____ NH / \ / 2 / \____/ HN \ \ \ \ === O === NH / / / / HO H N 2
Réaumur's scale is clearly superior to the others, for three reasons:
The recommendation for J is ``Juliette.'' Perhaps you missed it when you were reading the jays.
The piece name Rook is derived from Persian. It's etymologically unrelated to the word rook meaning crow or someone who acts like a crow.
The whole game came to Europe from Persia. The name Chess itself comes from Shah (more evident in German, where chess is called Schach).
Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.
Quintilian, trying to praise Seneca, but not too highly, remarks that
Seneca had many excellent qualities, a quick and fertile intelligence with great industry and wide knowledge, though as regards the last quality he was often led into error by those whom he had entrusted with the task of investigating certain subjects on his behalf.(Institutio Oratoria, book 10, ch. 1, sec. 130. Translation of H. E. Butler, part of the 1920-22 Loeb edition. See details and entire English at Bil Thayer's LacusCurtius.)
Traditionally, star catalogs are ordered by right ascension, whereas Sears catalogs are ordered by people distant from population centers. You could look them up as they rise. (I mean the stars. The sky ones.) Of course, if you're not using a tracking mechanism, the easiest way to locate most stars is relative to the constellations (q.v.) they are part of or near to.
The general information in the preceding paragraph came mostly from conversations with three other rabbit owners. Now I want to share a couple of things I learned during my own one-month stint as a rabbit owner:
Hares are not rabbits. Hares were already in Europe during Roman times when rabbits from Spain invaded and colonized Europe. The origin of the name of Spain is uncertain, but one popular hypothesis traces it to the Punic (i.e. Carthaginian- and Phoenician-language) word for rabbit, tsepan or span in a couple of Latin-character renderings.
See also the Automobile Association (AA).
All French dictionaries I have checked give only an uncountable or collective racaille, and no countable individual use such as is now current in English. Intrigued by a November 2005 editorial in English that claimed en passant that racaille means `hoodlum,' I searched for uses of the lexeme in French news articles. It seems that the majority of uses are still uncountable (i.e., as described in dictionaries) or at least ambiguous (e.g., attributive uses of the singular form, which might be interpreted as countable or not.) However, a countable form applicable to individuals -- perhaps originally slang -- is becoming evident. In a July 2005 article in Le Télégram, a proud mother is quoted remarking that her daughter's success in school ``prouve que le cliché `gosses de HLM = racailles' n'est pas fondé.'' (Only the quotation marks have been changed to protect the innocent. This means ``proves that the stereotype `kids from the projects = hoodlums' is unfounded.'')
The earliest instance I can find is from 1994 (this mostly reflects the limitations of my database): ``Blues des racailles'' was the debut album of Tonton David, described as having ``origines banlieusardes.'' The last phrase can be translated literally as `suburban origins,' but if you're thinking whitebread and lawn-mowers, you need to have a look at the entry for jeunes des banlieues.
There were riots in the Lille area on Christmas Eve 1998, and among those charged in connection with it were three adults with prior criminal records. Their prosecutor told the court, ``Ce sont trois voyous, trois racailles.'' [`They are three thugs, three hoodlums.'] In a phrase that would resonate in 2005, Le Figaro described Roubaix as having ``un calme précaire,'' (`a fragile calm').
I don't think so.
Any individual unit of rack-mountable equipment is sold in a chassis with a firmly attached front panel, all designed to take up a whole number of U's of vertical space, and the entire width inside the rack. One mounts the equipment onto a rack by screwing the front panel to the front sides of two rails. (In the equipment I'm familiar with, the front panel is typically a steel sheet one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch thick.) Various elaborations of this system are used, particularly for heavy equipment, involving vertical rails at the back (see U entry). Regardless of these additional support mechanisms, the front panels have standard dimensions which allow them to be firmly mounted on the rails. At least twelve panel specifications are designated by letter names:
|Panel Size||Height in whole U's|
But Harry Morgan, who played the unit commander (Col. Sherman T. Potter) on M*A*S*H from 1975 to the end, really was the same actor who played Jack Webb's partner on the 1967-1970 Dragnet series. He also played a crazy general named Steele in a 1974 episode of M*A*S*H.
A palindrome, how 'bout that!
Invented in Britain in 1940 by Robert M. Page and others, and independently in Germany. The name was coined by S. M. Tucker.
During the war, Britain sent its developers to work in the US on rapid roll-out. Through the course of the war, there was time enough for a couple of generations of measures and countermeasures to be developed, what we now call ECM. In the course of research, it was unexpectedly discovered that microwaves didn't travel as far in humid weather -- a fact that led to development of the microwave oven. The research was conducted at the MIT Radiation Laboratory (``Rad Lab''), which was disbanded before the war ended. The lab name is often described as having been purposely chosen to be deceptive, but it's hardly inaccurate.
Text copied February 2005: ``The RADAR Network, sponsored by SAMHSA's NCADI, is the largest substance abuse prevention and treatment network of its kind. There are more than 700 active Centers worldwide with representation in every State and U.S. territory.
This unique network offers free membership and provides an organized way for States to connect with one another and with national agencies such as the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), the National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD), and the National Prevention Network (NPN).
In practice, almost any capacitor package that is not a box and has two leads not in an ``axial'' configuration is liable to be called ``radial.'' The usage even extends to those bright oblong capacitors whose correct technical designation I believe to be orange drop.
Here's a toy code to convert between different radices.
``Hexadecimal'' is one of those bastard ``New Latin'' or ``international scientific vocabulary'' words (ISV), half-Latin (-decimal) and half-Greek (hexa-) like automobile, television and electrocute.
See C. R. Cook and P. S. P. Wang, ``A Chomsky hierarchy of isotonic array grammars and languages,'' Computer Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 8, pp. 144-152 (1978).
Nice Memorial Day weather. I pulled up to a light, banging time to the music against the outside of my car door. A bit ahead of me in the other lane, I noticed a guy in a ragtop; I couldn't hear his sound system. I wondered: what do people in convertibles do when some jerk like me comes up, and they can't block out the sound? There was some space ahead of him -- he could have pulled further away from me. I had Little Feat's ``Dixie Chicken'' on -- I turned up the volume. The guy in the ragtop turned and smiled, and gave me a solidarity sign.
Then one night in the lobby
Of the Commodore Hotel,
I chanced to meet a bartender
Who said he knew her well.
And as he handed me a drink,
He began to hum a song,
And all the boys at the bar
Began to sing along...
The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland created in 1871 resulted from the remerger of the Anthropological Society with the Ethnological Society, from which the former had split off in 1863 as a result of ``racialist issues'' not further described at the society's short history page. The secession was led by James Hunt and Captain Richard Burton and was created ``ostensibly to provide an alternative to the Ethnological Society after the latter had allowed the admission of the `fair sex' to meetings'' according to an ``[e]xtract from W. Chapman's unpublished D.Phil thesis 1981, `Ethnology in the Museum'.'' (I'm not sure whose view is expressed in the quoted text.) Quoting from the same webpage: ``Following Hunt's death, the Anthropological Society itself, ... had generally lapsed into disarray.''
At the IC entry, you can read about the Illinois Central accident in 1900 that took the life of the man remembered as ``Casey'' Jones. At the KX entry you can read about a couple of accidents that took place at the King's Cross station north of London, in 1946 and 2002. The TOPS entry mentions the crash that took place at Southall (west London) in 1997. The next fatal accident on British railways took place two years later, October 5, 1999. That accident is described right here, at the entry you're reading.
Thirty-one people were killed at Ladbroke Grove, west London -- a Thames train went through a red signal (spadded) and collided head-on with a high-speed service traveling from Cheltenham to Paddington. These two accidents (Southall and Ladbroke Grove) occurred about 8 miles apart, on the same line, and in circumstances that at least superficially appear to bear a strong resemblance. Subsequent fatal accidents (October 17, 2000, four dead and 87 injured when the London-to-Leeds express derailed on a broken track near Hatfield station in Hertfordshire, and the 2002 accident described at the KX entry) seem to have been more track-related.
(There was also an accident at Selby on February 28, 2001, when a Land Rover veered off the M62 in North Yorkshire into the path of a GNER train coming from Newcastle. Driver Gary Hart, who had fallen asleep at the wheel, survived but was sentenced to five years in prison for causing death by dangerous driving.)
In Italian (and in Spanish, for that matter), lento is the adjective meaning `slow.' If your Italian comprehension is worse than your speech, Italians may answer you in a normal conversational speed. You need to say something like ``più lento, per piaciere!''
RALPH disbanded in 1987 when Gleason died. Its last convention was in August 1986 at the old Felt Forum in NYC (now called The Theatre at Madison Square Garden).
Most RAM is organized in rectangular arrays of word lines and bit lines. Any code in the process of execution, and as much as possible of the data which that code requires, are stored in RAM. (For a complication, see the OVL entry.)
Until the late 1960's, the RAM in most computers was in the form of arrays of small ferrite ``cores.'' (That's the origin of the term ``core dump.'') A bit was encoded by the direction of magnetization of a core. The first great success of MOS technology was the rapid take-over of the core memory market by SRAM. SRAM and especially DRAM are still the overwhelmingly dominant forms of central RAM.
Good resources are The RAM Guide and The Ultimate Memory Guide. Here's a nice general tutorial on computer systems that has substantial information on memory.
Some operating systems require a great deal of RAM.
Experience in working with sunlight indicated the techniques necessary for the observation of extremely weak phenomena, viz. the rigorous exclusion of stray light and the conditioning of the observer's vision by a prolonged stay in darkness.Those were the good ol' days.
The Cardona group is well known for it. They offer about a 500-word introduction.
Here's some more instructional material from Virginia Tech.
Hundreds of K of captioned gifs are available from the Wilson group at UCSD, at a science TV level of sophistication.
`Rambam' is too easy to confuse with Ramban (for R. ben Nachman, or Nachmanides).
Ramekins were traditionally made with the same material and finish as teacups and other flatware (i.e., either porcelain, or a substitute for porcelain such as hard low-friction plastic). Metal (stainless steel) is also common. If they were made of paper, they'd be cupcaKe cups.
Restaurants use ramekins to supply patrons with Individual servings of salad dressing ``on the side,'' dips, sauces, etc. Ramekin is easier to say than ``non-Newtonian-fluid container.''
Hmm. It turns out that ramekin is not an acronym. Not even an akrenim. I guess you can ignore the expansion capitalizations in the preceding paragraphs. If you did not ignore them before, you can go back and ignore them later. Anyway, the word ramekin, also spelled ramequin, is from the French ramequin, which was a food item. Exactly which food items were covered by the term is not entirely clear to me, but something like a miniature soufflé may have been one of them. In English, the name eventually became attached to the dish used to make the, uh, dish -- metonymy is a two-way street.
Some deathly-boring stories about ramekin-related conversations can be found at the restaurant jargon entry, so go there right away. (But don't forget to go back first and ignore that odd capitalization.)
Note that most animals that reproduce sexually (and which therefore have natural gender) do not have both grammatical genders in Spanish. For example, frog and toad are la rana y el sapo. For more about that, see the sapo entry.
BTW, the Latin original of this word was ramus, a second-declension male noun, so one would expect only ramo in Spanish. On the other hand, gender wobbled a bit. One example I can think of is baculum, a Latin word meaning a staff of some sort. It was second-declension neuter, of course, but for some reason, I can't imagine why, it began to be declined male (as the word baculus) in late Roman times, until that became (I think) the word's predominant gender in Medieval Latin. In English now, a baculus (plural baculi) is a staff that serves as a symbol of authority. The restored classical form baculum is modern biological terminology for the penis-bone (found in many mammal species). The plural of baculum (in English -- as usual one uses only the nominative forms) is bacula. There is also a Latin noun whose singular nominative form is bacula; it means `small berry.'
Scott Bakula played Captain Jonathan Archer in Enterprise, a 2001 TV prequel of the original Star Trek series. The character played by Bakula was (i.e., will have been) James Tiberius Kirk's childhood hero. Always some Latin, or at least Romance, connection.
The West Greek alphabet, adopted by the Etruscans and inherited by the Romans, began with alpha, beta, gamma, just like the East Greek alphabet more familiar to us. (And about like all the Semitic alphabets -- aleph, bet, gimel in Hebrew, for example.) If you rotate a capital gamma counterclockwise by 45 degrees, it looks like an angular letter cee. (Back before printing, rotation was one of the most common deformations suffered by letter glyphs.) Over time, the sound of that third letter became devoiced in Latin, so instead of a hard gee sound as in the English word goat, it had a hard cee sound as in the English word coat. A way to represent the gee sound was still wanted, so a new letter based on cee was invented and inserted in the alphabet after the letter eff (which was the old Greek letter digamma). Notice the resemblance of the glyphs C and G? Most Latin words that contained the hard cee sound (i.e., the sound of kay or Greek kappa) were originally written K, but it eventually became common to write them with a C instead. With a few exceptions (like Kaeso), K came to be used in Latin primarily to transliterate the kappa in Greek loan words. I'm not sure if specific evidence exists that bacula was originally written bakula, but it is the natural presumption.
The indecision -- whether to use cee or kay to represent the hard-cee sound, recurred in other languages that adopted versions of the Latin alphabet. English and German, which replaced runes with Latin characters very roughly about the time they replaced indigenous paganism with Christianity, both went through an early period during which neither character was dominant. Eventually, cee became dominant in English (particularly in word-initial position and in consonant clusters, and wherever the consonant was not followed by e or i) , and kay became dominant in German. In both cases, the convergence on a preferred letter involved reform of some spellings that had become established. In English, for example, the adjective ending -ick was replaced by -ic, and etymologically unrelated final -ick was also often changed (when unstressed, I suppose). This might make a little clearer why we add a -k- in forming the past tense of -ic verbs (panic, panicked; picnic, picnicked, traffic, trafficked) instead of doubling the final consonant of the root in the usual way.
Incidentally, in Spanish one increasingly finds the word área used in the transferred sense of an abstract area of ideas or activities, just as in English. This is a recent development, an anglicismo. As recently as fifty years ago, área was rarely used except in reference to physical space.
If you look over the preceding entry as a whole, I think you will agree that most of the content was related to the headword. If you don't agree, too bad.
Oh wait, that was Sharona. A Ramones song? Never mind.
Anyway, a bass player and singer named Douglas Glenn Colvin learned something of this. (Precisely what Colvin had heard or knew is either already known or never will be, since he's dead.) With this as his inspiration, he adopted the stage name Dee Dee Ramone. Two guys he was starting up a band with in 1974 followed suit, and they named their group the Ramones. All subsequent band members, including Tom, who joined before their first public performance, adopted stage names with a Ramone surname. The first names and initials that were used with the surname were uniformly uninteresting and unoriginal. It's horrifying to think that the Spice Girls represented progress of any kind at all, but there you are.
At the University of Buffalo in 1994 or so, some students formed a group they called the Algonquin Round Table. My immediate reaction was that since they were unlikely to measure up to the original and famous group whose name they took, their choice of name was in the nature of lèse majesté. If Colvin et al. had called themselves ``The McCartneys,'' it would have been something like that. So I suppose they might be praised for their restraint, of all things.
Starting under USAAF funding, the Douglas Aircraft Company conducted a research program called Project RAND from 1945-8, a preliminary study of earth-orbiting satellites. In May 1948, RAND became an independent organization. It used to figure in loopy conspiracy theories. I order you not to believe them.
RAPID is a not-for-profit 501(c)(6) organization formed by over 70 leading agricultural companies to allow the agricultural community to take advantage of the new developments in electronic communications. This organization was formed by the American Crop Protection Association with the purpose of moving the agriculture industry manufacturers, distributors, resellers, growers and others to new levels of communications, electronic commerce and regulatory compliance and stewardship capabilities.
In the early 1990's, several agricultural companies formed the Ag [sic] Alliance for Electronic Communication (AAEC). This group began the effort to develop necessary standards and guidelines to make electronic commerce work for the entire industry. In July 1995, that organization evolved into a separate legal entity called RAPID ..., an industry consortium dedicated to bringing Electronic Commerce solutions to all of agribusiness.
For more about rock material vide infra. For more on the Rock'n'Roll-chemistry nexus, see the geology and Li entries.
Back in the 1980's, a research group found surprisingly high rare earth concentrations in meteorites that fell to earth in Antarctica -- where the chance of environmental contamination is minimal. Specifically, they discovered perfect microscopic spheres very high in rare earth content on the surface of the meteorite. This was a very puzzling discovery. Eventually, they got another publication (in Scripta Physica) out of their research -- a retraction, in which they described very similar microspheres of essentially the same composition, generated by the flint from their cigarette lighters.
I'll put in the reference when I find my file of this sort of thing. I wanted to at least mention it now because it gives me an entry in which to add the following: In Houston, Texas, on the ides of March, 2001, an eighteen-wheeler overturned and spilled its 23-ton load of frozen chickens, closing part of I-10 for several hours. The driver had lost control of the rig when he dropped his cigarette and bent over to pick it up.
The rock group called ``Rare Earth'' was originally called ``The Sunliners.'' They had some limited success and released records with MGM, Hercules, Golden World, and Verve. They signed with Motown in 1969, and the name-change was inspired or imposed by Motown execs. More at RE, but not about the rock group.
In principle, the inspector general of an agency is independent of the agency head, and there are rules meant to allow the inspector general to act without fear of interference by political appointees or the White House. It's a civil-servicey sort of idea. The RAT Board now will have the authority to ask ``that an inspector general conduct or refrain from conducting [sic] an audit or investigation.'' If the inspector general doesn't want to do so, then the IG must write a report explaining his decision to the board, to the agency head and to Congress. Fans of the institution of the inspector general, and of inspectors' general independence (I hope that's the pl. poss. form) fear that this oversight will have a chilling effect on IG's. I don't know who gets to sit on a RAT Board.
It's not known who put the RAT language in the bill, since the bill was ``crafted'' behind closed doors in a hurry. (It's doubtful that any single person -- legislator or staffer -- could have read all 1073 pages of the bill, let alone studied or largely understood it.) Byron York, chief political correspondent for the DC Examiner, reported that he was told by one Democratic senator that the RAT Board was ``something the Obama administration wanted included in this bill.'' (If true this would be one of the few indications that the Obama administration made an effort to influence the legislation.) When York asked the White House, staffers told him they'd ``look into it.'' He didn't hear back.
Iowa Republican Sen. Charles Grassley, a longtime champion of inspectors general, only heard about the RAT Board from a concerned IG, a couple of days before the conference committee reported out a final bill. He was alarmed by the words ``conduct or refrain from conducting.'' On Friday, Feb. 13, as the bill was barreling toward narrow passage, Grassley wanted to voice his objections on the floor of the ``world's greatest deliberative body,'' as the US Senate is fatuously known. But there was no time in the rush to a vote, so Grassley's statement went unread. Part of his prepared statement: ``It's fitting that the acronym for this board is RAT, because that's what I smell here.''
Rockets, jet engines, and squid all use a backward-directed jet of fluid to generate thrust. Squid suck in the fluid (dirty water, yuck) from sides and front and squirt it out the back. Jet engines suck air in the front and mix it with fuel in a turbine. The fuel-air mix burns, and the expansion (of the air and combustion gases, mostly H2O and CO2) turns the turbine. The turning of the turbine pulls in more air and propels a jet of exhaust backward. Part of the jet force comes from the fact that the exhaust gases are under higher pressure than the intake air. It would be simpler if you just burned the fuel and used its expansion directly, but then how would you get the expansion to produce a backward-directed jet without a forward-directed jet?
Rockets are simpler in that respect. Instead of sucking in air to oxidize the fuel, they use oxidant that is carried with the vehicle, condensed in tanks, the same way fuel is carried. From a practical perspective, oxidant and fuel (reducer) are similar: volatile, dangerously combustible condensed materials in tanks. Hence, the propellants are sometimes both loosely called ``fuel.''
Similarly, jet and rocket engines both propel by burning fuel to produce a backward-directed jet, and so are somewhat similar in practical terms. Hence also, the term JATO is often used where RATO confused. Here (see pg. 2) is a clear instance of ``RATO/JATO'' being used where only RATO is meant. If you want to be charitable, you can say that RATO is jet-assisted, just not jet engine-assisted.
The scientific method is like that.
A biologist conducted a series of experiments on a grasshopper. When he shouted ``jump'' or clapped, he could make it jump (``induce saltatory behavior,'' as he wrote in journals). So he removed its front (prothoracic) legs and yelled, and the grasshopper still jumped. He removed the middle two legs (mesothoracic), and the grasshopper still jumped. Finally, he removed the rear legs (metathoracic), and the grasshopper did not jump. He concluded that a grasshopper hears with its hind legs. Fascinating similar research is described at a BBL entry.
When my old boss at Naval Research Labs (NRL) told this story over beers at the end of my first week at work, I pointed out that many insects do hear with their legs. [I think it's called keeping an ear to the ground, but I didn't say so.] Years later, he told me that this had been the first sign to him that I might be alright after all.
I say that the blueness we see in the atmosphere is not intrinsic color, but is caused by warm vapor evaporated in minute and insensible atoms on which the solar rays fall, rendering them luminous against the infinite darkness of the fiery sphere which lies beyond and includes it.... If you produce a small quantity of smoke and if you place [behind it] a piece of black velvet on which the sun does not fall, you will see that the black stuff will appear of a beautiful blue color.... Water violently ejected in a fine spray and in a dark chamber where the sunbeams are admitted produces then blue rays.... Hence it follows, as I say, that the atmosphere assumes this azure hue by reason of the particles of moisture which catch the rays of the sun.
According to one book:
It is impossible to translate the Russian word razvedka precisely into any foreign language. It is usually rendered as `reconnaissance' or `spying' or `intelligence gathering'. A fuller explanation of the word is that it describes any means and any actions aimed at obtaining information about an enemy, analysing it and understanding it properly, like cleaning your eyeglasses.
(Emphasis added. Actually, the whole emphasized phrase was added.) Perhaps the claim about ``any'' foreign language is overstrong. I don't imagine the author checked more than a few hundred languages before giving up, do you? Anyway, assuming that the standard for precise translation is not set so high that most words are untranslatable, I think `intelligence operations' or `secret-agent stuff' may do. This quote opens the second chapter, ``Spetsnaz and the GRU,'' of a book by ``Viktor Suvorov'' (actually Vladimir Rezun; see spetsnaz entry for details).
Spetsnaz, not to put another fine point on it, is `special ops.' Rezun goes on to say: ``Spetsnaz is one of the forms of Soviet military razvedka which occupies a place somewhere between reconnaissance and intelligence.'' It doesn't look that way to me... ``Spetsnaz differs from other forms of razvedka in that it not only seeks and finds important enemy targets, but in the majority of cases attacks and destroys them.'' I guess you could think of this as a form of constructive proof in intelligence analysis: if you destroy an enemy asset, say, then you have given a proof that it no longer exists. Okay, then: a ``destructive non-existence proof,'' if you insist. But it's really just a kind of muscular logic.
I suppose Rezun might have had a point in insisting. Among the best-known KGB spetsnaz operations was the coup against Afghan president Hafizullah Amin, two days after Christmas in 1979. This doesn't really fit entirely under the category of intelligence gathering. Then again, in 1954 a coup was orchestrated in Guatemala by the US CIA, so a somewhat similar operation (in general outcome if not in method) was conducted by an ``intelligence'' organization. But by this reasoning, the secret service protection of the US President is a treasury operation. Well, maybe it is. Still, we wouldn't say training, aiding, and advising a Guatemalan rebel army is an ``intelligence operation,'' but rather a ``covert operation.'' Eh.
Incidentally, I earlier referred the date of the Afghan coup to a US, yes US, holiday. I did this specifically because there is a natural and general pattern of taking action when one's enemies are at a lower level of readiness due to their holidays, and in this case the relevant strong enemy was the US. (If it had been Canada, I'd have written ``hours after Boxing Day,'' which sounds more aggressive.) Other examples: The 1973 Arab war against Israel, launched on Yom Kippur, the holiest Jewish holiday, and George Washington's famous crossing of the Delaware to attack Hessian troops on Christmas night in 1776. In the latter case, there is a legend that aftereffects of drunken Christmas revelry in the Hessian camp contributed to the American victory, but apparently the main advantage in the attack timing was simply that of surprise, and weather that on balance worked to American advantage.
Look at it this way: FM broadcast-band frequencies are located 200 kHz apart. There's no point broadcasting sound with pitches much above 20 kHz, unless you're broadcasting for dogs, so even with stereo broadcasts they're not using 160kHz of the bandwidth allocated. There's plenty of unused bandwidth for a little bit of digital data. (No, the pun was unintentional, completely unavoidable; I do not apologize.) In fact, systems have been in place for years which piggy-back signals for private subscribers multiplexed over the public signal. Sometimes, this is where Muzak comes from -- i.e., the way franchises get their music ``piped in'' without extra wiring. (Actually, the available bandwidth is greater in principle and narrower by law: two radio stations in close geographic proximity are not allocated adjacent frequencies, but in any case the FCC limits the transmission bandwidth.)
Incidentally, while we're on the subject of kudzu (Radix puerariae). A chemical called daidzin can be extracted from it that reduces the preference of hamsters to drink alcohol rather than water, but these results (like earlier similar results with Prozac) are suspect because hamsters metabolize alcohol too quickly to achieve intoxication -- they apparently drink for the calories, and will give up alcohol for chocolate drink with similar calorie content (first preference) or tomato juice with similar content (second choice). The research was reported in 1995.
They only play cricket there, so it's not a problem.
It occurs to me that window blinds, which used to be called Venetian blinds in the English, are called persianas in Spanish. Hmm. I may not have been the only one dissatisfied with the old name. ``Royal Blind Society has merged and is part of RBS.RVIB.VAF Ltd incorporating the former businesses of Royal Blind Society of NSW (RBS), Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind (RVIB) and the Vision Australia Foundation (VAF).'' A company called ``Brand by Voice'' was hired ``to position and brand the newly combined agency. Brand by Voice has extensive experience in brand development and strategy for major organizations in both the public and private sectors. ... They have worked for Qantas, Vodafone, AMP, NAB, St George, PricewaterhouseCoopers, The National Breast Cancer Foundation and the Australian Government.'' I imagine that they also invented those funny words (wallaby, etc.) and the practice of making ay and aye sound alike. (Marketing issues are discussed at the Polish entry.)
``Brand by Voice is currently  in its discovery phase consulting with key stakeholders, gaining insights into specific audiences, competitors and potential challenges.'' Yeah, well, don't make it sound like an interior decorator group, or an exhibitor's booth at a duck-hunters' convention. Isn't this a charity? What are ``competitors''?
See ``A New Mechanism for Degradation of Al-Si-Cu/TiN/Ti Contacted p-n Junction,'' by Takehito Yoshida, Hiroyuki Kawahara and Shin-ichi Ogawa in Procs. of the 1992 IRPS, pp. 344-348.
Roman Catholic students at secular colleges are served by Newman Centers. There is a Newman Center at UB.
The name ``Roman Catholic Church'' (i.e., the names corresponding to it in various languages) was introduced by Pope Eugenius IV in 1445.
The word ``catholic'' is essentially synonymous with ``universal.''
RCA shares most of its courses with Scholars' Online Academy (SOLA) a parallel school of ISLAS that is broadly Christian. The RCA curriculum includes some additional explicitly Catholic curricular items like elementary theology and a course in Scholastic philosophy.
The fact of being a royal dominion did not automatically confer on Canada's navy the status of ``royal'' or the right to use the term in its name. The Canadian government formally requested the honor in January 1911, and was notified on August 29 of his majesty's approval and authorization to designate the Canadian Naval Forces by ``Royal Canadian Navy.'' For details see Roger Sarty: The Maritime Defence of Canada (Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1996).
The service continued under the RCN designation until it was integrated into the Canadian Armed Forces, which formally came into being on February 1, 1968. The destruction of the RCN was the handiwork of Liberal Paul Hellyer, Defense Minister from 1964 to 1967. See Marc Milner: Canada's Navy: The First Century (Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press, 1999).
RCP keeps track of polls on major political races (i.e., those that attract repeated polling) and computes a running average of recent ones. These ``RCP averages'' is widely cited in political commentary. RCP averages give equal weight to all polls included, regardless of size. (Theoretically, one should weight such multiple estimates by the inverse of the variance. If it can be assumed, as it often is assumed, that the different polls attempt to measure the same number, then this means that each poll should be weighted by its sample size. In other words, one should estimate support for a candidate by counting the total number of supporters over all the polls.) The crude averaging done by RCP is not too terrible since the underlying polls are clearly so flawed that the sample sizes are probably not the dominant source of error. RCP averages also make no distinction among polls of likely voters, polls of registered voters, and more inclusive polls.
RCP was founded in 2000. Since at least 2007, it has had two sister sites, also essentially news-and-commentary aggregators: RealClearSports (RCS) and RealClearMarkets (RCM).
RCP has appeared since 2008 ``three times a year (April-May, July-August, November-December) and publishes articles in all areas of political science. It was founded in 1979.'' The website is available in Spanish, English, and (partly) in Portuguese. Articles are accepted in Spanish or English. Titles and formal abstracts are given in both Spanish and English. According to the instructions for contributors of articles, authors are required to submit abstracts (up to 120 words) in both languages. The front cover of each issue lists the titles of contributions only in the language each item is written in; the online-edition tables of contents give article titles in the language in which the webpage is being read. I marvel at all the free time I must have had when I first drafted this entry.
Judging from the one copy I had in hand (vol. 29, no. 1, 2009), the contributions fall into four categories: artículo, estudio, dossier, and recensión. The Dossier seems to be a collection of related articles on a broad theme, presumably invited. Recensiónes here are book reviews. I can't tell what distinguishes the articles from the studies.
The one from Puerto Rico is published by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociales - Universidad de Puerto Rico - Recinto de Río Piedras. (Investigaciones sociales is an ordinary way to say `social [science] research'; Río Piedras is a district of San Juan.) It was first published as a quarterly beginning in March 1957 (one volumen and four números per year).
Now the words Nueva Época (a slightly old-fashioned way of saying nueva serie, -- `new series') appear before the issue information. I've got ``Nueva Época Número 6 - Enero de 1999'' before me, and as of June 2012 the current issue is number 22. The pricing information says there are currently two numbers per year. I can square this if they published annually through 2008 (no. 15) and no. 23 is due later this year, and if I were creating word problems for Algebra I, this would definitely be interesting to me.
Drinking at a bar (Elmo's) last year [``last year'' when I wrote this around 1996], I met a physics BA who teaches science in a Southtowns school. He told me that one of the courses he was teaching was ``Regents Science.'' I replied that it must be fun to teach an advanced science course to good students. I was sadly mistaken. Regents science is a course for students who don't care about science at all, and are taking a course strictly to meet a distasteful requirement.
If you insert a couple of vowels, just to make RCTM pronounceable, what word suggests itself as model?
Of course, some people will think of RTFM.
``...a strategic partnership set up to champion science, engineering and technology supported by the seven UK Research Councils. Through RCUK, the Research Councils are working together to create a common framework for research, training and knowledge transfer. In doing this RCUK will work alongside OST to further support for the UK's best academic researchers and deliver the best investment for society.''
``OST''? I guess that must be some other Office of Science and Technology.
See also FCUK.
You know, the adoption of so many loan words and even abbreviations from English into foreign languages is of significance to English speakers, because it makes foreign languages easy to understand. Here, for example, is some text from unsolicited email that I received:
Kami, Prihatin Services daripada unit R&D, Latihan dan Perhubungan Awam PEKIDA MALAYSIA ingin menawarkan pekej ini untuk dimanfaatkan oleh ahli keluarga, syarikat dan organisasi Saudara/Saudari.
Sure, you miss some of the grammatical subtleties, but basically, I got all the information out of this that I really wanted to get.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a specification currently under development within the W3C Metadata activity. RDF is designed to provide an infrastructure to support metadata across many web-based activities. RDF is the result of a number of metadata communities bringing together their needs to provide a robust and flexible architecture for supporting metadata on the Internet and WWW. Example applications include sitemaps, content ratings, stream channel definitions, search engine data collection (web crawling), digital library collections, and distributed authoring.
RDF will allow different application communities to define the metadata property set that best serves the needs of each community. RDF will provide a uniform and interoperable means to exchange the metadata between programs and across the Web. Furthermore, RDF will provide a means for publishing both a human-readable and a machine-understandable definition of the property set itself.
RDF will use XML as the transfer syntax in order to leverage other tools and code bases being built around XML.
For further details, see the C&EN of August 25, 1986, p. 44.
More at rare earth entry.
Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.
Flesch Reading Ease
= 206.835 - 1.015 x <words per sentence> - 84.6 x <syllables per word>In practice, the range is truncated to [0,100]. (I.e., FRE = max(0,min(100,"FRE")), where "FRE" is the quantity given by the formula above. Six significant digits on the constant term? This is what happens when you give calculators to monkeys. Okay, okay, it's not so bad: the precision seems to be all of 0.005 units. Since 100 units are supposed to represent no more than about 20 years of education, 0.005 represents about a millischool-year. And since a school year contains roughly 1000 hours of classroom time, this test purports to state readability differences corresponding to about one class period. Sure, why not?
Scores above ninety correspond to a fourth-grade reading level. Whoa -- 61.325! A score that is above a score of nine times a ten corresponds to a fourth-grade level of reading. Uh, 81.055. Wait till next year, kid. (Fifth grade: 80-90.) There's a lot of interesting information encoded in this formula. I guess what the FRE tells you is that the easiest-to-read sentences containing x excess syllables are those in which those extra syllables are diluted among a total of sqrt(cx) words (c = 83.34975). I never would have guessed that. Linear functions of things that monkeys can compute on a four-banger are fascinating things. (That scored a 50.557. ``Fairly difficult'' is at the ``some high school'' grade level: 50-60.) Lincoln's Gettysburg Address scores 64. (I mean the address itself scores 64, not the words ``Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.'' And now we know why he didn't begin with the much-harder-to-understand ``Eighty-seven years ago....'' ``Standard'' difficulty, 7th-8th grade: 60-70. College level ``and up'' is 0-30.)
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level
= -15.59 + 0.39 x <words per sentence> + 11.8 x <syllables per word>It's interesting to see that the ratio of syllable-rate and sentence-length coefficients is down to only 30.26 here from 83.35 (c) above. Evidently, sentence length is much more significant in determining grade level than in determining reading ease. Moreover, if you don't start bulking up your words with extra syllables, next year you'll have to add 2.56 words to your average sentence.
Gunning's Fog Index
= 0.4 x ( <words per sentence> + <long words per sentence> )(Long words are words of three or more syllables. I'm at a loss for words.)
In his ``At the Movies'' column in the February 12, 1999, New York Times, Bernard Weinraub reported:
Several Hollywood marketing executives and producers were almost united their explanation of why the academy snubbed ``The Truman Show.'' They said that while some newspapers and magazine critics lavishly praised the movie, people in Hollywood didn't quite get what all the hoopla was about.
``It was a critics' phenomenon, and the town never liked the movie,'' one top producer said.
A studio marketing executive said that an oft-heard comment about the movie was that it had been overpraised, and that there might have been a glimmer of resentment among actors over Mr. Carrey's relatively effortless leap from comedy to drama. The actors [sic] branch of the Academy selects the acting nominees.
In addition, Mr. Carrey's chances of an Oscar nomination may have been hurt by his winning a best-actor prize at the Golden Globes, awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association...
``It may have been, `O.K., he got the Golden Globe, that's enough,' '' the marketing executive said.
That third-edition preface concludes with the following: ``[T]he etymologies suggested are usually my own, and from the nature of the surnames included tend to be either obvious or highly speculative, but experience has shown that as many enquiries are received concerning the former type as of surname as for the more difficult ones.''
For surname etymologies I usually go first to Hanks and Hodges and the book by the Kohlheims listed at the Familienname entry. If I cite only Reaney and Wilson, then it probably means that these failed me.
This is probably a good place to explain about personals-ad pictures. Often it will seem that the age of the person in the picture is not consistent with the age in the profile. Here are some rules that I have developed on the basis of the scientific experimental method, that will enable you to interpret the significance of this inconsistency.
You probably find this bewildering, but the explanation is simple: people have a natural desire to be honest. However, it often happens that for technical reasons, the profile lists an age that differs in a quantitative way from the current chronological age of the person described. Since this is a mathematical issue, the reasons go beyond what we can explain here. However, because a so-called ``fictitious age'' is given, the person placing the ad may wish to also give an indication of so-called ``actual age.'' For this purpose, a recent photograph may be used.
On the other hand, sometimes the age listed in the ad coincides with the age of the person who places the ad. This is so unexpected that it can cause confusion, leading the reader to underestimate the age of the person advertising. In order to get around this problem, the advertiser uses a method designed to exaggerate age. The method has two steps: (1) select an OLD picture, and (2) AGE the picture. For example, suppose the advertising person is 55, but the age listed in the profile is also 55. Because this is so confusing, the reader is likely to think that the advertiser is only 40 -- a fifteen-year error! The solution is to illustrate the ad with a picture that not only is fifteen years old (taken when the advertiser was 40), but also to age this picture, not using it when it is deceptively young but instead using it now, only after it has matured fifteen years -- an old picture of an older person. This is the method of over-correction: a fifteen-year-old picture is used fifteen years after it was taken, for a total correction of thirty years.
The tangled webs people weave to be honest -- it's amazing.
Seen in a Toronto ad: ``I'm a 40-something Canadian (30 US).'' [Man, she must have aged something awful in 2007.]
Sometimes, an appropriate old photograph is not available. In these situations, the prospective dater trying to be honest is forced to use the photograph of someone else. An example can be found at the entry for I value honesty. Something similar happened with the photograph of Jennifer Kesse of Orlando, Florida, who disappeared under mysterious circumstances in late January 2006. Photographs of her appear on a missing-person website maintained by her parents. In mid-2007, one of these photos was found illustrating a personals ad for a person who described herself (or himself, who knows?) as a 25-year-old looking for ``a special older man to love, to be very good friends with.'' This ``wonderful older man'' she seeks will want to be with a young woman and ``will love me for who I am,'' as she puts it. A photograph of Kesse was also used by someone on a lesbian dating site. Detective Joel Wright of the Orlando Police Department says, ``More than likely, it's somebody just trying to make themselves look better for someone they might want to meet later on. I wonder what happens when they do meet that person.'' One guess is that the wonderful older man might be wonderfully near-blind, but then the advantage of posting a pretty picture would be limited.
I think what generally happens when someone catches a date on false pretenses is that the other person tries to be polite and cuts the date as short as possible, and that's their last date. For the person who repeatedly gets dates this way, it has to be a strange social life. Back before online dating sites, my uncle Robert advised that the ideal first date is for coffee, so you can bail out quickly. (He's a pilot.)
I'm quite proud of the fact that I managed to write this entire entry without once mentioning The Picture of Dorian Gray, but I couldn't resist the urge to crow about it.
In Spanish, the idea expressed by recherché in English is expressed by the native construction rebuscado (based on buscar, `to look for, to go get'). It is typical that English would rely on a loan. But given the cultural associations of France and French, the use of an unnaturalized loan (as signaled by the retained acute accent) is particularly appropriate to the apparently obsolete senses, making recherché in English connotatively homological.
Incidentally, as you will have noticed, German compound terms (particularly nouns) are typically written as single words. This makes it important to be able to recognize the component words. That's usually pretty easy, even for non-native speakers (see VLIW entry for examples), but there are special cases that can trip one up. Words beginning with recht are one such case: they may be compounds of
Well, I ended up saying a little more than I had originally intended. That happens sometimes, and it can obscure the main point. Obviously, the various senses of recht, etc., are related and shade into one another, just as do the various senses of right and rights in English. The point, though, is that the ess following recht may be an inflection or may be the first letter of the next word in the compound. In principle, there might be a pair of distinct words like rechtsoof and rechtsoof, constructed with soof and oof respectively, but I can't come up with an example.
Until we have an entry for right, I'll add here that in Spanish, derecho has a melange of legal senses similar to recht in German. For example, it means `law' in general, as a branch of study or a system of concepts (a particular law is a ley), and also `right, prerogative.' By extension, it has the sense (usually in plural) of `duty,' or what one pays to exercise a legal privilege (e.g., derechos aduaneros). (I guess it's a bonus that `correct' in the most general sense is not one of its standard meanings.) What might be slightly confusing is that derecho is an adverb meaning `straight ahead' while derecha is a noun meaning `right' (i.e., a la derecha means `on [or to] the right'). [Okay, strictly speaking, many dictionaries still consider this to be not an instance of a noun derecha, but the noun phrase mano derecha (`right hand') with mano elided, but usage says different.]
The AC-to-DC power supply almost has a rectenna. It has a transformer with a primary winding that takes line current. This induces an alternating magnetic flux in the transformer core, which in turn (pardon the pun) induces an AC voltage in the secondary winding. The voltage across the secondary is put across a full-wave rectifier bridge (four diodes in obvious orientations) to produce a noisy DC signal. A capacitor shunt across the DC output functions as a primitive low-pass filter and gives a reasonably flat DC final output. That's the way it used to be, of course. Nowadays, there's fancy intelligent circuitry everywhere. Also nowadays, the final output can feed a lightweight supercapacitor, providing excellent surge protection.
The reason the secondary of a power transformer is not regarded as an element of a rectenna is that the mechanism of power transmission is mutual inductance. However, at high frequency, the mutual inductance has a pole (the pole is complex -- ordinary resistance in the circuit gives the pole frequency a nonzero but small imaginary part). In this region, the mathematical description of the power transmission between primary and secondary is equivalent to that of a transmitting and receiving antenna. Physically, the secondary is so close that one is not in the radiation regime, but from a circuit-designer's POV, that (i.e., the form of the signal variation in the vicinity of the receiving antenna) is not very relevant.
It's not clear whether it is correct in English to use this terminology for books written in a right-to-left language. I found an interesting unintended solution of this problem at the Zimmerman library at UNM. They had a volume of Talmud (all Hebrew and Aramaic) bound upside down.
In Germany in 2005, a new leftist party called the Linkspartei (`party of the left') won a small chunk of seats in parliamentary elections that yielded a muddled result. Neither of the two leading parties had enough seats to form a majority government without at least two of the three small parties, and one of the possible coalitions considered was among the SDP (main socialist party) with the Linkspartei and the Greens. This possibility was called red-red-green (rot-rot-grün). (Rot-grün-rot was less common, by a factor of ten or more. You'd think that might be because the Linkspartei won a few more seats than the Greens (54 to 51), but in fact the red-red-green order was widely used in political speculation long before the election, at times when the relative showings of the small parties -- and even whether the new party would win seats -- were uncertain. I guess it says something subtle about the German sense of proper color-word order.) In any case, the Linkspartei -- composed of the old PDS and former SPD socialists led by Oskar Lafontaine, umm, let me a little think, as Einstein would say in English.
In the US, the color association of red with communism gave rise to the pejorative term pinko.
There's a book cleverly titled Red Blues: Voices from the Last Wave of Russian Immigrants, by Dennis Shasha and Marina Shron (New York: Holmes and Meier Publ., Inc., 2002). Mark Kopelev's story alone would make a good one-hour sit-com pilot.
It ought to be possible to do something funny with red-C and Red Sea, but I'll leave that as an exercise for the diligent reader.
Hardened red brass with an 80/20 (Cu/Zn) composition has a density of 8.6 g/cc, a bulk modulus (E) of 100 GPa, shear modulus (G) of 39 GPa, and a Poisson's ratio (ν) of 0.34.
If you reach a wrong number, then hang up and press
reach the same wrong number. Every time. It's been confirmed both
theoretically and experimentally, so you may as well resign yourself to it.
When an atom is oxidized, its oxidation number increases. (Big surprise there, huh?) Oxidation number is essentially a measure of ionic charge, and since charge is conserved, every oxidation-number increase is accompanied by a compensating reduction. The simplest redox reactions can be separated into (written as the sum of) two half-reactions. The oxidation half-reaction (the reaction containing the species oxidized) is balanced with electrons on the product side, and the reduction half-reaction is balanced with an equal number of electrons on the reactant side. Batteries work by arranging for the half-reactions to occur in separate locations, with the electrons moving from one half-reaction location to the other via the electrodes and through an external circuit.
It took me a long time to develop this compact mnemonic, and while I was doing all that work, one of the approaches I explored was motivational: why was red chosen to be associated with Republicans? I think it went like this: red, white and blue, the colors of the US, UK, and French flags, are the standard colors for US political news (because they are so patriotically and distinctively American). Now white, or blanc, is the obvious choice for regions that are in one sense or another undecided. That leaves red and blue. The choice at that point is dictated by the association of red with communism, socialism, and the left generally. Socialist, you know, is a four-letter word in the US (or it would be, in a more efficient spelling). To suggest that the Democratic party is leftist would be a terrible slur, because it is left-leaning. On the other hand, most people wouldn't think for a moment of the G.O.P. as leftist. The implausibility of the leftist implication allows red to be assigned to the Republicans without danger of giving offense.
That's my story, and I'm sticking to it. But it does seems that this cause, whether ultimately decisive or not, was not strong enough to decide the now-standard color scheme before 2000. In an article for the February 8, 2004, New York Times Magazine, Tom Zeller reviews some of the pre-2000 chromatic diversity in EC maps, and offers various theories about what influenced the choice before it became an established convention. The article is archived by David Leip at his Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections website.
FDR's Democratic successor Harry Truman had low approval ratings at the end of his presidency, as did Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) and Jimmy Carter at the end of theirs, so it may be granted that presidents retired after fewer than eight years in office (as also Richard M. Nixon) lacked popularity endurance or something. However, the verb reelect defines only one measure of endurance. If one considers ``returned to office'' instead of ``reelected,'' one has a very different picture: Truman and LBJ were both returned to office after completing the term of the previous President. Truman served almost two full terms, so that FDR and he together gave Democrats a combined 20 years' control of the presidency. LBJ not only succeeded the assassinated John F. Kennedy (JFK) but succeeded in pushing much of Kennedy's program through Congress. Despite the mutual antagonism of the two men, their combined administrations from 1960 to 1968 represented a continuity of vision and policy, at least to the degree that events allowed. So if observation about infrequent reelection is intended to suggest that Democrats did not manage to put together extended periods of Presidential control, the suggestion is certainly wrong.
(That's all I started out to say, but I just couldn't stop myself, could I?)
The argument usually has a point, of course. One is supposed to extrapolate, from the implied historical failure of Democrats to stay in power, to their future difficulty in attaining it. Irrespective of the accuracy of the supposed conclusion, the argument is poor. The Democratic and Republican parties have been drifting in opposite directions, and their electability patterns before the 1970's are almost irrelevant to the patterns since Clinton.
In 1952, when Republican candidate Dwight Eisenhower was elected to succeed Truman, he could as well have been a Democrat; leaders of the Democratic party had approached him about the possibility. When Nixon was defeated by Kennedy in 1960, and when he served as president after 1968, his policies and his viewpoint were not very different from those of JFK. However, Nixon and Kennedy represented the centrist mainstreams of their parties, and both parties have since moved away from each other and the center.
The name of one reeve targeted by the Irish independence movement was given to the tactic used to protest his beggaring management: Boycott.
It would make the perfect motto for the legendary New York Public Library (NYPL). We're gonna make it our permanent motto for now.
Wah Chang describes itself as ``Producers and Fabricators of Refractory and Reactive Metals and Chemicals.''
Sometimes you wonder about people's attitude. On Van Nuys Boulevard a bunch of years ago, at the southern edge of the valley, I was walkin' mellow and a big girl tried to buy a dime off me ($10 of coke). Like, sorry. There are many places where loitering is like wearing an ``open for business'' sign. My hair was long then. (Okay, okay: I still had hair then.) We got to talkin', while she was tokin' on her suspicious-lookin' cigarette. She had a boyfriend in rehab in Florida; she'd been in and out of rehab a few times herself. Life sucks. Just have a little mood adjustment now, the wagon'll be around again tomorrow, sure.
Regifting is a sign that the gift was not valued (in se) by the original recipient. (No guarantees about subsequent recipients either.) Too bad it didn't come with the sales receipt. Sometimes the only reason a present is not regifted is that it has reached a recipient with sense enough to realize no one wants it.
Some years back -- in a scholarly analysis of Christmas behavior, I think it was -- Dave Barry suggested that after being hammered together and, um, gifted for the first time, fruit cakes are passed down like heirlooms at subsequent Christmases.
Guicciardini's ricordo C107 reads, in Domandi's translation,
Best of all is not to be born a subject [i.e. born in a state that is itself vassal to another state]. But if it must be, then it is better to be the subject of a prince than of a republic. For a republic represses all of its subjects and gives only its own citizens a share of power. A prince acts more equitably towards all; the one is as much his subject as the other. Thus everyone may hope to receive benefits and employment from him.
In the Battle of the Ancients and Moderns (not formally begun yet), Guicciardini was all on the side of the Moderns. He liked to mention that he'd forgotten all the Greek he ever learned, and he chastised his friend Machiavelli for trying to apply the lessons of antiquity to the present day (their, say nothing of our present day). For example, C110:
How wrong it is to cite the Romans at every turn. For any comparison to be valid, it would be necessary to have a city with conditions like theirs, and then to govern it according to their example. In the case of a city with different qualities, the comparison is as much out of order as it would be to expect a jackass to race like a horse.
Nevertheless, C107 seems an interesting observation on the transition of Rome from a republic to a dictatorship. Guicciardini does use the experiences of individual Romans, as at C18 (Tacitus) and C31 (Fabian), although he more often cites persons of around his own time (the best known today of those he named would be Savonarola). He examples the experience of Cassius and Brutus at C121 to show how one shouldn't count on public support (they were forced to flee to the Capitol after accomplishing a murder they thought would be welcomed by the masses).
As a verb, reina means `reigns' (3rd pers. sing. pres. ind. of reinar, `to reign').
One dictionary I've checked (Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española) endorses the use of reino as a synonym of the noun reinado, but this usage seems to be rare. Most dictionaries don't endorse it. (The precise numbers are not very significant, because most general Spanish dictionaries offer definitions that appear to be close paraphrases of those in the dictionary issued by the Real Academia. Timidity.)
An example of reino used in the sense of `kingdom' is reino unido, `united kingdom.' See RU for a bit on that. Untied kingdom is (or might be) written reino desatado in Spanish. Make of this what you will. Reino can be used in a more abstracted sense as a range. El reino de las matemáticas is what we call a little more prosaically `the field of mathematics.' The animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms are called reinos. Likewise now animales, vegetales, hongos, móneras y protistas.
More reinos coming. Duck! (See also the comments on Reich at the L.T.I. entry.)
Written Spanish almost always carries all necessary phonemic information, so
anyone familiar with the phonology of the language but unfamiliar with the
particular word is nevertheless able to pronounce the word fluently. The
stress accent is either indicated (by un acento gráfico) or
inferrable from simple rules. Diphthongs introduce some exceptions. In
ei is pronounced in a single syllable, like a
in English (/ei/ in the IPA). If it weren't, a graphical accent would indicate
where the stress goes. When
ei occurs early in a word with enough
syllables, no accent is used to indicate the distinction. Thus, in the word
reindustrialización, correct pronunciation depends on recognizing
re- is a prefix sounded as a syllable separate from the
in that follows.
The more insufferable Brits used to pontificate about their being the Greeks to the American Romans. I'll give you a moment to guess how this could possibly be related to the subject of this entry. Time's up! The French have, or at least had, a metaphor about a French rider guiding the German horse that pulls the European cart. That was when the German economy was the locomotive of the European economy. Anyway, you don't need an engine to coast.
You should have thanked me for not writing ``iron horse.'' Now go to the French toast entry and learn about Ritter. (No, not ``fritters.'')
The term is ``made in Japan'' -- it's wasei eigo. It describes the lackadaisical condition of Japanese college education and the concomitant unserious attitude of Japanese college students, as these are widely preceived and much lamented. The term ``Disneyland'' is also used. Whoa! TMI! No need to rush into things. Relax, take it easy. What say we call it an entry and continue this discussion later?
The ka represents (is the pronunciation of) a kanji character that can mean something like -ization when used as a suffix. A bit more generally, when this character is suffixed to a term meaning `<foo>' it produces a noun meaning `the process of becoming <foo>.' However, the predicates (the terms meaning <foo>) that can be so suffixed is limited in ways that I cannot understand and that my Japanese informant cannot articulate. In isolation, the same kanji has meanings like `chemistry' and `transformation.' (By the way, there is another kanji with a reading ka that means `department' or, in context `academic department.' Alas, kaka does not mean `chemistry department.')
Another term that uses the transformation kanji as a suffix is shoshika. Shoshi here means `few children.' Breaking it down further, shi is a kanji meaning `child.' The same kanji can also be pronounced ko (see -ko entry). The first syllable is written with a kanji meaning, not surprisingly, `few.' There's another kanji, also pronounced sho, which means `small.' So if you only heard shoshi and didn't see it written, you might go a while thinking it meant `small child' or `small children.' Of course, the kanji pronounced shi could also mean `small' (yielding `few small' or `small small'), but here it doesn't. My Japanese informant tells me she's only ever known a single gaijin who is not merely a fluent speaker of Japanese (this is common), but also a competent reader and writer of the language. Finally combining less than all we have learned, we see that shoshika means `trend towards fewer children.' More precisely, we see what it means, and find it hard to express in unstilted English.
Coming back to rejârando-ka, it is worth identifying it as the flip side of the well-known ``cram culture'' of Japan: Japanese children study very hard in middle and high school to do well in the college entrance exams and get into the most prestigious possible college. Apparently, when they finally arrive at college they are exhausted or no longer willing to continue that grind. But rejârando is really two things: it is a lack of studiousness in young people enrolled in Japanese colleges, and it is the acceptance of this behavior by the colleges themselves. In principle, colleges might attempt to tighten standards and require more work for graduation. In practice, Japanese colleges are compliant or complicit in rejârando-ka. There are two kinds of reasons for this. (And please pardon me for vastly oversimplifying a complicated cultural phenomenon, etc.)
One reason for Japanese colleges' complicity is that nonrigorous college courses are easier not only for the students but for the professors. Of course, one isn't likely to find college administrators defending low standards on the grounds that it's convenient for the professors. The next best thing, however, is arguments that a relaxed college atmosphere is beneficial for the students, gives them time to think deeply, ponder, and all that crap. It sounds like pretty transparent rationalization to me. [For specific instances of such administrative attitudes, self-serving or not, see Japanese Higher Education as Myth, by Brian J. McVeigh (2002), p. 4 and passim.] Incidentally, this phenomenon is entirely unknown in US colleges and universities. I've taught at a few of them, so you can believe me.
Another reason for Japanese colleges' compliance in declining student effort brings us back to shoshika, which turns out to be related to rejârando-ka by more than just a shared final kanji. What a writing system, eh? Shoshika directly implies a shrinking pool of college applicants. Both directly through tuition and indirectly through state subsidies based in some way on enrollment, Japanese colleges depend on enrollments to thrive or survive. This goes without saying, but looking at the preceding sentence I see it's too late to not say it. Japan has too few students to support or justify the number of colleges it has. Most Japanese colleges, eager or desperate for higher enrollments, have little leverage to enforce tighter standards.
There has been some effort to recruit foreign students to Japanese colleges, but it hasn't been conspicuously successful. Chinese are probably the only large group of foreigners who can hope to master Japanese writing in reasonable time, and thus take fair advantage of a Japanese education. Some Chinese come as students and are unaccounted-for by the end of the semester. Illegal immigration is certainly less of a problem for Japan than for most other industrialized nations, but Japan is also less tolerant of it.
Beyond students' and educators' attitudes to rejârando-ka, the broader society's attitudes matter as well -- especially those of the parents and taxpayers who foot the bills, and the companies that hire the products. Perhaps the following accurately reflects those views. It's from p. 154 of Speed Tribes, in a chapter focused on students at Todai (the University of Tokyo -- Japan's most prestigious university).
[C]ollege in Japan has always provided the only period in a Japanese male's life when he will have guaranteed free time. After college, even for those destined for the good life, there will be the drudgery of a salaryman's long hours, the trudgery of long commutes, the demands implicit in launching a marriage and starting a family. In Japan almost everyone agrees that college is a fine time in which to do nothing. Especially at Todai. (One Todai alumnus, who played center field for the Todai baseball team until his graduation four years ago, laughed when asked if he ever studied while in college. What did he do, then? ``Baseball,'' he said. ``Baseball and drinking.'')
Incidentally, in referring to Japanese ``colleges'' throughout this entry, I have used college the loose sense. In Japanese, there is no distinction corresponding to the American one between colleges and universities. The native term daigaku and the English loan word karejji both correspond to the general sense of college.
Let me go!
REM sleep was discovered by Eugene Aserinsky and described in his 1953 dissertation, ``Eye Movements During Sleep,'' in partial fulfillment of requirements for a Ph.D. in physiology at the University of Chicago.
The frequency and duration of REM sleep episodes increases through the night; REM sleep overall encompasses about a fifth of the night. By ``night'' here I mean an extended period of sleep. Personally, I'm nocturnal, so my night happens on Japan Time.
It had been thought that dream sleep only occurred in higher animals -- to wit, placental mammals. That's been stretched a bit: REM has been observed in an oviparous marsupial, the famous duck-billed platipus.
Somebody has suggested that dreams are just the brain's way of making the the eyes move and get needed oxygen.
It's not clear why we dream, but then, it's not even clear why we sleep -- rest without loss of consciousness would undo fatigue.
In January 1997, Dan Rather was able to identify the attacker from photos as William Tager, convicted in 1994 for the murder of an NBC technician. By that time, the statute of limitations prevented charges being brought in the earlier crime. Rather commented ``Everybody's had their guess about what happened, and some have had fun with it. Now the facts are out. My biggest regret is, he wasn't caught before he killed somebody.''
You remember Barry Diller, the CEO of QVC Shopping Network (the cubic zirconium channel -- trinkets and schlock hyped in vague and ignorant terms for vague and ignorant insomniacs)? Now (1998) he's chairman of USA Networks, Inc., which owns Miami TV station WAMI. They have freak show of a program at midnight called ``Ken's Freakquency.'' Not all bad taste qualifies as camp.
When the band appeared on Late Night with David Letterman 1983 (this is in Letterman's pre-CBS days, when he was still widely considered cool), Peter Buck claimed they picked the name out of a dictionary, and that they liked it because it was so ambiguous. A suspicious story, but a common one. The Crickets chose their name from a dictionary, but they were specifically looking for arthropod names, as they had been influenced by the Spiders. (Later, the Beatles' search for a name was strongly influenced and eventually decided by the homage they wanted to pay to the Crickets.) One band that chose its name in part for its ambiguity was U2. In the circumstances, I'm not sure it would be correct to say that the group name REM has a specific expansion, like REM or rem, say. Elsewhere, the claim is that the name brain-storming process involved everyone getting drunk, if that explains anything. Read about it in this faq.
The mnemonic is NOT.
Here's a partial list:
There are estimated to be almost two TV remotes per person, or more than four per household, in the US today, but most of them are probably lost under sofa cushions. Come to think of it, I have a TV remote and I don't even own a TV. I keep it in my locker at the gym to mute the sets while I'm there. (I go in the small hours; no one is inconvenienced.)
The reason for the inversion of the order of the cee and the first ess in the acronym is self-evident: as written, the acronym pronunciation in (North and South) American Spanish is the same as renaces (`you are reborn'); the order implied by the expansion (renacses) has a hard cee sound and is a homophone of no word in Spanish.
In New York City, rent control was imposed as an emergency measure during WWII, and never allowed to lapse. In any town with many large buildings, the number of tenants is likely to outnumber landlords enormously and make rent control difficult to repeal. Today, the only people who can afford to live in much of Manhattan are the rich and the poor.
Price controls are widely understood to be a distortion that prevents markets from functioning properly. When price controls are in effect for very long, the tasks performed by the market's invisible hand require increased legislation and government administration. Rent plays the role of price in the housing market.
The argument for price controls is usually based on the failure of classical market conditions to obtain. Typically, the argument runs that supply is limited and that there are barriers to the entry of new suppliers into the market. In WWII USA, for example, the government artificially diverted production to war needs, but employees still (or more accurately again) were being paid. Hence temporary national price controls.
Some industries, particularly utilities, communication, shipping, and transportation, have apparently large barriers to entry. This may be due to an expensive distribution infrastructure, a large minimum size of customer base, or both. Hence: controlled ``natural'' monopolies, utilities rate commisions, the whole catastrophe. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, there has been a widespread change of view in the US about how natural the monopolies and how necessary the government control were.
Trucking was one of the industries for which the arguments mentioned above are weakest. But this is getting far afield. Maybe I'll add stuff later, but the only reason I put in this entry in the first place was to have a place to mention an early instance of rent control.
Documents from the early history of universities are a bit scarce, and reconstruction relies on a certain amount of conjecture. The earliest school in Christian Europe that can be called a university (or two universities) is the school of law at Bologna. It is hard to know exactly when it was founded, or when recognized as a formal entity. The earliest extant document is from 1158. Emperor Frederick I (1152-1190) issued a decree called the Habita which granted students (in the modern sense of that word) a special ecclesiastical jurisdiction. No, that has precious little to do with rent control, but hey: I'm all about context. Another of the early items of evidence is a document of 1189, issued by Clementine III (Pope from 1187 to 1191), which confirmed an existing legatine ordinance forbidding masters or scholars to offer to any landlord a higher rent for a house than the one paid by scholars already living there. Setting aside niceties of who is offering terms of a contract and who accepting, this is essentially a form of rent control.
where the prefactor K and exponent p are dimensionless constants which depend significantly on the kind of module considered. If you're still at Netscape 1 or equivalent, you needed to know that the l.c. p on the r.h.s. was superscripted to indicate exponentiation.
Robert C. Hupp worked at Oldsmobile from 1902 to 1906, then at Ford until 1908. He left and founded Hupp Motor Car Co. with his brother Louis in 1909, and the cars and company quickly came to be called Hupmobile(s). In 1911, the brothers sold their stock to the company officers. Robert Hupp planned to produce another Hupmobile car through his Hupp-Yeats Corp., but Hupp Motor Car Co. obtained a court order preventing the brothers from using the Hupp name on a gasoline-powered automobile. The Hupp name went on electric cars sold by Hupp-Yeats from 1912 to 1919 (Robert Hupp died in 1917); Hupp tried ``RCH'' for the gasoline cars.
The last Hupmobiles made by the original company were Skylarks, produced from 1938 to 1940 and based on recently defunct Cord's 810/812 vehicles. Buick also had a line called Skylark. There was probably an Olds-tagged version of that too.
Richard Wright had a nice article on Hupmobiles in the Nov. 29, 1999, Detroit News.
Many rock bands have taken names from vehicles and transportation systems, real and imagined. A couple that I can think of off-hand that we mention in this glossary are BTO and Grand Funk (GFR). Over in the early O's, we mention Jefferson Airplane under O. A couple of rock groups with non-transportation names are mentioned in the octane-number entry (hey, that's how it goes). We say nothing about Jefferson Starship, but we do mention the Starships Enterprise, and William Shatner's abortive rock vocals (in the deconstruction entry, naturally).
Okay, now we've thrown together a Led Zeppelin entry.
This entry is here because I forgot that I had a reps entry.
Got that? The kind of signal that should be called a repeater -- a slave signal that has the same aspect as a master signal -- is called a ``co-acting signal.''
Popular in-season cruises are typically round trips, as the ships make a regular circuit in season. (Many passengers buy less than a round trip, of course.) Repositioning cruises are one-way. Regular-cruise passengers generally prefer cruises that make many port calls; repositioning cruises tend to spend longer periods (one or two weeks) at sea. However, the itineraries are not entirely utilitarian, since business may tail off in one area before picking up in another. Many ships repositioning from Alaska migrate to the Caribbean via Hawaii, and some ships migrate from the Caribbean to Europe with a detour to South America.
The price per diem of repositioning cruises is much lower than that of regular cruises, essentially to fill up the cabins for less-popular voyages that amount to a kind of overhead. Passengers at sea for long periods tend to spend more at the on-board casinos, shops, and bars, so the lines make up some of the discount this way.
You know, if you want to spend serious time at sea and you don't need the wallet-thinning distractions of a cruise ship, a cheap alternative is to book a cabin on a freighter. Don't expect Internet or cell-phone connectivity. It's something to try the next time you're struggling to finish a novel (writing one, that is). And if you're researching for your swashbuckler, by all means book a berth on that cargo ship around the horn of Africa.
Aiui, normally the passengers on a freighter eat in the mess with the crew. Normally also, for obvious practical reasons, the crew and officers all speak a common language, such as Korean. So this would be an opportunity to brush up on your Korean or other common language. You can probably also expect to eat Korean food, mutatis mutandis.
Specifically, RER trains operate from suburban locations into and across the city center, and serve as an express alternative to the RATP's Métro system for travel within the city. The RER accepts RATP tickets for travel within the city (transfers to/from the Métro are free), and has higher fares (by distance) for travel beyond.
It's a good approach, says Mark. The nearest thing he can think of to the RER in other places he's been is the S-Bahn in some German-speaking cities, but he doesn't remember any of them having the same type of fare integration. He could be misremembering about that, though.
Better visit RATP or this Métro guide.
This is only implemented in http; there is no RES for ftp, gopher or wais pages. On the other hand, most indexing internet spiders ignore non-http pages. (See Archie and Veronica.)
I first decided to write this entry using some of the time I saved by not trying to slog through Obituaries, a book ``by the internationally acclaimed writer, William Saroyan,'' as the back cover of the paperback edition describes him. The publisher number in the ISBN of this book is 916870, and the cover design is by someone with the first name of George, so it must have been pretty clear from the start that this book was a stinker. I don't know if any of his forty or so other works is any good, but I'm glad none of my friends has ever recommended any of them to read.
Obituaries is a rumination on the entries in the necrology register of Variety magazine for 1976. Not that he knew too many of them. He met 28 of the 200 or more (p. 3) or 27 of the 221 (p. 38) listed on page 164 of that special 71st anniversary issue January 5, 1977. (Variety has been published since 1905.)
Chapter 30 begins ``Next, Alexander Brailowsky was in music, on the cello, I believe, but I know nothing about him.'' Three pages later, chapter 31 begins ``And that brings us to Charles Brave, but I know absolutely nothing about him, though I believe I know a little something or other about being brave.''
In chapter 27, dedicated to Kermit Bloomgarden (whom he knew), he writes that Bloomgarden, ``in my memory, had something to do with that money-maker [Life with Father]. Why don't I just look it up? Because I don't look up. I am not a writer of popular history.
Here is the comprehensive resolute action parameter for the last decade:
1996: 6.0 1997: 6.6 1998: 4.8 1999: 8.4 2000: 7.0 2001: 8.3 2002: 7.8 2003: 4.9 2004: 9.2 2005: 7.7 2006: 2.0
It looks irresolute. Boring, actually. I've worked out a new improved comprehensive resolute action parameter. It's the number of articles with ``resolute action'' appearing anywhere in the headline or the leading paragraphs, minus the number of articles containing both ``speed'' and ``David Letterman'' in the headline or the leading paragraph, but otherwise it's the same. This c.r.a.p. has the advantage that I can do the arithmetic in my head. Okay, get ready, here are the results.
1996: -8 1997: +4 1998: -5 1999: +4 2000: 0 2001: +6 2002: +1 2003: 0 2004: +3 2005: -2 2006: -5You're welcome.
This glossary has a large number of restaurant-related entries, and we'll be linking to an increasing number of them over time.
This paragraph isn't about restaurant jargon, but if you're reading this entry you'll probably want to read this too. It's about the Billy Joel song ``Piano Man.'' That includes this line: ``It's a pretty good crowd for a Saturday.'' For years the line didn't strike me in any particular way, until one day I thought -- wait: Saturday is the busiest night of the week. If it's a pretty good crowd for a Saturday, then it's a pretty good crowd for any day. Eventually, I chalked it up to scansion and the fact that no other day has three syllables, though if I'd been consulted I might have recommended ``for a Monday night'' (normally the lightest-trafficked of the week). A decade or so on, it occurred to me that ``pretty good for...'' should be understood (despite the manager's unaccountable smile) as ``not very good for...'' rather than as ``not so bad for....'' Problem solved.
Shaving cream works on a similar principle.
all ... approached the new situation with great apprehension. They dealt with the resulting situational stress in different ways: by going in a group, or with a friend who had already been to the restaurant, by ascribing various feelings and motivations to other diners, by claiming ownership of specific features, and by editing out or 'laughing off' negative aspects of the experience.
Johns and Kivela observed that their results confirmed and complemented those
of previous studies. It was also consistent with some findings of Dr. Romance
that I mention at the NAVS entry. There's something
on the restaurant-sex nexus at many of the entries here that cite Waiting, particularly those headed
Hold the onions, and
I, of course, am experienced. I stride boldly into food-service situations (it's part of the Mission). See Excellent choice, sir!
England suffered a period of civil war in the 1640's. It was essentially a contest of power between Parliament and King Charles I. Charles I was executed in December 1649, following trial by the Rump (what Parliament was called after the army excluded Presbyterians and other less-anti-Royalist members), so you can probably guess who won that war.
Over the next decade, the UK went through various sorts of governments mostly dominated by Oliver Cromwell. He ultimately (1653) became dictator in a more formal way (``Lord Protector,'' first servant of the Commonwealth of England, along with Ireland and Scotland, which he had reconquered in 1649-1651). Cromwell died in 1658, and in 1660, parliament invited the heir of Charles I to return to England, where he was crowned king on April 23, 1661. (He was already Charles II: after his father's execution, he had been crowned at Scone in Scotland. He subsequently led Scottish forces to defeat against Cromwell and escaped to France.)
The beginning of the Restoration is generally dated to 1660, the year Charles II returned to England, rather than to 1661, when he was actually restored to the throne. As a historical period, the Restoration period is taken to end in 1685, when Charles II died, or 1688, when his younger brother and successor, James II, was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution. That marked the end of Stuart rule in Britain.
Although the political historians' Restoration period is fairly well-defined (viz., 1660-1685/8), the term is used in a looser sense by historians of drama, for a rather longer period. Cromwell and the Puritan-dominated Parliament of his period had imposed prohibitions on the operation of theaters. These were removed by Charles II, and a new period of drama began. The drama historians' Restoration period can be defined in two ways. In theater terms, the Restoration period is the period of ``Restoration drama.'' Whatever that is, it is said to comprise a dramatic tradition begun in the 1660's, weakening in the 1700's and tailing off in the 1730's. (Afaik, its greatest innovation was using women to play women's parts. Also, it included a lot of satire, much of it aimed at a fellow named Sir Robert Walpole. It also featured some mysterious cancellations, and performances stopped by the physical intervention of government officers.) For those who like sharp definitions that don't require a lot of messy artistic judgments, there is the alternative definition by which Restoration Drama is any play first produced between 1660 and 1737. The latter year marks the passage of Walpole's Stage Licensing Act. (This Walpole fellow was the king's prime minister or something.) This licensing act imposed a strict censorship that effectively suppressed production (and hence the writing) of plays. Satire -- did I mention that this was a dominant element of restoration drama? -- was substantially reduced in those plays that continued to be produced.
Charles II was succeeded by his brother because he had no legitimate children (old concept, I know) by his queen. He did have a number of illegitimate children, two of them by the actress Nell Gwyn. The political conflicts in England arose in significant part from religious conflicts. (That's conflicts between religions, you understand. Not some silly conflict regarding whether a king should be bound by the strictures of any religion he should happen to claim to adhere to.) In Oxford in 1681, Nell Gwyn famously placated an ugly crowd that attacked her coach by sticking her head out and saying ``Good people, you are mistaken; I am the Protestant whore!''
Extra free bonus information: another kind of remains, in the generalized sense of slight evidence left behind indicating earlier presence, is often called traces in English and rastro in Spanish.
Have a look at the faux ami entry.
Okay, that was Dr. A. Retentive speaking. The fact is, resumé and résumé are different words. Two-accent résumé is a synonym of CV, and its use indicates a morbid, pettifogging, unbusinesslike precision. In contrast, one-accent resumé is more businesslike; it indicates a readiness to compromise, a healthy orthographic insouciance, a ``whatever, let's just do it'' attitude.
Convert your curriculum vitae into a resumé. The difference? A resumé emphasizes the employer's needs rather than minute details of your credentials. “This change may not sound that large to you right now, but, done correctly, the process requires a seismic shift,” Basalla and Debelius write.Susan Basalla and Maggie Debelius are the authors of “So What Are You Going to Do With That?” -- A Guide to Career-Changing for MA's and Ph.D.'s (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 165 pages, January 2001) reviewed by Larry Keller for CNN.
Of related interest, PARW/CC and NRWA.
Susanna S. discovered a great way to separate the hairs from the corn on the cob: nuke 'em! Don't even husk the ear, just cook the cob in its husk in the microwave oven. When you take it out and husk it, you'll see the hairs come off very easily. Now I don't know what to do with my pressure cooker.
P.S.: Don't try this with a coconut.
A large part of political correctness (PC) consists of rewording -- an insistence or more on the use of preferred terms and avoidance of terms considered inappropriate. The idea is that the bad old terms are freighted with negative connotations, and that replacing those with spiffy new terms that are neutral or positive will change negative attitudes that were reinforced by the old words. There is something to this theory, and when major changes in public attitudes are occurring, new words or a new way of speaking can help promote the new attitudes, by providing a reformed language for indicating one's reformed attitudes. On the other hand, new words are neither necessary nor sufficient for producing new attitudes, and in many cases the main new attitude they produce will be resentment.
When the only thing that is new is terminology, the terminology is euphemism. A recurring instance of euphemism is in the terms used to describe the profoundly stupid. For much of the twentieth century, there have been efforts to produce a more respectful or sympathetic attitude to the stupid. Advocates and professionals have tried to do this by introducing new words, ``retarded'' being prominent among them. This word was supposed to suggest that the stupid are merely slower in achieving the same levels of intellectual competence as other people. (You mustn't say ``normal'' people! The invidious implication that anyone could be ``abnormal'' is too hurtful! Anyway, in any reasonable absolute measure of the phenomenon, stupidity is normal.)
The attempt to introduce the less stigmatizing term ``mentally retarded'' led directly to the creation of the pejorative slang noun ``retard'' (tarado in Spanish is unrelated). The reason is that no one who wasn't very stupid was fooled. People who are retarded stay retarded. It's true that a growing child who is mildly retarded, with an IQ of 80, say, merely requires about 25% longer than average to reach average levels of achievement. At age five, that child is developmentally four years old. As adulthood is approached, however, the retarded stop catching up -- they reach a plateau like everybody else, but the plateau is at a lower level. Permanently retarded sounds oxymoronic, if you'll excuse the expression, but it is the rule. Perhaps it is unfortunate that people don't just keep getting smarter indefinitely, and one can understand the desire to give a kind name to those who level off low, but the ultimate lesson of ``retarded'' is that euphemism is not an effective molder of popular perceptions (despite Orwell's fears).
When there's time, maybe we'll explain exceptional children, special [needs] children, challenged children, and slow watches, stupefaction, dumb, fool, clown, and alternate intelligences. For the time being, we have entries for sped and estúpido.
``Each issue of RETIARIUS will be published only in electronic form on the World Wide Web. No hard copies will be issued. Readers, of course, may print for themselves any part of RETIARIUS which especially interests them.'' The parts they find boring they can print five copies of and stuff in the boss's mail box. ``RETIARIUS will be published once a year.'' Despite the tremendous interest.
``Latin (simple, clear, grammatically correct Latin) is the required language for all contributions.''
Go, run, get your contributions in soon.
When the trauma is due to a traffic accident, it is often easy to determine the time elapsed between the last recoverable memory and the moment of the head injury. For example, in the case of my accident in 1984, where I was completely unconscious for perhaps fifteen minutes, and there was no skull or jaw fracture but there was a noticeable change in, like, cerebral potassium kinase I think it was, I remember exactly where I was when I had the very last thought I can recall from before the one-car accident. (The thought was ``gee, I'm feeling pretty tired. I need to find a place to pull over and take a nap.'') At the hospital, they kept asking me what day it was (January 4), like I might forget.
Another is landline, for most instances of what used to be called a (telephone) line. (The terms ``line'' and ``landline'' have both a concrete sense, as the physical connection, and a more abstract sense referring to the arrangements associated with the assignment of a telephone number.) The word landline is not as clear-cut as the other examples, because radio telephones, which are not (or are not attached to) landlines, existed for a long time before cell phones. If radio telephones had become common, then perhaps the term landline might have emerged earlier.
Progress has overtaken ``cell phone'' as well. It had already begun to be called ``cell'' when smartphones lead to the creation of the retronym ``feature phone,'' a euphemism for a phone where any poor little approximation to the functionality of a smartphone is a ``feature,'' apparently.
New discoveries in science regularly lead to the creation of retronyms. The emergence of what has come to be called ``dark matter'' led to the new term ``bright matter'' for what used to be simply ``matter.'' New techniques in science also give rise to retronyms; since the development of ICDR, good ol' ICR must sometimes be distinguished as ICSR.
If you were looking for a term for acronym expansions retroactively assigned, the term you want is probably either backronym or stealth backronym. Incidentally, there are in fact electric guitars that are rather less acoustic than ordinary electric and acoustic guitars; see the discussion of silent guitars s.v. backboard.
An interestingly problematic instance of retronymy concerns mathematics. The earliest sort of mathematics was practical, or what we now call ``applied mathematics.'' The term is awkward. The University of Cambridge actually has a ``Department of Pure Mathematics,'' but usually it is applied mathematics that must be marked by a modifier. I was going to write that, after a couple of thousand or a couple of hundred years, I guessed that's pretty reasonable. But the bifurcation has been gradual.
Just to dot the tees and cross the eyes: Retsyn consists of partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil, some flavoring (with soy lecithin), and copper gluconate. I can't find any medical studies directly relating to this substance, but gee-- it sure sounds pharamaceutical!
The REU programs highlight most clearly the mission conflict faced both by NSF and by ``Research Universities.'' They are supposed to further both education and research, and it is uncomfortable to admit that many decisions represent a compromise between these goals. Few undergraduates are at a point in their education where they can contribute to research in a way that benefits them educationally. Not that washing test tubes, sacrificing lab animals, and typing the command "run," are not a necessary part of the educational experience, of course. However, experience has demonstrated that these skills can be learned more rapidly at the graduate level, possibly while learning some other, less menial skills.
REU money is relatively easy to get once you have an NSF grant. Most universities provide various entertainments (safety training, health training, sensitivity training, parties to celebrate the end of training) that take up most of the REU students' time and limit the damage they might do in the lab. If you have a promising student who you want to have do some work, hire him on the main grant money. If he's smart, he'll study high-temperature, high-speed processing of potatoes at McDonald's instead and drop by the lab occasionally and tell you about it.
This contemplation is My Ching, a possessive version of the famous mystical reference work. (Correct pronunciation ``mee ching,'' of course.)
Cf. Dyslexic Occultist.
You know, the incident alluded to in the first paragraph occurred around 1995 at the Talking Leaves bookstore (across Main Street from the Main Street Campus of the University of Buffalo). In 2002, Kim Chuen Lam and Kai Sin Lam came out with The Way of Tea: The Sublime Art of Oriental Tea Drinking. It was published as part of the Barrons Educational Series. Get me outta here! I'm trapped on a crazy world!
Doctor, after the operation on my hands, will I be able to play the piano?
Reassured that he will, he exults
Oh wonderful! I always wanted to be able to play the piano.
Oh wait! Wrong definition. This was supposed to say ``Sounds good, but what if it wasn't vital in the first place?''
More on piano-playing at the ABPT entry.
Reminds me of high-powered rifles. Mnemonic: kings delegate.
Jauss observed that we cannot experience literature from a different age as it was experienced at the time of its production, because we are different and the work therefore has a different aesthetic effect on us. As tools for discussing this, he introduces the terms ``aesthetic distance'' and ``horizon of expectation.'' The latter term describes the imaginary point in time where the expectations of later readers last meet the authors' expections of being understood, roughly speaking. In trying to understand the ideas behind the terms it might be a mistake to try to relate the ideas closely to the conventional meanings of the words chosen, particularly horizon. Both terms are fairly obvious allusions to terms popularized in the physical theory of general relativity (GR), especially ``event horizon.'' That is, the relativistic event horizon is a metaphor for Jauss's ``horizon of expectation.''
Event horizon in turn uses earth horizon metaphorically as the place beyond which we can't see: Basically, if an event happens far away and recently, we can't know about it because news of the event traveling as fast as possible (light speed c) hasn't had enough time to reach us. (Future events are also unknown because they require news traveling even faster -- see FLT entry.) Events in the past that are not so far away, conversely, we can know about. The imaginary border in spacetime between those events we can know about and those we can't know about is called the event horizon. (Event horizons get weird near black holes; that could also be used metaphorically.)
Jauss's aesthetic distance is evidently analogous to relativistic ``proper distance,'' but the analogy is a bit rough because aesthetic distance increases with distance in both time and space, whereas proper time does not. [In ``flat'' Minkowski space, which is described by special relativity (SR), the squared proper distance is the square of the spatial distance minus the square of the time separation between two events.]
Reasons for making the analogy with event horizon rather than earth horizon include: (a) mere height/prominence cannot overcome an event horizon, (b) the event horizon arises from distance itself, rather than from some intervening body (like the earth), (c) relativity is mysterious and scientific and associated with a famous long-hair, so event horizons are cool, while ordinary horizons may be beautiful, but they're pretty common and not cool.
How well Jauss understood the physical concepts and how closely he modeled his theory on the physical one, I don't know, but the natural interpretation is that he imagined aesthetic distance increasing as audience gets further away from a text in time and/or cultural space, until a point of incomprehensibility (failure of expectations?) is reached. Obviously, the location of the Jauss horizon will not be so sharply defined as that of a relativistic event horizon.
Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.
Entry points for these can be found at OSU.
RFE was established in 1949, and reined in in 1956 after it was perceived (apparently largely incorrectly, it later turned out) that RFE broadcasts had misled Hungarians into believing that a rebellion would trigger Western intervention.
In 1973 the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) was created to oversee the RFE and RL, and in 1975 those were merged to become RFE/RL. Related programs are Radio Martí (est. 1983, operational 1985), TV Martí (operational in 1990), Radio Free Asia, broadcasts to various parts of Africa and Asia.
A recent history of the stations was published by Arch Puddington: Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War Triumph of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty (U.P. of Kentucky, 2000), 382 pp.
Italian classics journal catalogued by TOCS-IN.
I enter this definition with a pang of regret, because its wider use or even familiarity would reduce the frequency of some of my favorite homonym errors (``Isabella, who rained in Spain,'' ``Henry VIII, who reined in the Church as well,'' etc.). You'd like 'em too. Tell you what: keep this abbreviation under your hat, and under no circumstances, whatever you do, should you dare reveal the existence of this glossary to any esteemed member of our entertaining fourth estate. It'll be our secret -- just between you and me and a couple of thousand other visitors per day.
De Imperatoribus Romanis is ``An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.'' There's a biographical essay and bibliography for every emperor. You probably also want to see the website on The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ``A digital resource created and produced by Salvador Miranda, consisting of the biographies of the 20th century cardinals and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution.''
Arizona State University (ASU) has its main campus in Tempe. The microelectronics clean room there, like those elsewhere, uses dehumidifiers. Unlike most, however, it also has humidifiers.
``It's not the heat, it's the humidity.''is true. I was in Tempe in 1990 during the 122°F (50°C) day [I think it was July 25; highs the whole week were near 120]. A warm breeze blew, so it was 122 in the shade as well. You could spill beer on the sidewalk and inhale your alcohol faster than drinking. You could literally fry eggs on the sidewalk, to say nothing of car sheet metal, but that doesn't really require such high temperatures. So long as you stayed hydrated, you were safe and even pretty comfortable outside; I shivered whenever I entered an air-conditioned building.
Rhodium has an atomic number of 45 and is named after Rhoda, a television show starring Valerie Harper that was spun off of the Mary Tyler Moore. Okay, let me check that now... Well, this is true: the names Rhoda and Rhodium are both derived from rhódon, the Greek word for `rose.' (It occurs in Homer's famous repeated phrase Englished as ``rosy-fingered dawn.'') Close enough. William Wollaston discovered the metal in 1804. As he explained in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. 94, p. 419, ``I design in the present Memoir to prove the existence ... of another metal, hitherto unknown, which may not improperly be distinguished by the name of Rhodium, from the rose-colour of a dilute solution of the salts containing it.'' The metal itself is ``white'' (as that word is applied to metals). It is one of the platinum-group metals.
Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.
RHD isn't very common, except in England and Japan; India (and Pakistan and Bangladesh), Australia, and a bunch of countries in between; and a swath of African countries -- mostly former British colonies -- stretching from Namibia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, along the east up to Kenya and Uganda. All told, RHD countries represent a mere one third of the world's population. For a detailed survey and some history, see the Wikipedia page for Rules of the road and links therefrom, particularly Brian Lucas's more detailed page. Jan Pielkenrood's shorter page on the subject has one of the better world maps of driving side, and includes some personal observations on the subject. This page isn't listed at the Wikipedia entry; it represents some compromise between brevity and comprehensiveness. Cf. Left-Hand Drive.
In Vladivostok, at the extreme southeast corner of Russia, most cars are RHD Japanese models, but vehicles are driven on the right-hand side of the street as in the rest of Russia. In late Spring 2005, the democratically-elected dictatorship in Moscow was rumored to be considering plans to discourage RHD vehicles.
Japan has rather stringent requirements for the maintenance of motor vehicles. Even cosmetic damage (i.e., significant body damage that does not affect vehicle operation) is required to be repaired. For this reason among others (such as the relative affluence of modern Japan), there is a large supply of second-hand RHD vehicles in good condition. In LHD countries, they are sold at a discount relative to equivalent LHD vehicles. This accounts for their abundance in eastern Russia, and for import restrictions or homologization requirements in LHD Asian countries. However, Cambodia (hey, we don't have to call it Kampuchea any more?) switched from RHD to LHD specifically to stem smuggling from neighboring RHD Thailand.
Greek archaeologist Polyxeni Tsatsopoulou, interviewed by the AP in July 2005 regarding excavations of the Via Egnatia, explained that the Romans used left-handed driving and right-handed reining:
She said drivers held the reins with their right hand and wielded their whip with the left, so the Romans made drivers stay on the left to avoid the lash of oncoming riders and keep road-rage incidents to a minimum.
That was probably not the entire story, however. Back when everyone was either right-handed or ambidextrous, side-arms (uh, swords) were worn on the right side. Also, right-handedness implies right-footedness, and right-footed people find it easier to mount a horse from the left.
Whipping with the right hand has been common, at least. (The evidence from Roman antiquity below is adapted from a discussion on the Classics List in June 1999, before it descended into the political muck. Important contributors included James M. Pfundstein, Arthur J. Pomeroy, Wade Richardson, and Diana Wright.)
Visual evidence for chariot-race chirality is collected in Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines, edd. Daremberg & Saglio (Paris, 1887), under the entry for circus. This includes coins displaying the races and mosaics from Barcelona and Lyon. An on-line mosaic (with really naive perspective) illustrating a chariot race is served by Tunisia On-Line. All the races are run counterclockwise (i.e., driving on the right). The whip is generally in the right hand, with the reins in the left hand or tied to the left arm.
Literary sources cited in Daremberg & Saglio include Lucan 8.199ff:
Non sic moderator equorum,(Loosely, the middle line says that the right wheel turns around the left at the turning point.)
dexteriore rota laeuum cum circumit axem,
cogit inoffensae currus accedere metae.
Daremberg & Saglio also cites Silius Italicus 16.360:
laevo interior stringebat tramite metam(Loosely, and explicated: `he gazed at the turning point from close in on a left-leaning path.')
Book V of Virgil's Aeneid contains a naval race run counterclockwise. Later evidence includes the gripping chariot race (counterclockwise again) in Ben Hur (1959). Seventeen minutes of footage! Or hoofage or whatever. According to IMDB's trivia for this movie: ``The chariot race has a 263-to-1 cutting ratio (263 feet of film for every one foot kept), probably the highest for any 65mm sequence ever filmed.)''
Because of a forceps accident attending his difficult birth (kein Kaiserschnitt), the last Kaiser had almost no use of his left arm, and always rode rather docile horses. In a picture that illustrates Anne Topham's Memories of the Kaiser's Court, 1914 (or at least the reissue A Distant Thunder, 1992), the Kaiser and Kaiserin pose for a picture on horseback, and the Kaiser's mount has his head down because the Kaiser can't pull on the reins (so the accompanying text).
Vide symmetry dilemma.
RHIT's are accredited by AHIMA (as of this writing, anyway). RHIT is the new improved name (since 2000) for ART (which AHIMA used to accredit when it was called AMRA).
This journal was started as Rheinisches Museum by the classics professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. Friedrich Nietzsche was the only one of Ritschl's students ever to publish in it.
F.W. Ritschl was director of the Museum of Antiquities of the Rhine during his time as a professor at the University of Bonn, which is indeed on the Rhine. Ritschl had ongoing acrimonious quarrels with his colleague Otto Jahn, and in 1865 he accepted an appointment at Leipzig, but continued as editor of RhM.
Nietzsche entered the University of Bonn in 1864, and the quarrel between Jahn and Ritschl spoiled his first year in classics, so he focused his attention on music. In 1865 he followed Ritschl to Leipzig.
``Benjamin,'' the name Jacob gave to the first of his two sons by his second wife Rachel, is ben-yad-hamim: `son of the right hand.' There's an exposition of handedness in dice available on the web.
In RHT countries, most vehicles have steering wheels and most other driving instruments on the left side. These vehicles are called left-hand drive, or LHD, vehicles. LHD vehicles encourage drivers to sit on the left or practice extreme yoga.
RHT is more common on continents; you're more likely to encounter LHT on islands and subcontinents. Given the relative sizes, you can see that RHT is more common, though not by as much as you might guess. Nevertheless, because LHT is less common overall, it is traditional to indicate which are the LHT and which the RHT countries by giving an exhaustive list of the LHT countries only. We followed that convention, and then we went on ahead and added all the interesting stuff to that entry, leaving just a couple of lame jokes here. YOU'RE READING ON THE WRONG SIDE OF THE GLOSSARY, YOU DUMMY!!
In 1900, both Bedford and Royal Holloway became part of the University of London. In 1965 both admitted male undergraduates for the first time. In 1982 the two schools signed a partnership agreement under the pressure of budget cuts. The university's history page doesn't happen to mention the rabid hatred of Lady Thatcher that is fairly universal in British academia, even today. In 1985 the schools merged, and in 1986 Bedford moved out of its old digs and became half of ``Royal Holloway and Bedford New College.'' By decision of its College Council in 1992, that continues to be the registered title, but ``Royal Holloway, University of London'' is the shorter name under which it is ``presents itself.'' For a number of years its domain name was <rhbnc.ac.uk>, but as of 2000 http://www.rhbnc.ac.uk/ is forwarded to <http://www.rhul.ac.uk/>, and sometime in 2001 email addresses will switch over. This is a matter of some regret and even resentment among old-time faculty.
Regarding the name: ein Blatt is a sheet of paper -- i.e., a leaf, both sides. The plural Blätter can mean `newspaper.' Vierteljahrs is the genitive of quarter-year (Vierteljahr); the adjective vierteljahrlich is equivalent. The different spelling rules of German and (such as they are) of English obscure the close cognate relationship of words in the two languages. The relationship is clearer from a comparison of pronunciations or from a comparison of the spellings in a common system like IPA. For example, German jahr is English year. In IPA, these are spelled /jar/ and /ji:r/. The initial and final consonants are the same (in one or another accent, since arr's vary a lot) and only the vowels differ essentially (the colon after the i indicates that its duration is extended). We'll eventually explain more about the pronunciation of the letter jay in an appropriate jay entry. For now just understand that J is the consonantal form of I.
About the abbreviation: German systematically capitalizes nouns, common and proper. (A substantial exception concerns compound nouns and a characteristically German curiosity called extended adjective constructions, which are written wihout spaces and with interior nouns not capitalized. Thus, the compound noun quarter-year sheet is Vierteljahrblatt.) German conventionally uses lower case for adjectives, even when those are derived from proper nouns. Hence, if it were not a formal title one would describe a few Rhennish quarterly pages as rheinische Vierteljahrblätter. (Because you need to know, I'll also mention that in personal correspondence, second-person pronouns are also capitalized. Also, capitalization of foreign-language phrases obeys different rules, if any.) Although German practice regarding capitalization in acronyms is not so standardized, there is a tendency to mix case, capitalizing letters representing nouns. GmbH is a good example of this. Because only the first noun of an agglutinated compound noun is capitalized, acronyms formed from these follow a less systematic pattern. The acronym of this entry -- RhVjBll -- represents a typically loose application of the rule. The B of the noun Blatt is capitalized, but the j of Jahr (`year') is not. The double-ell represents the fact that theBlatt is in the plural form Blätter.
Most of our rhyme stuff is at the fünf entry. Probably the most prominent alternate spelling of rhyme is rime, in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's famous poem, ``The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.'' You wonder that he didn't use the antient spelling.
It's an ancient word, rhyme. Rime and ryme were the common spellings through the sixteenth century. (The difference in spelling, -i- vs. -y-, once corresponded to a difference in pronunciation, but the two vowels were close and tended to be confused. I think rime is supposed to have been truer to the pronunciation, but came the Great Vowel Shift and, well, you know the story.) The appearance of forms with aitch (rhyme and rhime) during the sixteenth century reflected an awareness of the etymology. Latin rhythmus is the common source of this word and rhythm, and the restraint shown (of using only one aitch, in one or the other place) seems to have arisen as a conscious effort at clarity of meaning. Rhime and rhyme were the common spellings from the seventeenth century on, the latter not prevailing until the nineteenth. Coleridge's spelling is a conscious affectation.
Républicain indépendant is not an especially distinctive designation. For example, in August 1990, in a largely meaningless development, Zaïre's Parti républicain indépendant (PRI, headed by former minister Nguz a Karl-i-Bond) and la Fédération nationale des démocrates convaincus united under the banner of l'Union PRI-FENADEC. At the same time another former minister of ``maréchal Mobutu,'' Mungul Diaka, announced the formation of a new party to be called Rassemblement démocratique pour la République (RDR). This helped keep the number of political groupings in Zaïre above 60. Politics now abhors a democracy deficit; with a loud whoosh!, democratic structures and trappings rush in to ... well, it's not clear what they do, but they don't fill the vacuum.
Fresh out of l'École nationale d'administration in 1951, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was first elected to the French parliament as an independent. In 1966, as finance minister under Charles de Gaulle, he founded a center-right party of républicains et indépendants that worked in coalition with the Gaullists. The party supported Giscard's (successful) presidential bid in 1974, and changed its name to Parti Républicain. There may have been a couple of other names in there, and I've seen Giscard referred to as a républicain indépendant, though that may not be official. In 1978 his party formed part of his UDF coalition. Since 1997 the party has been headed by Alain Madelin, who has moved the party in the direction of economic liberalization and changed the name to Démocratie Liberale (DL).
In French reportage of US politics, US Senator John McCain is liable to be described as un républicain indépendant (though much more often as a républicain centriste). In English, he is called, depending on how favorably the reporter judges him, a ``maverick'' or ``independent-minded'' member of the Republican party, a Rino, ``not a team player,'' or simply traitor.
The Colossus of Rhodes was one of the ``Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.'' It fell down (in an earthquake), and after a few hundred years it was sold for scrap. No one remembers where it stood, but they've put up a couple of bronze deer statues where they think it was. You think that's sad? Another Wonder, the structure after which mausoleums take their name (the Mausoleum of Halicarnasus: a memorial to King Mausolus), was cannibalized for stones to build a fortress for the Knights of Saint John during one of the crusades (1402). Okay, maybe sold-for-scrap is still worse than that, but at least it's got competition for the basement.
The Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy serves a page of Rhode Island state government links. USACityLink.com has a page with some city and town links for the state.
RIAA is affiliated with IFPI.
SAFE boats are often loosely or mistakenly called RIB's.
Sometimes mistakenly expanded Rest & ICE. Apply ice indirectly: use a bag of frozen veggies if you don't have an ice pack that you keep in the freezer, and put some cloth between that and the skin -- you're not trying to freeze anything. If it's very uncomfortably cold, then it's too cold. Twenty minutes or a half hour is the usual recommendation.
After a couple of days, apply heat. That's what everyone says, so it must be true.
There's something else you should know, and normally I'd put the information in a different entry and force you follow a link. But seeing as how you're immobilized and need to rest, I'll make an exception and tell you right here. There are basically two OTC (that's over-the-counter) analgesics (that's pain-killers) for non-mild pain: tylenol and ibuprofen (that's right, I didn't mention aspirin). They're sold under an aisle-full of different brand names. Ibuprofen is better for muscle and tendon pain, and for inflammation.
Richard Simmons is to David Letterman what Charo! was to Johnny Carson: a bundle of enthusiasm and energy, intimidating no one while demonstrating unashamed gracelessness, who barely conceals enjoyment at not being taken seriously. A consumate amateur. What does it say about the decadent state of the universe, that we have come from Charo! to Richard? It's not encouraging.
This is probably the place where I should say something about William Hung, but words fail me.
One fellow who worked as a publicist for Simmons went on to work as a G.O. at Club Med, according to a story she got published in the UCB alumni magazine. Now she wants to write for a living. Times are tough.
In Spanish, the adjective charro means coarse (or of low value in other ways), and in some countries charro is used as a noun for `cowboy.' I think Elvis Presley played a Mexican cowboy in a movie called Charro. Another common word for cowboy, in Argentina at least, is gaucho. Guacho, on the other hand, means `bastard.' I detect a recurring theme.
One of the purposes of this glossary is to make important connections among things that are completely unrelated to each other. I don't want to imply that these connections are often tenuous or specious (although this is true). Let's just say you might not have thought of them -- which, of course, is the reason we point them out to you. Anyway, cf. UCSB.
The word riches is understood and construed as plural, as if it were the regularly constructed plural of a noun rich. Now it is true that rich can be used as a sort of noun in phrases like ``the rich.'' (Observe, however, that like any adjective it is modified by adverbs. E.g., ``the newly-rich.'') In any case, if riches in the ordinary sense were simply the plural of the sort-of-noun in ``the rich,'' it would designate the same group, rather than what it is they have that makes them so. In fact, the word now usually spelled riches was originally a singular noun spelled richesse. It was a French loan, and the -esse was simply a suffix that converts adjectives to abstract nouns (-esse and -ece in Old French). (More about that below.) English doesn't have many words that use that suffix (caress, distress and later stress, duress, largess, and prowess seem to be the only common survivors). This, and the presence of the pre-existing English word rich, apparently explain how richesse was interpreted as a specialized use of a plural (of rich). (This is not a metanalysis, but similar confusions are described at the matanalysis. It's also not a pea, so check there too in particular.)
This -esse suffix represents the Latin suffix -itia. The corresponding reflex in Italian is -ezza (the adjective ricco yields ricchezza). Spanish and Portuguese use -eza (hence riqueza from rico in both). [The OED claims (s.v. -ess, suffix2) that Portuguese also uses -ezza. That might be, but I can't find any instances. The double z looks like something that might have been eliminated in the major reform first promulgated in 1911, but a couple of mid-nineteenth-century dictionaries I checked also had riqueza and similar forms. However, Portuguese spelling wobbled a lot back then, so it's hard to be definite.]
There's a rich galaxy of words associated with rich. In broad terms, they are all believed to originate from Latin rex and or Celtic rix, meaning `king.' That was borrowed into Germanic at a very early point, and within Germanic languages evolved into words like modern English rich and modern German Reich. The Germanic words were borrowed back later in Late Latin and Romance (see the rico entry for an example). There were further effects, like the borrowing of richesse mentioned above, and the French word riche may have influenced the development of the native English word rich.
Once the law was passed, however, another law came into play. This other, the law of unintended consequences, cannot be repealed. The unintended consequence is that many prosecutors found RICO a convenient tool to use against business groups that are not engaged in the kind of organized crime that legislators probably had in mind. In particular, many of the businesses targeted were not involved in any violent activity or threats; their intimidation methods were legal (but in support of illegal behavior).
Wealth, treasure, and various sorts of abundance are riqueza, but tastiness is buen sabor or buen gusto. The toponyms Puerto Rico and Costa Rica mean `rich port' and `rich coast,' resp. The associated gentilicial nouns (nouns for the inhabitants) are puertorriqueño and costarriqueño (also costarricense).
Rico is one of those Spanish words, which I had been led to believe are rare, that originated in the East Germanic language of the Visigoths who ruled Iberia. The Gothic word was reiks, `powerful.' (I might say this is a Visigothic word, but the fact is that most of what we know about East Germanic languages is what we know about Gothic, and most of what we know about that is from the Bible translation of Ulfilas, who was a Visigoth.) If you want to know any more about rico and its cognates (in case you were wondering: yes, you do want to know more) you can learn about it by following the link to the riches entry. Before you go, though, I should mention that riqueza took over the meanings of an earlier word rictad, now obsolete. The ending -eza in riqueza is common in Spanish (forming nouns from adjectives) so it is superfluous to posit the influence of the Old French form richesse that is mentioned at the entry for riches.
AVLIC describes itself as ``an RID Approved Sponsor of Continuing Education (CE) Activities'' so at least some (and for all I know all) pronounce RID as an initialism and not an acronym. Too bad.
By ``downstream'' I mean the direction in which water flows on average. This a useful extension of the definition. If a river issues in an ocean or bay (i.e., in a body of water that has tides), and if it has too little ``river flow,'' then it functions as a tidal river. At the lower end of a tidal river, salt water flows upstream as the tide rises, and there typically develops an estuary of often brackish water.
To ``bank right'' is to change the direction of an airplane's flight by lowering the right wing (not this right wing) and adjusting other control surfaces to execute a turn toward the right.
The convention that ``right'' and ``left'' correspond respectively to conservative or reactionary or resistant to change or whatever, and to liberal or progressive or favoring change or whatever, goes back to the French Revolution (the one in 1789). Specifically, in the Estates General the aristocratic members sat to the right of the speaker (the place of honor; let's not get into it) while the commoners sat to the left. So basically, to be on the right was to be in support of the established order, and to be on the left was to be in opposition. When a new order has been recently established, the meaning of the terms is in flux. In Paris there is a bohemian (and left-wing -- ça va sans dire) district on the left bank of the Seine. I think that's just a coincidence.
I understand that the term ``wing-nut'' as a disparagement is supposed to derive from the threaded item of that name and from the resemblance to uncool people with prominent ears. That doesn't seem like enough of an explanation to me. Perhaps there is some influence of ``right-wing nut'' parsed as ``right wing-nut.''
From one of RIKEN's own (English) about pages:
The mission of RIKEN is to conduct comprehensive research in science and technology (excluding only the humanities and social sciences) as provided for under the "RIKEN Law," and to publicly disseminate the results of its scientific research and technological developments. RIKEN carries out high level experimental and research work in a wide range of fields, including physics, chemistry, medical science, biology, and engineering, covering the entire range from basic research to practical application.
RIKEN was first organized in 1917 as a private research foundation, and reorganized in 2003 as an independent administrative institution under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
I was really charmed by the parenthetical ``only'' in the first sentence.
The last volume was 15 (1989). It was subsequently merged with Répertoire d'art et d'Archéologie into an online database called the Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA).
Vocabulary word for today: ekphrasis.
It is reported that Rip Torn is only acting, but I'd just as soon not share a carpool with him, or any other kind of pool. On the other hand, as Groucho once pointed out to Dick Cavett, Peter O'Toole is doubly phallic, so take your choice.
The Public Health Medical Society was set up informally in 1886, and incorporated in 1892 as the British Institute of Public Health (BIPH). Not long after (1897) it gained royal patronage (I think that means that the reigning monarch nods in the organization's general direction) and it proudly adopted the name Royal Institute of Public Health. Then in 1937 it merged with the Institute of Hygiene (est'd. 1903), and the resulting organization adopted a new name that included all the words in both of the original names, and and. They didn't have to use the word Institute twice. That's one of those reduced-overhead advantages of combining name operations. It's called the nomenclaturics of scale. Okay, it isn't.
The independent bookdealers in Buffalo all say Rochester is much more of a book town. Rochester was the name of Jack Benny's straight man.
Here's a listing.
There is a school of thought that mini-RK -- RK using small incisions -- can achieve good results without the risks of ordinary RK. That argument doesn't seem to have won many adherents.
The term radio picture was also used during WWII for still photographs (typically of action, but still they were stills) transmitted by radio. Functionally, this was a bit like fax -- it was certainly the transmission of a facsimile, but the pictures were in grayscale, and given the technology available, the coding had to be analog.
The filament of an R lamp is located near the focus of the paraboloid. Light from the focus of a paraboloid is reflected in a parallel beam. Hence, R lamps would radiate in a beam, except for two things: (1) Light radiated forwar from the filament is never reflected from the parabola and spreads in an approximately isotropic distribution forward of the lamp. (2) The filament has finite extension, so light is radiated only from the vicinity of the focus.
In R lamps designed as spotlights, the filament is clustered as close to the focus as possible, and the paraboloid is deep (i.e., the depth divided by the focal length is a large number, so the reflector covers a large angular area around the filament). In R lamps designed as floodlights, the reflector can be shallower and the filament is usually placed slightly forward of the focus.
The change that made rat-borne disease more dangerous in the Middle Ages was that the ship rat (a/k/a black rat, roof rat, grey-bellied rat, Rattus rattus) was displaced by the larger Norway rat, also known as Rattus norvegicus, the wharf rat, water rat, sewer rat, barn rat, and (evidently soon enough) the common rat. It is also called both the brown rat and the grey rat; its dorsal fur is grey-brown and its ventral hair white to grey. The Norway rat is less timid than the black rat and tends to live closer to people. It is bigger than the black rat and has more bristly hair. The most important difference, however, is reputed to be its greater tolerance for cold weather. The Middle Ages saw global cooling, and a ``little ice age'' in Europe. This apparently drove the black rats south and opened up their biological niche to the Norway rats. But the black rats don't seem to have staged a comeback when temperatures rose. Let's raise global temperatures some more and see what happens.
The following is the first paragraph of Jessica Mitford's introduction to her Poison Penmanship: The Gentle Art of Muckraking (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979).
In his essay ``Stop the Press, I Want to Get On,'' Nicholas Tomalin, a talented and versatile English journalist, wrote: ``The only qualities essential for real success in journalism are ratlike cunning, a plausible manner, and a little literary ability.'' He added, ``The capacity to steal other people's ideas and phrases--that one about ratlike cunning was invented by my colleague Murray Sayre--is also invaluable.''
Particularly in the aftermath of the strong Democratic results in the off-year elections of 1998, in which extremely conservative Republican incumbents showed weakness, it was widely felt that the Republican party was in thrall to its social-conservative right wing.
What do I mean ``widely felt''? I spoke to Dennis on Friday after the elections. He pointed out that the Republican strength in governorships represents the strength of Republican moderates, and Dennis is built like a fire plug. Even so, Dennis feared a Republican swing to the right. The New York Times and other unreliable sources agreed with Dennis, and you could consider that corroboration.
Richard L. Berke, writing in the November 8, 1998 NYTimes (Sunday after the elections) had the following interesting observation:
And the parallel with the Democrats is not entirely apt. The Democratic left gradually took over a party in power, leaving a potent, if often frustrated, moderate group in state houses (like Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton) and in Congress. Republicans, by contrast, gained power from the ideological right, first in the White House with Reagan, then in Congress through Gingrich. Moderates were few, and they were harshly pushed aside, so there is much less on which to build.
Note: when I wrote ``Richard L. Berke, writing in the November 8, 1998 NYTimes'' I meant that Rich wrote a story that became copy for the November 8 NYTimes, not that Rich wrote this on his copy of the November 8 NYTimes. I mean, I don't even know the guy!
Always want to avoid misunderstandings.
Help! I'm drowning in a sea of obscure acronyms!
For US commercial purposes, RMA and MSA are the two standard definitions of urban regions. Read about it in this PDF file.
Really, frente could just as appropriately be translated `in the face of' as `on,' but no one is likely to be misled. The translation `against,' less inaccurate than `on,' would correspond to Spanish contra. The word frente can have senses ranging from `against,' through `in the face of,' to `facing.' If you want a better example of polysemy in Spanish, see the llama entries. For a close analogue of the frente situation in Ancient Greek, see the anti- entry.
RMALC is an NGO (ONG) that objectively monitors the effects of free trade and denounces it.
RMALC is not related to MALC. Not that you'd think so.
RM/COBOL-85 and RM/CO* are registered trademarks of Liant Software Corporation, and they're very welcome to them, I'm sure.
Suborning COBOL use is sin without pleasure.
Sir Winston Churchill once said of Sir Stafford Cripps that he had ``all the virtues I dislike and none of the vices I admire.''
Low serotonin levels are implicated.
For a long time, discussions of body energy balance used to be couched in terms of BMR. The trouble with that was that BMR is a theoretical baseline that is hard to measure. In principle, subjects must get to sleep, which requires a bit of planning and allowance. Furthermore, subjects in a laboratory setting tend to be under stress from the unfamiliarity of surroundings and from the presence of instrumentation, and this stress elevates their metabolic rate even during sleep. The RMR is essentially a practical response to this problem: it is the metabolic rate of a subject resting as comfortably as possible while attached to various monitors and breathing through an uncomfortable mask.
A quantity varying sinusoidally has an rms average that is sqrt(2)/2 or about 0.7071 times its peak value. The average value is zero and the average of the absolute value is 2/pi times its peak value.
If a signal is decomposed into different frequency components, then the rms value of the composite signal is simply related to rms values of the component single-frequency signals: the composite rms value equals the square root of the sum of the components' squared rms values. This result is called Parseval's theorem, and it is the precise analogue in function space of the Pythagorean theorem in Euclidean space.
The ensembles used are characterized by very few parameters, and generally are one of three kinds, corresponding to fundamental symmetries of the system: Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE), Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) and Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE).
R-MWC announced on Saturday, September 9, 2006, that men would be admitted to the 115-year-old institution starting the next year. The plan to admit men had first been floated publicly only the previous month, but when Board-of-Trustees president Jolley Christman announced the trustees' decision (reached by a vote of 27-2), she said it followed 2½ years of study. She made the announcement to an agitated crowd of 400 students and alumnae and their supporters, who shouted her down with boos and cries of ``traitors!'' The school has an enrollment of about 700, down from 900 in the 1960's. The school has an endowment of $140 million, which is large for a school of its size, but it has been dipping into that endowment on account of the low enrollments, to the tune of 5% per year. (If memory serves, that's at least twice the rate at which schools that aren't in trouble normally milk their endowments.)
Look, why don't we just have a nice little legal action turning on the finer points of cy pres doctrine? In a decade or so the whole thing can be resolved in bankruptcy court. Okay: at first the opponents (incorporating themselves as Preserve Educational Choice, Inc. (PREC), went the breach-of-contract route. They sponsored a suit by nine current students who believed they enrolled on the promise that the school would remain single-sex for the duration of their educations. The cy pres action was filed in Lynchburg Circuit Court on November 2.
The school plans to begin accepting male students in fall 2007. The search for a new school name is already under way. No, they can't just drop the ``Woman's'' -- that R-MC already exists. Will someone lay odds on their becoming ``Randolph-Macon Woman's and Man's College''?
Well, the results are in. After receiving more than a thousand suggestions for a new name, they settled on... ``Randolph College.'' Wow. Gray tee-shirts bearing the new gold seal with black lettering were distributed gratis after the announcement, which was made before a crowd of 400. It seems that 400 is the only crowd size they have there. If you still want to place a bet on R-MW&MC, I'm offering lucratively long odds (visit www.suckerbate.com to place a bet). (It turned out that suckerbait.com was already spoken for.)
Learn more at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool.
Radon was discovered in 1900 by Friedrich Ernst Dorn, who named it niton. The name was derived from the Latin nitens, `shining.' The -on ending is a Greek ending of neuter nouns corresponding to the neuter ending -um in Latin. The Greek ending was used for the noble gases (except helium, of course). The name radon was apparently first proposed in 1918 by C. Schmidt, in Zeitschrift für anorganischen Chemie, vol. 103, p. 114, based on the fact that it is a decay product of radium. (It's a good thing that this idea did not catch on, or half the elements would eventually have been renamed after thorium, uranium, and actinium.) The chemical symbol first used for this element was Ro. (It was available because rhodium, for which it had been used earlier, was by that time generally symbolized by Rh.) Apparently the new name radon was well-established by 1823, but I don't know when Ro was switched to the current Rn.
In a few bacteria, RNA serves the intergenerational genetic rôle of DNA. In DNA-based cells, RNA serves communication rôles. The DNA code is transcribed by messenger RNA (mRNA) to transfer RNA (tRNA) which build proteins on a ribosome platform. The ribosome itself is a complex of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with various proteins. For years people tried to detect catalytic activity in the various polypeptide sequences. The accepted wisdom now is that the magic is in the rRNA itself.
In Spanish, the acronym is ARN. Just so you know.
Perhaps the ambiguity left an opening for Ro, which was not, in any case, otherwise occupied in his scheme. Perhaps an influential fact was that some languages spell it without the h. The aitch is used in Latin and New Latin to represent a ``rough breathing'' in ancient Greek. Few if any modern European languages distinguish aspirated from unaspirated pronunciations of r (the distinction is important in Farsi, for what that's worth), so the letter tends retained primarily in languages like English and French that favor etymological or historical spellings, and absent in languages like Italian and Spanish that favor more phonetic spellings. In principle, an element's chemical symbol is supposed to be based on the spelling of its Latin name (rhodium in this case -- duh), but that doesn't disqualify Ro.
Eventually, Rh reasserted itself as the symbol for rhodium, and the symbol Ro became available for new elements. It wasn't initially available for radon, however, because that element was originally called niton. A couple of decades after its discovery, however, niton was renamed radon and finally took the chemical symbol Ro. Radon is radioactive, however, and the evidently unstable symbol Ro itself decayed to the obviously lower-mass Rn.
Robert Shapiro, part of O.J. Simpson's dream team (talkin' legal defense here, not fantasy football), was apparently also something of a believer in the justice system. When the jury gave its not-guilty verdict in the criminal trial, he was the most visibly stunned member of Simpson's team.
On February 3, 2003, music legend Phil Spector was arrested for murder. Robert Shapiro is his long-time lawyer.
In the 1960's, Phil Spector developed what he called the ``Wall of Sound.'' Basically, he recorded music using a symphony's-worth of instruments and back-up singers. He would record rhythm, melodic accompaniment and voices in separate sessions in order to cram as many performers as possible in using a regrettably finite recording studio. (Four pianos and ten basses for rhythm, say, eventually 25-50 performers on a track.) Echo effects were added also. It's probably fair to say that the resulting sound was not crisp. Along about now you may be asking the question, how am I going to bring this back around to Robert Shapiro. The answer is, that apart from the preceding sentence, I won't. And I don't have any Wall-of-Sound entries either, but try this.
The Taiwan Relations Act, passed by the US Congress when Washington switched its diplomatic recognition from Taibei to Beijing in 1979, commits the US (sec. 3) to ``make available to Taiwan such defense articles and defense services in such quantity as may be necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability.''
The word was borrowed into Italian, where it is spelled rocca. That's a homograph of an old word for `rock' and a current word for `fortress' (details under La Rocca). It's not quite a homophone: the Germanic loan has the more closed ``o'' of corpo, while the native word has the aw-like ``o'' of monte. It ended up with various textile-related meanings; its plain common sense now is `distaff.' That's the noun distaff. The heraldry distaff is also rocca (as in English, by similarity of shape, I suppose). It's not used to make a sexual distinction as in English (distaff side vs. spear side).
ROCSAT-1 was built by the U.S. company TRW and successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida in 1999.
You don't have to put on the red light!
ROCSAT-2 was originally scheduled for launch February 26, 2004, but has been delayed.
The name has been turned into a common noun. For example, a blurb for Ana Criado Peña's El imitador hermético y otros des(EN)cuentos lists enigmatically a practicing rodríguez, to borrow the word. (In Spanish: ``un rodríguez en ejercicio.'') I sought the meaning in a number of comprehensive dictionaries before finding it in El Diccionario del Español Actual, edd. Manuel Seco, Olimpia Andrés, Gabino Ramos, (1999). Two related meanings are given. The first definition translates to `a married man who stays alone in the city while his family is on vacation.' This frequently occurs in a construction estar de ~. [This would mean, `to be in the situation of a rodríguez.] The second definition: `a man who is occasionally free to enjoy himself because his mate is occupied with other activities.'
I haven't been able to find an etymology for this word. I suppose it's an eponym based on some film or TV character or some public figure of that name, but it might also be based on the mere commonness of the name, as expressions like ``every Tom, Dick, and Harry'' and ``keeping up with the Joneses'' seem to be. There is a Spanish word rodrigón for an upright stick planted next to a plant to guide its growth, but it's hard to see how to make either the semantic or the morphological connection, and the -ez ending is no longer productive.
This could be a useful word to borrow into English. Tom Ewell played a rodriguez (English spelling) in ``The Seven Year Itch.'' He costarred with Vanessa Brown in the 1952 Broadway play, and reprised his role in the 1955 movie of the same name, opposite Marilyn Monroe. This is the movie that gave us the iconic mm-mmm scene of MM over a grating, in a white dress blown up (I needed to write that) by the blast of a passing subway. Ewell's character was named Richard Sherman. I suppose ``Dick Sherman'' doesn't take any longer to pronounce than ``rodriguez,'' but the latter has more recent resonances with Yankees slugger ``A-Rod'' (uniform number 13).
The prohibition of lead is a hardship, because eutectic lead-tin alloy has been the solder of choice for decades. Lead-tin alloy is dangerous to all children who open electronic appliances, pull out the soldered elements, remove the insulation or cladding layers, gargle with vinegar, and then suck on the solder joints. These children are put in greater danger by RoHS, because manufacturers have been forced to switch from lead alloys, which are now illegal, to other more toxic alloys that are still legal.
As the (streamlined) saying goes -- in the world there are people who divide the world into two groups, and those who don't. Some of the former group divide it into R.O.I. and R.O.W. Then again there's Northern Ireland.
The word androids is abbreviated 'droids to avoid confusion.
If ``roleplayer'' were a term used in hockey, I suppose it would be a synonym for ``hit man.''
The term ``roleplayer'' is in widespread use in South Africa, both in and out of sports. There it apparently means ``someone with a role to play.''
Pain is difficult or impossible to measure. On the other hand, it's not hard to detect. In fact, if you just pay close-enough attention to your body, you will realize that you are in some discomfort right now. In fact, it's getting worse. Be careful how you move that. Ow! (Insights are free; solutions cost.) If there's a physical activity that you want to engage in only because it's good for you, disturbing aches and better-be-careful pains will make themselves felt naturally beforehand. Ignore that and go to the gym anyway.
What's that? You say none of this sounds familiar? Wait a sec-- how old are you? Ah, that's your problem right there! See, the nervous system doesn't approach full maturity until about age 30. You could be in excruciating, debilitating pain right now and not even realize it, because the pain-recognition part of your nervous system isn't ``up'' yet. Be patient; it'll come.
The initialism RLL is much more common. The catchy ROLL acronym doesn't seem to be in regular use anywhere other than Notre Dame. (BTW, I liked the old homepage better.) The separate programs and courses in the ROLL department are indicated by RO-prefixed codes like ROFR (French), and ROIT (Italian). Too bad they don't teach Romanian -- RORO would've been cute. Then again, they don't always use the two-letter ISO-639 codes: the Spanish program is ROSP and the Program in Portuguese & Brazilian Studies is ROPO.
Mick Jagger was born on July 26, 1943. He matriculated at the London School of Economics, and he didn't drop out until he was sure that the music thing was going to work out.
Sometimes originality of expression consists in choice of context.
1 Sestertius = 10 Quadrantes 1 Aureus = 10 Sestertii and 1 Denarius = 10 Asses (after about 150 BCE: 16 asses) related by 1 As = 4 QuadrantesEvidently, the system is designed, if that's the word, with the fundamental goal of making sure that the quadrans will be worth less than a half Ass.
In the King James version (KJV) Bible translation, denarius is translated `penny.' The abbreviation for pence was d in the old nondecimal system used in Britain well into the twentieth century
For more, see Roman Coins of the Early Empire.
Another Rome is remembered for throwing Christians to the lions.
See as well Ronco.
Popeil was the 1993 Ig-Nobel laureate for Consumer Engineering. In 1995 he did an autobiography with the help of Jefferson Graham, the television columnist for USA Today and co-author of Life Is a Contact Sport (with Ken Kragen). The book is called The Salesman of the Century. He had an unhappy childhood.
I see minivans from Ronco C&E Inc. on campus all the time, and I keep wondering, why doesn't my phone have niftier features, like an automatic polygraph of my caller based on voice-tremble analysis, and a half-duplex 130 dB horn for direct-marketers?
The word ``system'' that supplies the final s in the acronym might serve a phonemic purpose. Japanese does not have a final t sound, so English words that end in t tend to have borrowed forms that end in ta, te, or (most commonly) to. However, a word can end in tsu, and the u will be essentially inaudible, so ROPITS (as ropitsu) is pronounceable in Japanese. (Moreover, for the use of ``Ropits'' in Japanese, the fact that the name ends in s poses no confusion or inconvenience in forming plurals, since Japanese doesn't use plural inflections.) Of course, none of the sounds of Japanese is quite the same as the corresponding ones in English. ROPITS, as pronounced by a Japanese speaker, would sound to an American like ``raw peats.''
There're some obviously relevant irrelevancies under La Rocca. I wrote it for you, so go and read.
Rorschach was Swiss. Projective personality tests like these are occasionally called ``psychoanalytic tests.'' However, when Freud (``the father of Psychoanalysis'') said that ``the Swiss will save us,'' he had in mind Jung. In any case, he eventually changed his mind. If he could have seen the future, he might have said ``the Americans will assimilate us.''
During widespread French strikes in Spring 2006, many flights were delayed. In one instance on March 3, passengers on a Jet2 flight were delayed in Chambéry in the Alps. (Jet2 is a Yorkshire-based budget airline; the flight was destined for the Leeds-Bradford airport.) It was reported that the British passengers chanted ``Rosbifs want to go home'' while they were prevented from boarding their plane.
The delay, as also the diversion of another flight, was caused by 50 students staging a sit-in on the runway to protest CPE (q.v.). There were police present, but they did nothing to prevent the action, and 100 passengers were prevented from boarding Jet2's 737. (As to the presence of police -- I don't know about France, but from personal experience I can tell you that in 1972 at the old Newark airport, you could rustle up 50 uniformed cops and 50 plainclothesmen in about five minutes.)
The passengers were eventually able to leave for their destination, Leeds-Bradford airport, and arrived 90 minutes late. You have to give the French a lot of credit: if this had happened in the US, the flight would have been delayed three days while TSA personnel checked the tarmac for explosives and nail clippers.
It's slightly unusual when strikers sit while those they inconvenience chant in protest, but that's not why this was in the news. It was in the news because of Philip Meeson, the CEO of Jet2. Meeson was angry at French labor action that had caused repeated delays and cancelations. The previous week, there had been a strike of traffic controllers in sympathy with the students. On his company's website, Meeson asked ``What exactly are you striking about? Or just in case you don't understand that, `pouvez-vous nous expliquer pourquoi exactement êtes-vous en grève?' '' Well one might ask, since government leaders had virtually conceded that they would have to withdraw the proposed rather minor reforms. The question may have been rhetorical, but it got an answer that was calm and mad. A spokesman for the CGT, which represents the controllers, explained: ``It is easy for them to ask some people to go back to work but if people in France do not agree with the government it is a very good reason to strike.''
This little exchange was not very newsworthy either, of course. The thing that made news was a cartoon that Meeson posted, showing a frog blocking a runway with a placard reading ``I am lazy.'' The word ``frog'' is a pejorative reference to Frenchmen. It's normally perceived as less complimentary than ``rosbif,'' in part, perhaps, because it is not a reference to cuisine.
Sualocin and Rotanev have achieved recognition in our Backward Spelling Hall of Shame. It would be useful to add that Niccolò Cacciatore was the inspiration for Chicken Cacciatore, if it were true. Cacciatore, of course, has the same Latin roots as the English word catch.
R O T A S O P E R A T E N E T A R E P O S A T O Rsee
A fundamental problem is the meaning of AREPO.
This has been discussed from time to time on the classics mailing list. We serve a condensation of that discussion.
There is no connection with SATOR.
Cf. German ILLAB.
On September 22, 1996, Bob Dent became the first of more than half a dozen people ultimately killed under ROTTI. Kevin Andrews, a member of Australia's House of Representatives, had already announced in August 1996 his intention to overturn ROTII by federal legislation. The bill passed the House overwhelmingly, and was passed by the Senate on March 24 of the following year, 38-34. It took effect on March 27, when the Governor-General, Sir William Deane, gave it royal assent.
We could easily include in this glossary a good compact summary of all the arguments for and against euthanasia, along with an evaluation of them which would meet with general approbation. Will we include this? Over my dead body! However, it is worth observing that argument over Kevin Andrews's bill was framed in terms of two issues. The straightforward one was, of course, the question of whether a right to choose to die exists (and where in law that is stated or somehow implied). The other issue was that of the territories' sovereignty. The situation is interesting. The Australian Constitution has language approximately equivalent to the Tenth Amendment of the US Constitution, that powers not explicitly granted the national government are reserved by the states. Under current interpretation in Australia, those powers include the right to legislate on (and legalize) euthanasia. Thus, for the Australian government to overturn a state euthanasia law would require a constitutional amendment. In contrast, the sovereignty granted the three territories is a matter of ordinary legislation. Hence, any act of a territorial legislature can be overturned by a simple act of the national legislature, effectively amending the terms of the acts establishing territorial self-government. The Andrews bill made euthanasia illegal in all three territories. In 1994 and 1995, the legislature of the Australian Capital Territory had considered and rejected bills legalizing euthanasia.
There's a Wikipedia entry for ROV which, as of this writing (late 2006), implies that all ROV's are tethered vehicles. Mostly they are, but there have been untethered (``free-diving'') ROV's since at least 1984. The tether is an inconvenience, since it must be a bit longer than the maximum operating depth of the ROV. Tethers are prone to tangle and break, so that there has to be a tether management system. This often is a spool separate from the platform or mother ship, part of a garage or ``top hat'' that is immersed and isolates the ROV from surface waves.
If one is going to suffer the inconvenience of a tether, one might as well have its benefits. Hence, tethers are used not only for command, control, and sensor data communication (usually via fiber-optic cable), but also for electric power supply. Some shorter tethers include hydraulic power lines. There seems to be a lot of variety in the designs.
It is difficult to avoid a tether because variations in water temperature and salinity bend radio waves, making wireless communication usually difficult and sometimes impossible. Thus, the anticipated next step beyond the tethered ROV for deep-water use is not the untethered ROV but the AUV (for autonomous underwater vehicle). The AUV is a robot, so it avoids the need for a cable carrying real-time control information by not using real-time control information. Acoustic beacons are part of the mix of navigation tools expected to be used for AUV's, but apparently the data rate for acoustic communication is not considered high enough to permit their use for untethered ROV's.
Vehicles built only for sensing and observation have generally always been able to function at greater depths than those with work devices (i.e., manipulators or similar equipment). As of 2006, the greatest claimed operating depths for the latter are around 23,000 feet, and for observation-only devices the maximum seems to be 33,000 feet. The specs for rental vehicles are not as impressive. You've probably experienced something like this yourself.
ROV's were originally developed for the US Navy, which uses them for ordnance recovery from the ocean floor as well as mine-sweeping and other applications they prefer not to discuss. What one might call the killer application, however, is for off-shore oil exploration and production, including construction, maintenance, and repair of oil platforms and pipelines. For work below 3000 feet (~900m), the only alternatives are very, very long needlenose pliers or else a manned submarine. Hey, I didn't say ``practical alternatives.''
The oil industry began using ROV's starting in the mid-1970's. The collapse of the oil market in the early to mid-1980's almost destroyed the ROV industry. In 1994, an estimated 175 were in use world-wide. From information in scattered newspaper articles from 1983 to 1994, I gather that the prices of new low-end ROV's (submarine video cameras, basically) stayed around half a million dollars, while the high-end ROV's added capabilities and cost, increasing from a million to about 2.5 million dollars. In 1993 the daily rental of a small manned sub cost about $24k, while that for an ROV was $2k. Rental costs roughly tracked new-ROV prices: in 1994 daily rental of the largest ROV's cost 5-8 thousand dollars. The rental companies provide round-the-clock crews -- typically two teams of three people.
Technology currently limits off-shore oil drilling to be not too far off shore. That is, in water above the continental shelves. Thus, even though the deepest wells are over 30,000 feet deep, they are in water only a few thousand feet deep. Back in 1998 I heard on the radio that a well had been drilled in 5500 feet of water. I'm not sure if it was a ``dry'' well. The promising well announced by Chevron at the end of 2005 is over 37,000 feet deep, but it's in a mere 3500 feet of water. The Marco Polo platform (also in the Gulf of Mexico) operates in over 4300 feet of water.
The Department of Defense has an Information Analysis Center (IAC) for manufacturing technology (MTIAC) which keeps a Rapid Prototyping Directory and has a ``State of the Art Review.''
Different kinds affect different photorecetors. The more common kinds affect the rods, leading to loss of night vision and to tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision). In some kinds of RP, the cones are affected, so color vision is lost.
The state's area is 19,847 sq. km. Its population was 3,631,000 by the census of 1987, estimated at 4,010,000 for 1997. The capital is Mainz. In Mainz, in 1450, Johannes Gutenberg invented a movable-type printing press.
However you translate it, it was the first Gaullist party, q.v.
Cf. FUDGE and GURPS.
Oh yeah, I forgot about cars. Tachometers are normally marked off in thousands of RPM. Of course, the appropriate SI unit for engine speed is hertz (Hz); 3000 RPM is 50 Hz. If cooks must be forced to use liters, no, better cubic decimeters, why shouldn't drivers have to use hertz for engine speed? And how can they get away with k.p.h. instead of m/s?!?! See cps.
The first RPR was created by Charles de Gaulle in 1946, in response to the creation of the Fourth Republic. De Gaulle wanted a strong presidency, but French sentiment was against him at the time; the French took as a lesson from the Vichy regime that a strong presidency meant dictatorship. The original RPR faltered, going out of existence in 1955, while de Gaulle went into formal retirement and wrote his war memoirs. France is on what -- it's fifth republic now? Something happened around 1960.
Erwin Panofsky, in one of Three Essays on Style (1995), argued that the Rolls Royce radiator grille was the culmination and epitome of centuries of English architectural development. I forget the precise claim; the book was recalled. The essay was illustrated with a lot of Gothic-style churches, but no Rolls Royce grille. Panofsky also claimed that ``Winged Victory,'' the hood ornament, is a sculpture modeled on the original company owner's mistress. He cites The Magic of a Name, by Harold Nockolds (illustrations from paintings by Roy Nockolds -- boy, that whole family had it in for GM). I could only get my hands on the 1945 edition, which didn't say whom the Winged Victory is modeled on. However, here are some relevant comments from pp. 143-4 of that edition:
... the unique ``Silver Lady'' mascot plays a not unimportant part, for this beautiful little statuette was specially designed for Rolls Royce cars and is only obtainable, in the ordinary way, on a new car. It was in 1916, I believe, [actually, the work was finished on February 6, 1911, and some version of it has adorned all Rolls-Royce cars ever since that year] that the well-known sculptor, Charles Sykes, R.A., had his first experience of Rolls-Royce motoring in a ``Silver Ghost,'' and he was so moved [oh, felicitous expression!] by the effortless grace of the car's performance that he immediately returned to his studio and put his conception of it into concrete form. Claude Johnson saw it, and realised at once that here was the ideal mascot, especially if its use were confined exclusively to Rolls-Royce cars. It was a happy creation, for it has stood the test of time as easily as the square, dignified radiator which it adorns. ...
In addition to the names given above, the statuette is also known as ``Spirit of Ecstasy'' and ``The Flying Lady.'' This detailed webpage explains the origin of the mascot. (This page is less derivative, but has annoying graphics.) The first version was for the personal Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost of John Walter Edward-Scott-Montagu. It was modeled by Eleanor Velasco Thornton, Lord Montagu's secretary, and secret lover. In that version, called ``The Whisper,'' the woman holds a finger over her lips. The version John Scott commissioned for a general mascot was also modeled by Eleanor Thornton.
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub. ... There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.
(Quote order inverted for point.)
Maybe you were thinking of ``Reproductive Rights Organization,'' like NARAL. The RRO initialism is less common for that.
DISCLAIMER: Nothing here should be interpreted as an endorsement of Radio Shack products or sales practices, backhanded or otherwise.
News: Radio Shack is turning net fascist, trying to protect its bad name against the possibility that someone stupid enough to think it's a good name might confuse it with Bianca's Smut Shack. This from the perpetrators of the TRaSh 80. Next thing, Burger King will be intimidating anyone who wants to put ``Burger'' in their name.
Vomiting and more vomiting, disorientation, lethargy, sleepiness, irritability are characteristic symptoms.
More at the National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. RS is associated with viral diseases (like cold, flu, chicken pox), first manifesting during recovery from the viral disease, and sometimes earlier.
``The RSE is made up of over 1200 Fellows elected by existing Fellows.''
Problematically recursive! This sounds like a job for lambda calculus.
It is difficult to eliminate soft errors completely, because the metal contacts and the semiconductor itself have a trace concentration of radioactive impurities.
What happens if you play computer solitaire too much.
A study in 2007 found that patients exposed to RSMI were significantly more likely to feel that doctors treated them with respect than were patients who received the usual sort of translation assistance. Perhaps this is because RSMI demonstrates a formal accommodation to a patient's needs. However, from what I've read, the usual assistance is often very ad hoc and unprofessional. The research is described in ``Patient Satisfaction with Different Interpreting Methods: A Randomized Controlled Trial,'' in Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 22, suppl. 2, pp. 312-318 (Nov. 2007), by Francesca Gany and six others.
Here's more detail, abstracted from the abstract:
1,276 English-, Spanish-, Mandarin-, and Cantonese-speaking patients attending the primary care clinic and emergency department of a large New York City municipal hospital were screened for enrollment in a randomized controlled trial. Language-discordant patients were randomized to RSMI or usual and customary (U&C) interpreting. Patients with language-concordant providers received usual care. Demographic and patient satisfaction questionnaires were administered to all participants.
541 patients were language-concordant with their providers and not randomized; 371 were randomized to RSMI, 167 of whom were exposed to RSMI; and 364 were randomized to U&C, 198 of whom were exposed to U&C. Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely than those with U&C to think doctors treated them with respect (RSMI 71%, U&C 64%, p < 0.05), but they did not differ in other measures of physician communication/care. In a linear regression analysis, exposure to RSMI was significantly associated with an increase in overall satisfaction with physician communication/care (beta 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.18, scale 0-1.0). Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely to think the interpreting method protected their privacy (RSMI 51%, U&C 38%, p < 0.05). Patients randomized to either arm of interpretation reported less comprehension and satisfaction than patients in language-concordant encounters.
For Christmas 2001, the RSPCA was ``asking pet owners not to spoil their animals with fattening treats this Christmas -- but instead invest in a gift that will really improve their quality of life.''
``Every year pet owners hand over scraps, sweets and chocolate to their pets, thinking they are being kind. Around 30 per cent of pets in the UK are overweight -- they live shorter lives and may suffer from skin disease, heat intolerance, diabetes, arthritis, back and heart problems.''
At the local (here north of South Bend) Pet Supply, owners can bring their pets into the store. A couple of days before Christmas, some people were bringing in their pets, showing them various toys and treats, trying to figure out what they wanted. The SBF is asking pet owners not to spoil their animals' Christmas -- it's supposed to be a surprise, dammit! And don't wait until the last minute next year.
Hey! Who' you callin' ``fairy''?
This RSV was first published in 1946 (New Testament) and 1952 (O.T.). A New RSV (i.e., a revised revised standard) was published in 1989: NRSV. There are over 3000 people waiting in purgatory now who could have been in heaven already if only the NRSV had been published earlier.
RSVP is the last track on Heart's album ``Bad Animals.'' It rhymes with ``I'll be waiting till you answer me.''
In January 2008 I was amused to receive the following en un courriel:
Bonjour ceci n'est qu'un envois unique.
Si vous ne désirez plus recevoir de email, faite un reply svp.
At least now I know the gender of le reply.
Take care, however, because RT stands for room-temperature in some similar contexts. E.g., RTVF.
You can also run a rapid transit system on dedicated paved roads using rubber-tired vehicles, though in most cases it doesn't seem to cost out. In Ottawa there's a bus RT system that runs along a dedicated busway called the Transitway. In California somewhere I think bus RT has been done with light vehicles in a small system. In Curitiba, Brazil, an express bus system uses a buses-only middle lane, a sort of ultra-HOV flanked by general-traffic lanes. In Brazil!!?? How do they enforce this? This page describes the Curitiba mass-transit system in charming English.
Take care, however, because RT stands for room-temperature in some similar contexts. E.g., RTVF. For those of you who have just returned from looking at the RTVF entry and wonder what the similarity in contexts is, all I have to say is ``ya got me too.'' The first two sentences of this paragraph are identical with two sentences in the previous entry. Either this was intended as a joke that I am no longer subtle enough to get, or it was an editing mishap.
You can produce an RT instability with heating from above if you use salt water as your fluid: salt solubility and hence density increases with temperature.
That's ``round'' in the topological rather than the geometric sense -- not a circle, but homeomorphic to a circle. Actually, it usually just means out and back.
The RTC on a laptop computer is the only thing that consumes power when the toy is in the mechanical off state. Often it has its own separate battery.
Within ACPI, an RTC may generate a wake event, but the soft off and mechanical off states are not sleep states; the OS should disable the RTC_EN bit prior to entering either of those two states.
``Thrifts'' are banks whose primary business is offering home mortgages and smaller personal loans. The money for these loans is backed by personal savings deposits. Thrifts typically have ``Savings and Loan'' or ``Savings Bank'' in their names, although the one in IAWL was called the ``Bailey Building and Loan.'' Or maybe that was an early credit union. We have a thrifts entry where we explain that credit unions are also a kind of thrift, although sometimes they are excluded for good or bad reasons. Often the exclusion is implicit. Here it's going to be explicit. Credit unions were not a big part, or perhaps not even any part at all, of the thrift crisis of the 1980's. They are insured by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), which seems to have run a tighter ship than the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC). For the rest of this entry, ``thrifts'' will be understood to mean only S&L's and savings banks.
I'm still working on this entry, but for now let me at least say that the FSLIC was by no means solely to blame for the crisis that the RTC was created to resolve. From 1934 to 1989, deposits in could be insured by FSLIC, but did not always have to be. In the US, banks -- like other businesses -- are generally chartered by a state. At the beginning of the 1980's, most states required thrifts to be insured by the FSLIC. The exceptions I can remember were, I think, Maryland and Ohio. In Ohio, some thrifts were insured by a private fund. I'll have to look into what the deal was in Maryland. Suffice it to say that things turned out very badly there, and that overnight the banks in those states were required to be insured by the FSLIC. (These things are done overnight or over the weekend, or else a bank holiday is declared, so that banks can resume business at the start of the next business day with as much appearance of normality as possible.)
FIRREA, the law that created the RTC, also dissolved the FSLIC and put the accounts previously insured by the FSLIC under the protection of the FDIC, which had previously only insured deposits at commercial banks.
You know, you don't need a working model in order to get a patent. (For perpetual motion machines of various sorts, however, I believe the US PTO makes an exception to this rule.)
RTÉ also runs four radio stations (RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ lyric fm, and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta). They also say they publish Ireland's ``best-selling magazine'' (the RTÉ Guide), operate Ireland's ``leading teletext service'' (RTÉ Aertel), and provide news, current affairs, and entertainment information ``via Ireland's most popular media website, RTÉ.ie [actually <RTE.ie>; É is not a valid hostname character].'' I have no reason to doubt the best-selling claim (though it's a sad commentary, if you ask me), or any of the other media leadership claims. They date from at least 2008, and the page hadn't been updated as of early 2010. If you want to check, you'll need to find the relevant audit bureau of circulation (ABC).
You're probably wondering why I ever cared so much about RTÉ. The reason is that in 2008, when I was living in Clay Township in Saint Joseph County, Indiana, I considered moving to Ireland. That's when I first entered this entry, with all its extravagant detail. Back in the 1990's and into the 21st century, you know, Ireland experienced a major economic boom and was known as the ``Celtic Tiger.'' During the Great Recession it suffered commensurately. I moved to Granger Township instead.
RTÉ provides direct financial support to the arts, and is a continuing sponsor of five performing groups: the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra, the RTÉ Concert Orchestra, the RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet, the RTÉ Philharmonic Choir, and RTÉ Cór na nÓg.
``As Ireland's Public Service Broadcaster, RTÉ has been producing and curating broadcast materials for eight decades. The RTÉ Libraries and Archives collections consist of radio and television programmes, still images, production files, scripts, music scores and manuscripts.''
Perhaps a good way to derail a good idea like interoperability is to get out in front and then stall.
The power source for space missions sunward from Mars is usually solar cells (with a little bit of battery back-up). At earth distance (1 a.u.) from the sun, solar cells have power densities in the range of 30-40 W/kg. By contrast, RTG's have power densities of only 10-20 W/kg. Mars orbits the sun at an average 1.52 a.u., Jupiter at 5.2 a.u. Since the light intensity falls off as the inverse square of the distance to the source, somewhere around the asteroid belt RTG's start to become more efficient than solar cells. (And of course, if you're going to be out far enough to need RTG's, you'll probably dispense with solar cells altogether.) RTG's are also an option for landers that may experience long nights.
Nuclear reactors have power densities exceeding 50 W/kg and have been used on unmanned space missions. They can't be used on manned spacecraft because they're too noisy.
The power density numbers above are from some old notes of mine, and it looks like they may be overoptimistic, or may refer to lighter, shorter-halflife radioisotopes than 238Pu, which is the settled choice of NASA. See the ARPS entry.
To be perfectly honest, I have only the faintest idea what I'm writing about.
I explain a little more about RTL at the wired-AND entry. You want to resurrect it? Track down Analysis and Design of Integrated Circuits (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968), pp. 200-245, authored by ``Motorola staff.''
A loose piece of paper lying on my desk says A. Feingold, A. Katz: ``Rapid thermal low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPMOCVD) of semiconductor, dielectric and metal film onto InP and related materials'' Materials Science and Engineering, R13, No. 2, Oct. 1, 1994.
There's an interesting parallel between national nomenclatures in formerly British and Spanish parts of America on one hand, and Britain and Spain on the other. The earlier independización of the US made it a model for Latin America -- certainly not one that was or even could be followed slavishly, but a source of ideas. A number of countries formed themselves as federations of states, and the official names of many countries reflect that. Venezuela was once officially Estados Unidos Venezolanos, Mexico is still officially Estados Unidos Mexicanos, etc. Of course, these countries are conventionally almost always known by a proper proper noun. Estados Unidos (abbreviated EE.UU.) is understood, unless qualified by some national adjective, to refer to the US. (``American'' functions similarly in English.)
As it happens, the Spanish monarchy is also a united kingdom, and its official name, appearing in international treaties written in Spanish, is Reino Unido de España. [I'm not exactly sure yet when that name started to be used, but the most famous unification of crowns in Spain was the marriage of King Ferdinand of Aragon (Rey Fernando de Aragón) and Queen Isabela of Castile (Reina Isabela de Castilla).] Of course, just as in Latin America, the large Iberian country is generally referred to as Spain, and Reino Unido is understood by default to refer to the UK.
You know, Spanglish often arises when someone using English doesn't know the translation of a Spanish word. Sometimes, the English translation isn't known because it doesn't exist. I wrote the Spanish word independización above because a word with the meaning I preferred was not available in English. Independence (like independencia in Spanish) is a noun for the condition of being independent, just as dependence and malevolence name what exists when other entities are dependent or malevolent. There is a lot of philosophy about this that I don't want to get into, but the point is that -ence and -ance words tend to refer to the names of conditions, and one could want something else: words that refer to the process of achieving a condition. Nouns describing process are naturally constructed from verbs, just as nouns describing conditions are naturally constructed from adjectives.
For the process I wanted to name -- making independent -- Spanish has the verb independizar. This allows one to say that EE.UU. se independizó antes, which would typically be translated `the US became independent before' [or `earlier,' depending on context]. The fluent transformation is not equivalent, however, because it leaves open who created the independence. (I mean, in principle it could have happened that Inglaterra independizó sus colonias, that England let them go or sent them off.) Conveying the distinction in English requires a translation that is slightly more awkward (`made itself independent') or is somewhat unidiomatic (`freed itself' or `emancipated itself').
I should probably have mentioned Saussure in there somewhere.
In 1842, Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol published the first book of Dead Souls: A Poem. It wasn't in verse but prose; it was, as he called it in a letter to Pushkin as he was starting the project, a novel. He called it a poem (poema) only to suggest its ambition or scope. (The German word Dichter, meaning `poet,' is also used more expansively as a complimentary title for a writer in any genre. It works somewhat like the word artist in English, which can mean any painter or a more accomplished sort of imaginative creator in any other medium.)
The story of Dead Souls was not a new one: an unscrupulous man tries to take advantage of a well-known aspect of the law regarding ``souls,'' which is to say adult male serfs. ``Souls'' were taxable property, and landowners had to pay a tax on the number they owned. Just like property taxes in the US, this tax on souls was based on the most recent property assessment -- a census of souls, supposed to be taken every decade. One may, of course, interpret the term ``dead soul'' in a different, ``impious'' manner. That was how one of the first censors understood it, shouting about the immortality of the soul. Gogol was eventually able to pubish by gaining the approval of a different set of censors, and the first censor's complaints appeared in the sequel, issuing from the mouth of a callow clerk.
Now it is clear that dead souls continue to be taxed until the next census, and Pavel Ivanovich Chichikov, protagonist of the story, takes advantage. He buys this worthless property at a steep discount, to be used as collateral in a scheme. The scheme is discovered, and as the first book ends, Chichikov is riding his troika in a wild flight from justice.
Despite the dangers, and the collapse of his plans, he is happy now, for what Russian does not enjoy hurtling at high speed, thundering the bridges, making the road a cloud of dust? And the road runs almost imperceptibly downhill. The author observes a more fearsome troika, moving in unearthly violence -- Russia herself, horses lashed by God, rushes past the stunned onlooking nations, going no-one knows where.
Gogol did not say that he feared the wild ride of Russia. He was not alone expressing the barely supressed savagery of Russia. However he viewed it, one must own that a major stream of Russian political thought and feeling has always been a fear of uncorking Russia's strong bottled spirit. Gogol struggled for the rest of his life to complete the promised trilogy. He hinted that in the end Chichikov might somehow redeem himself. But ill-health and the enormity of the task, or his own high standards, discouraged him repeatedly. In 1845 he burned his current manuscripts for the second book and turned mostly to nonfiction. He returned to the work in 1848, but in February 1852, he again burned the manuscript, and starved himself, over ten days, to death. (I hope I don't slip on my own purple patch in conceding, anticlimactically, that two fragmentary, incomplete manuscripts of the second book did survive.)
The End of the Russian Empire is the title and subject of a book by Michael T. Florinsky, first published in 1931 (© Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) and still used as a college course reading into the 1970's, that I know of. (I've also seen the first chapter or some condensation sold as a booklet.) At the beginning of ch. 1, Florinsky noted that the bad of the Russian Empire (and there was plenty bad) got much more attention than heartening but ``less spectacular'' progress in education, health, and economy. He judged that the foreign perception of Russia was unbalanced, and sought explanations.
... The Russians themselves greatly contributed to these one-sided impressions as to conditions in their country, which became firmly established outside the frontiers of the Empire. With that disarming capacity for self-criticism which has so often surprised the foreign observer, they missed no opportunity to emphasize the grave and numerous faults of the Imperial régime, and little if anything was ever said of the more favorable aspects of the situation. We are speaking here not of professional revolutionaries, but of liberal-minded representatives of the middle classes who used to be frequent visitors to the capitals and health resorts of Europe. The newly-born patriotism of this group, which constitutes the bulk of the ``White'' emigration of recent years, does not belie this statement. It is a patriotism which may be traced to the same roots: a refusal to accept the existing order coupled with a sincere, if belated, regret for a past which, with all its imperfections, had a place for them now entirely denied them by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
"Rutgers has an identity crisis," says Fred Stengel, who coaches Bergen Catholic High in Oradell, N.J. "They want to have an Ivy League mentality when it comes to academics, but a Big Ten approach to football. Historically, they have problems not only recruiting good athletes, but keeping them in school."
Reported by Kelley King for Sports Illustrated
Tuesday November 21, 2000 3:23 PM
But this implies that.... Whoa! The scales are falling from my eyes!
Ruthenium is one of the platinum-group metals. They hang out together (really: ruthenium, at least, is found with platinum ores) and buck each other up (platinum and palladium are hardened by alloying with ruthenium) to razz the noble metals. You know they're jealous.
Learn a bit more about the chemical properties of ruthenium at its entry in WebElements and its entry at Chemicool. The Ruthenium page of Wikipedia also has a bit on the nuclear properties.
Rubber (or a rubber) was also called ``[a] lead eater,'' but it also worked on chalk and was used -- how effectively, I don't know -- on pastel. The same word rubber had long been used for various other things that one scrapes, scrubs, rubs, or brushes with, and for people who took rubbings, etc. That was still the case in the 1880's or earlier, when rubber first took its currently common acceptions. Hence, only the longer term ``India rubber'' was originally distinctive.
The India referred to might be the East or West Indies, or South America or Africa. Any place tropical. There are in fact a number of tropical trees whose saps are valued for their elasticity.
Rubber bridge is the form of contract bridge that is normally played in informal and friendly-competitive settings. It is also sometimes played in clubs for money. Rubber bridge can be played by as few as four people. A rubber is the best of three games.
Bridge is such a heavily organized game that I am hesitant to say that this informal sort (rubber bridge) is the most common form. The standard in tournament and match play is duplicate bridge, whose various forms require at least eight players.
In ancient times (i.e., when I was a boy scout), the bow method was the standard way of starting a fire "by rubbing two sticks together." We'd notch a lath to hold the bottom of a rod and press down on the top of the rod with a ceramic or glass cup (i.e., something smooth, concave, and insulating). The string of the bow was wrapped once around the rod (i.e., place rod between bow and string, turn bow 180 degrees so string wraps around rod). Brace the lath with your foot, saw the bow like crazy, and eventually you catch a little ember in some horsehair you placed around the notch; blow gently into flame. (Actually, we didn't have horse hair or even cedar bark; we used locks of head hair from one of the D twins, Mark or Bruce. Blond hair is thinner and therefore preferable.) Cowhide made a good bowstring. I've seen this done by hand (i.e., no bow) but it seemed much harder that way.
The main thing we learned from starting fires by rubbing sticks was to wrap our matches in plastic.
I asked my father how it was done when he was a Boy Scout in Chile (early 1930's, say), and it was the same, though he claimed they wrapped the bowstring twice around the rod.
Baden-Powell presumably learned this method from the San (Bushmen) when he was in southern Africa -- their method is identical. These days, of course, the preferred San method of starting a fire is with a cigarette lighter, except when performing for tourists.
The Boer War began in 1899, and a number of books on it appeared in the centenary year. Baden-Powell came in for a lot of extremely harsh criticism for his handling of the siege of Mafeking and his treatment of the 'natives'. He apparently let them starve to death at the siege, while keeping all the food for the whites. (The last two paragraphs are cribbed from a classics-list posting by Mark Snegg.)
Not to be confused with Reubenesque, which means `fat,' possibly from having eaten too many Reuben sandwiches.
Both of these terms are overworked. How about let's start using embonpoint.
An extra unit officially called the Ulster Special Constabulary was also formed. This group, informally ``the B specials,'' eventually came to be regarded as a private Protestant army complementary to the IRA.
Early on during the Troubles, in 1969, the RUC was disarmed and the B specials disbanded, with military duties transferred to a newly created Ulster Defence Regiment. In 1971, the RUC was rearmed.
Santa Claus had a flying reindeer named Rudolph, and the other reindeer used to call him names, not very nice names. ``Rudy'' was not one of the names. This is not a nice entry, and sensitive people shouldn't read it. Just to make sure you don't read it by accident, I'm going to leave it unfinished for a while. Don't come back and read the rest of the entry unless you can take mature content.
Then, when reindeer got old, they would go away. Santa said they had been relocated overnight to a better place, like Florida or Cancún, but Rudolph had been over Cancún, and he never smelled any reindeer there. There were whispered stories...
The locus classicus for the observation that ``the Romans built ruins'' is probably 1066 and All That: A Memorable History of England, by W. C. Sellar and R. J. Yeatman. (Seventy years after the original publication, it now sports genuine contemporary illustrations and an introduction by Frank Muir). (If you don't know a hundred pages' worth of English history, you may miss some of the jokes.) But maybe it was The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody, by Will Cuppy. (Drawings by William Steig.) Hmmm. Just checked 1066 and it wasn't there. Get both anyway.
Long ago my dad told me about a successful innovation he had introduced in some of his company's stores in Argentina: tables of merchandise that, in contrast with stuff in the rest of the store, was disorganized. This was in the 1950's, so it may have been an innovation. If I recall correctly, the merchandise on those tables was not in fact ``marked down.''
Running backs traditionally are either fullbacks (FB's) or halfbacks (HB's). Way back in the day, there were typically two halfbacks (who lined up behind and to either side of the quarterback (QB), and a fullback who lined up behind them. More recently but still a long time ago (say around 1970), there was typically only one halfback. Nowadays, the halfback and fullback line up at about the same depth, with the halfback behind the QB and the fullback off to the side, as deep or almost as deep as the halfback. Hence, halfbacks are now also called tailbacks. The fullback position has become less common, and fullbacks (in the formations that have them) typically function primarily as blocking backs. Thus, the term ``running back'' (also abbreviated RB) is now widely used in a narrow sense as equivalent to a tailback. Some offensive formations today don't have a fullback or a tailback. Someone who can play either position (FB or RB) is called an all-purpose back (APB).
What I want to know is, what exactly is the object of using the virgule in written English, that is not already served by an alphabetic conjunction like and or or?
Let me know, if you do, who created this felicitous term to describe the phenomenon.
RU -- 18means `Are you over eighteen?' In other words, `Are you no longer jailbait?' Cf. advThanksance.
In places where all that is illegal, one could probably buy enteric-coated ginger tablets. This is probably a pretty obscure reference. See the NARAL entry for clarification.
This year I had to get reading glasses. Next year I turn forty. At this rate, I'll be shopping for a Winnebago the year after.
Gawd! This entry is getting old!
Most of what there is to say about rvalue is either parallel to or closely related to what there is to say about lvalue, and if you have any peripheral vision at all (the screen is a peripheral, after all), you can see that this entry is about to end soon, so you can guess where to go.
In ``Jailhouse Rock,'' the whole rhythm section was the purple gang, not the purple prose gang.
Oh, here's something amusing: Jennifer Crusie explains why the contempt for romance fiction is hypocritical and unfair. Writing romances qualifies Jennifer Smith, Jennifer Crusie Smith, or Jennifer Crusie, as a fiction writer. But writing about writing romances makes her a renaissance woman -- a fiction and nonfiction writer, see?
Following this pattern, other abbreviations were developed: DX (diagnosis), Fx (fracture), Hx ([patient] history), SX (symptoms), TX (treatment).
See irony in next entry.
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Oops! Overshot the pointers.