the US Reform Party not to be named Ross Perot, performed in the WWF as Jesse ``The Body'' Ventura before going on to host a radio call-in show and do a stint as a mayor (in a city where mayor is essentially just one vote in the town council). Mr. Ventura is, contrary to the stereotypical assumption outside his state, a man of rather liberal tendencies. He was the only one of the three major candidates in the 1998 election who came out strongly in favor of abortion and gay marriage, and since the election he has had a cooperative relationship with the Democrat-Farm-Labor legislators in his state legislature, but not with the Republicans. (THE DFL coalition is a Minnesota peculiarity, a legacy from Fritz Mondale, Hubert H. Humphrey, and before.)
I don't know Ventura's position on conservation, but I suspect he's among a tiny minority of either WWF-ers who would feel at home at the other WWF.
Everybody calls the governor ``Jesse'' outside his presence, but he prefers to be called ``Mr. Ventura.'' He's constantly suspicious that, because of his occupational background, people don't take him seriously. He wants people to be aware that he spent more years doing radio talk than he spent in the WWF. (Oh, well that's different. You've got to respect a radio talk-show host.) If he felt strongly enough about this perceived lack of seriousness, he could do something about it by curtailing his own bantering violent threats and guest appearances as a color commentator for the XFL. Minnesotans still go around pinching themselves and saying ``We did it, didn't we? We elected a clown! Man, we've got guts.'' And sore, over-pinched behinds.
Ronald Reagan was also an actor, and he did creative sports announcing as well (reading off a description with feeling and pretending to be live radio; a widespread practice at the time and also more recently when the 2000 Olympics in Sydney were tape-delay broadcast to the US). RWR held a minor executive position as well (head of the Screen Actors' Guild -- SAG) before becoming governor, and then moving on to the presidency. Some people think that acting skills -- in particular, the ability to bluster and bluff -- are not the most important skills needed by a US president.
Lately (2001) Jesse's been trying to slash the Minnesota higher education budget. Is this a move with direct election implications?
Enough of this political hogwash! LET'S SHOUT ABOUT WRESTLING!
In a dramatic multiround sequence of courtroom smack-downs, the World Wildlife Fund -- a wimpy charity! -- humiliated World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. In a 2001 split decision, the wrestling federation had torn away from it the legal right to use the logo it had adopted in 1998, and the circumstances under which it could deploy the letters WWF were backed into certain specified cases, only within the US. The federation made a desperate stand at London's Court of Appeal, but was denied in February 2002. On Monday, May 6, the Stamford, Connecticut-based company threw in the towel, tossed in the sponge, cried uncle, and changed its name to the appropriately effete ``World Wrestling Entertainment'' (WWE).
For information on earlier wars, try the De Re Militari website.
Here are some more variant variants:
The moderated usenet newsgroup soc.history.war.world-war-ii has FAQ material in hypertext format.
In The Mathematical Experience (Boston: Birkhäuser, 1981), Philip J. Davis and Reuben Hersh wrote
One began to hear it said that World War I was the chemists' war, World War II was the physicists' war, World War III (may it never come) will be the mathematicians' war.
Ignazio Silone said (in the fifties, I think), that
The next war will be between the Communists and the ex-Communists.
``The New York Intellectuals'' was a loosely-defined group of public intellectuals of the 1940's and 50's, associated more or less with Partisan Review. The typical New York Intellectual was a disillusioned ex-Communist. (I have to capitalize these words. They're name brands.)
See, however, the WWIV entry for a more recent alternative take on WWIII.
It's now become popular to regard the Cold War as WWIII, and to call the war against terror WWIV. Norman Podhoretz, in the pages of Commentary, has been one of the main popularizers. For an alternate take on this, see Marshall McLuhan's comment quoted at the JDAM entry.
The main difference is that WWJD, reflecting its original product, is rather downmarket compared to Harley, which nowadays is a rich man's bike. This is known as market segmentation.
In Carlyle at his Zenith, D. A. Wilson quotes him as saying
If Jesus Christ were to come to-day, people would not even crucify him. They would ask him to dinner, and hear what he had to say, and make fun of it.
The legendary animal trainer Frank Inn, son of a Quaker preacher, was a devout Christian. In addition to training Benjie (preincarnated as Higgins, the dog on the TV series ``Petticoat Junction''), Arnold Ziffel (the ``Green Acres'' pig), and hundreds of other TV and movie animals, he also donated dogs to the handicapped and wrote poetry. Some of his poems pondered whether Jesus had a dog.
I heard the trope ``what would <admirable personage> do'' long before I ever encountered WWJD or its expansion. So when I first heard WWJD, it sounded vaguely sacrilegious -- as if suggesting that He would face all the same constraints and limitations of a mortal. Einstein once commented that the good Lord does not suffer from our integration difficulties -- He integrates empirically (i.e., a physical system is tantamount to an analog-computer simulation of the differential equations describing it). Well, there are different interpretations, but for many the popularity of WWJD has turned the old trope from a general question into an implicit reference to WWJD (hence joke versions like WWBBD?, WWBD?, the genius stroke WWMAD?, ktl.). [There's an up-to-date list at WWID.] Then again, not everyone is so affected. James Q. Wilson wrote in The Moral Sense (Free Press, 1993), possibly without intending this particular irony (pp. 5-6):
Everywhere we look, we see ordinary men and women going about their daily affairs, happily or unhappily as their circumstances allow, making and acting on moral judgments without pausing to wonder what Marx or Freud or Rorty would say about those judgments.
On Monday, November 30, 2009, Jesus Christ reported for jury duty. It's a little surprising that His name got on the list in the first place, but this was Birmingham, Alabama. Assigned to Judge Clyde Jones's courtroom, Jesus Christ became disruptive and was asked to leave. Judge not that ye be not judged, I guess. The 59-year-old woman had had her name legally changed from Dorothy Lola Killingworth. It seems like a lot of trouble to go to to avoid jury duty. Afterwards, according to USA Today, ``[e]fforts to reach Christ were unsuccessful.''
(Actually, I overheard this at Nick's Patio, but I wanted you to think of Nick's bar, the doppel of Martini's in IAWL.)
I haven't heard ``quintuple-yoo.'' The URL is something of an inertial tongue-twister -- once you get started you have to remember to get off.
In addition to voice and beeps, time information is encoded digitally by PWM on 100 Hz (one bit per second: 0.2 seconds on for 0; 0.5 seconds for a 1).
She should have died hereafter;could be as bad as recording one of those dreadful `endless loop' tapes. The technique is demonstrated in one of those Italian neocrazyist films; I think it's in Antonioni's ``Il Deserto rosso'' (`Red Desert') from 1964. In it, Giuliano Missirini plays the radio-telescope operator.
There would have been a time for such a word.
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time ...
No! Not water!
You curséd brat! Look what you've done!
I'm melting! Melting!
Oh, what a world! What a world!
Who would have thought that a good little girl like you could destroy my beautiful wickedness?
Oh, she was Elphaba Thropp. Thank you, Hollywood. Actually, it turns out that Margaret Hamilton, who played the part in the 1939 film version, later used WWW sometimes when she signed autographs.
Honorable mention: Water, World & Weissmuller, a biography by Narda Onyx (1964).
Here's an authoritative article in postscript. Oh, wait: it's only of historical interest (year of Oh Lord! 1992). [Berners-Lee, T., et al. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe in Electronic Networking: Research, Applications and Policy 1 2 (Meckler, Westport CT, USA, 1992).] For general information, see also W3C.
The Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy serves a page of Wyoming state government links. USACityLink.com has a page with a few town links for the state.
Maybe you can't afford to live in your own private Idaho, but you can probably afford wyoming.com (an ISP).
To judge from Yahoo's listings, Wyoming appears to be the only US state without a private baccalaureate-granting institution. In fact, it does seem that there are no private institutions there that you can attend, in the traditional sense of the word, to earn a bachelor's degree. Isleuth finds a bunch of private institutions, perhaps 17 of them distinct, but are all online -- with one partial exception: there are students actually physically manning Preston University. (Yes, I did have to state the fact in that infelicitous and obscure way first. Don't ask why.) Preston is ``headquartered'' in Cheyenne at 1204 Airport Parkway, and you can attend classes in person (f2f), but only if you're going for the MBA. For other degrees, you can do the online thing or else just attend classes at any of almost 50 affiliated campuses worldwide (as of 2004). The one that's located in the western hemisphere is in Caracas (or was; the link is dead).
The University of Wyoming is the state's only public post-secondary institution. Its two campuses are in Laramie, about 50 miles west of Cheyenne, the state capital.
A wye turn, for example, effects a U-turn: drive just past a road or drive on the right, stop and back into it (use your right turn signals), then make a left from that to return to the road you were on, but moving in the opposite direction. If your turning diameter is larger than the road width, and you don't have a crossing at which to execute a wye turn, try a kay-turn. I always thought the shape of a wye turn more resembles an upper-case tee than a lower-case wye, but it's a case of stare decis. You can do a wye turn at a tee intersection.
In elementary circuit analysis, a useful set of formulas is the delta-wye transformation. Externally, a delta and a wye both present three nodes. Internally, a delta is in the form of a Greek letter delta, a triangle. Each side is a two-terminal circuit element connecting two of the external nodes. The wye (I suppose you could call it an upsilon for consistency) has a central node joining one end of each of three two-terminal circuit elements, the three remaining ends each connecting to one of the external nodes. I'll do the ASCII art later. It's straightforward to analyze this and any similar generalization (square and cross, say) using Kirchoeff's laws and the characteristics of the circuit elements. However, deltas and wyes with passive linear elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors) occur frequently, and I have to run now and finish this entry later. Okay, back now. The delta-wye transformation given below allows one to replace a delta network with a wye network, and vice versa. This turns out to be useful even when oh, no, not again! I'll be back.
The characters in Vladimir Nabokov's Pale Fire live in New Wye, U.S.A., home of Wordsmith College. (I'm not going to say that's where the novel is set; it's not that kind of a novel, necessarily. Maybe it's not a novel either.) You can't spell toponymy without two wye's. Go for the gusto at the Yreka entry.
Although the OED and some other dictionaries come right out and define wye and aitch as the names of the letters Y and H, many dictionaries avoid the issue of whether wye or aitch are names. The Random House Dictionary gives wye as a spelling (not an alternate spelling) of the name of the letter Y, but doesn't indicate what that name is. One linguistic authority who shall remain nameless (like the letter i) has sent me numerous (two) emails insisting that Y is the name of the letter Y. Some of you (spelled why, oh, you) may think that words like name have only approximate meanings determined by usage, and that this question turns on details of its meaning and usage that are not generally agreed. I disagree, and when I retire I'll try to remember to put resolving this important issue on my list of things to get around to.
Of course, it's not polite to stare.
FOLDOC has one explanation of the term, essentially in terms of the limitations of PC-based GUI desktop publishing (DTP) ap's for large-scale documents.
Vide CLI, GUI.
[ A ][ B ][ C ][ D ][ E ][ F ][ G ][ H ][ I ][ J ][ K ][ L ][ M ][ N ][ O ][ P ][ Q ][ R ][ S ][ T ][ Þ (``thorn'') ][ U ][ V ][ W ][ X ][ Y ][ Z ][ Numbers ]
[ Thumb tabs and search tool] [ SBF Homepage ]
Oops! Overshot the pointers.