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J j

SI-approved standard symbol and abbreviation for the SI-approved energy unit -- joule. A joule is 8.86 inch-pounds, in universal American units.

In the boring system, a joule is a newton meter. In terms of the earlier boring system, a joule would have been 107 erg. Because metric units ignored Thomas Jefferson's (and others') wise suggestion and were not selected to make the acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface unity, one joule is 0.10972 kg-f × m, to reflect the conventional value of 9.80665 m/s2 for the acceleration of gravity (that's gn -- the standard acceleration of free fall). [kg-f is the weight of one kilogram of mass.]

One joule is also 1 Wh/3600, but that's the fault of Sumerians, who bequeathed us (they're all dead now -- perhaps that's significant) a time-system that uses base 60.

If you believe in a calorie that is 4.1868 J, then 1 J = 0.238846 cal. You could have figured that out, I'm sure, but who could figure out the real calorie?

All my life, I've pronounced joule with an initial zh. Eventually I noticed that the eponym was James Prescott Joule, an Englishman, and that dictionaries give pronunciations of his name only with an ordinary j. I guess my pronunciation is an error due to phonetic bleed-through from the French name Jules, but I decided to stay with my solecism. If I have to keep hearing ``rih-JEEM'' (for regime) from newsfaces, I figure I've earned the right.

Jahwist. German spelling of Yahwist. Refers to a component of the Pentateuch, and its supposed author. The three other major components, to the extent that agreement exists, are E (Elohist), D (Deuteronomist) and P (Psalmist). E and J texts are concentrated in the early books, particularly Genesis, and distinguished by the use of JHWH (tetragrammaton for His unspeakable name) and Elohim (an alternate designation, literally `gods'). The Deuteronomist uses both names. It was one of the great nineteenth-century innovations of the Biblical text criticism (begun in Germany then) to suppose that stories with two tellings in the Bible are typically due to two different authors (a heresy, of course).

In The Book of J, Harold Bloom speculated that the Jahwist was a woman in King Solomon's court.


Juliette. Not an abbreviation here, just the FCC-recommended ``phonetic alphabet.'' I.e., a set of words chosen to represent alphabetic characters by their initials. You know, ``Alpha Bravo Charlie ... .'' The idea behind the choice is to have words that the listener will be able to guess at or reconstruct accurately even through noise (or narrow bandwidth, like a telephone). Even though there are not as many words beginning in jay as there are beginning in some more popular alphabetic characters (like you-know-who and we-can-keep-a-secret), there are nevertheless quite enough thank you.

The recommendation for R is ``Romeo.''

A Scrabble tile worth eight points (or more, on a double- or triple- letter or word space, or if it's used in multiple words) (or negative eight, to the holder, if someone else uses up his or her tiles first). Therefore, it behooves you to study this important resource (words in the OSPD that contain the letter J).

In every Scrabble set, exactly one of the 100 tiles is a J. The other high-value letters (one tile each) are X (also 8 pts.), and Q and Z (ten points each).

Job Approval.

Junior Achievement.

Japanese Archaeological Association. Being a Japanese archaeologist must be a little bit like being the cherished daughter of a dictator. The Japanese government spends over a billion dollars annually on archaeological digs. (Why -- do you realize that's over a tenth of a trillion yen!?!) However, the most interesting archaeological sites, and the most controversial, are some 250 grave sites of the imperial family. These are guarded and regularly inspected by personnel of the Imperial Household Agency, and mostly off limits to everyone else.

It gives one a different perspective on the dog in the manger. Who knows what's hidden under that hay?

And in case you're wondering: after a number of marriages and countries, Svetlana Alliluyeva settled in England in the 1990's.

Japanese Association of Anatomists. From the inclusion of this entry, you can see just how hard up we were for entries in J.

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. A JAAC subscription is free with membership in the American Society for Aesthetics (ASA).

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Journal of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists.

Dutch form of the name Jacob.

Joint Airborne Advance Party. A joint (J) ground party that prepares for an airlift operation at the objective area.

A Hutt.

Back in the 1980's and 1990's, there was a fad among Toyota light truck owners of personalizing their trucks by painting over one or some letters of the logo on the tailgate, so they would read

  O Y     A
or any of the 60 other possibilities.

In April 2001, some Hooters restaurants owned by Gulf Coast Wings Inc. in Florida held a motivational contest for their employees. The names of the ten waitresses who sold the most beer in April at each of the area Hooters were entered in a drawing for a Toyota. The drawing was won by Jodee Berry, 26, a top-selling waitress at the Panama City Beach Hooters. Her boss, restaurant manager Jared Blair, had told his waitresses that he didn't know what kind of Toyota it would be -- a car, truck or van -- but the winner would be responsible for the tax on the vehicle.

Jodee learned in May that she had won the drawing. She was blindfolded and led to the restaurant parking lot, where the blindfold was removed and she saw that she had won a toy Yoda doll worth $40. The manager was inside laughing.

She quit the next week.

The above information was provided to the AP by Jodee Berry and her lawyer Stephen West. If I had been the source, you can be sure I would have called the waitresses ``waitpersons.'' I mean, just because you serve drinks at a place whose name and promotional campaigns imply that its servers are sexy ``girls'' (I used scare quotes!) doesn't give people the right to make assumptions about you. After all, the advertising might not be accurate.

As of April 2002, the case was on its way to trial, and a local newspaper published an update with a demoralizing overview of the course of the typical lawsuit. The next month a settlement was announced. According to David Noll, an attorney for Berry, she could go to a local car dealership and ``pick out whatever type of Toyota she wants.'' Full details were not released, which is not unusual. What is unusual is that any details were released; a sweeping confidentiality agreement is a standard part of out-of-court settlements. Noll said he thought it was ``a recognition of the fact that there's been such an amazing amount of attention focused on this case.... There's not a whole lot of reason to try to hide its existence.'' Here's a legal analysis of the case by Keith A. Rowley, published in the NLJ.

Yeah, yeah -- a Yoda is not a Hutt.

This webpage has a review by ``Yoda'' of some aftermarket products for Toyotas. The Toyota Company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda. Akio Toyoda, his grandson, became the youngest member of Toyota's board of directors in Summer 2000 (age 43 or so). The Sakichi Toyoda Memorial House is a part of the Toyota Automobile Museum. The Toyoda Model AA was Toyota's first vehicle. It was a stylish vehicle, but it was designed for city driving and didn't have a bra. Anyway, AA is a small bra size, certainly not appropriate for hooters.

If you want more (alleged) instances of someone named J. Blair who commits a fraud and then laughs over the discovery of his triumph, here's something from the Jayson Blair interview mentioned at the CSPI entry. Blair had described the home of rescued POW Pvt. Jessica Lynch as overlooking ``tobacco fields and cattle pastures.'' As a New York Times self-investigation reported, though he filed with a Palestine, W.Va. dateline, Blair never visited. Blair is quoted in the Observer interview:

``That's my favorite, just because the description was so far off from the reality. And the way they described it in The Times story -- someone read a portion of it to me -- I couldn't stop laughing.'

Japan Assessment Center.


Journal of Ancient Civilizations. Published annually since about 1985 by the Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations (Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin province, The People's Republic of China). JAC is the only academic journal in the People's Republic which specializes in the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean area and the Near East.

A bird that can be found wading in the shallow waters along the shores of the Scrabble tablelands.

Joyce ACC.

Just an inexperienced ranch hand, learning his trade in some rural corner of the Scrabble tablelands. Sounds like he might be named after the jackalope. Cf. jackleg.

One of the more effective tools for removing soapy build-up on shower stalls. Also effective in removing shower stalls. Visit the hard water entry.

Jackie O.
Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. See this Ari entry.

A semi tractor-trailer rig is said to jack-knife when the tractor rig turns too sharply, and the inertia of the forward-moving trailer turns the trailer around so the tractor and trailer make an acute angle. This is not a good thing to have happen.

An unskilled worker, earning the minimum wage as a day laborer, or maybe collecting firewood in the Scrabble forest.

This fellow Jack has a pretty bad rep -- master of none and all that. Cf. jackeroo.

J. D. Jackson's classic Classical Electrodynamics.

Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). ``[P]rovides coverage of the most significant work going on in computer science, broadly construed. It is a peer-reviewed journal, published six times a year by ACM.''

Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. Published by the American College of Medical Physics (ACMP).

Journal of The American Chemical Society (ACS). LC call number QD1.J826.


Joint Association of Classical Teachers (of the UK). Publishes classics textbooks. Their Greek primer, at least, is weak on grammar. JACT offices keep a file of Latin and Greek tutors available by region.

A synonym of the verb throw. For reasons that I can only guess at, this word is not at all common outside the dialects of the Scrabble tablelands.

Japanese Association of Dental Research.

Japan Academy of Esthetic Dentistry.

Java Access For Electronic Resources. Intended to be an easy-to-use ``visual toolkit to protect those building portals and information sources from the intricate technical details of the protocols involved [especially Z39.50], and allow them to concentrate on the actual content.'' An Oxford University LAS project funded under the DNER development program of JISC.

Judge Advocate General. Part of the US military justice system and a popular television series. It stars a Canadian, David James Elliott, born in Toronto. I don't think this qualifies as Canadian content, though.

Journal of American History. Published quarterly (June, September, December, March) by the Organization of American Historians. Most of the contributions and roughly half of the pages are book reviews.

The journal was formerly originally published as The Mississippi Valley Historical Review [Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 1914)-v. 50, no. 4 (March 1964)]. The volume numbering was continued (not restarted) through the name change.

German: `anniversary.'

German: `annual meeting, annual convention.'

Abbreviation of German Jahrhundert, `century.'

Joint Applications in Instrumentation Process and Computer Control.

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research.

ja ja
Spanish onomatopoeia with the same sense and about the same pronunciation as English `ha ha.' Cf. jua jua.

Japan Air Lines. Pronounced `Jal' to rhyme with `Hal.'

Journal of the Asynchronous Learning Networks. A publication of the Sloan Consortium (``Sloan-C''). I have a hunch that it's about ALN, but all the articles seem to be about online learning.

Japanese Association for Language Teaching. Mostly teaching English.

Jamaat al Muslimeen.

US Army slang acronym for Jaysh al Mahdi, the Iraqi Shi'ite militia of Moqtada al Sadr, which is typically described in news reports as the Mahdi Army. The words radical, Shia, and militia may be sprinkled in as well.

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. See also JAMA's Tokyo website (in English).

Pointless detail:
A column by George F. Will in the Washington Post (``What Ails GM,'' May 1, 2005) ends with the following:

Full, and pointless, disclosure: Mrs. Will is a consultant to the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. She drives a Cadillac.

In a November 18, 2008, column (``In Detroit, Failure's a Done Deal''), he includes the following parenthetical: ``Disclosure: Mrs. Will, who drives a GM product, is a public relations consultant for the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association.'' I'm not a regular reader of his columns, so I imagine he must mention this all the time.

Journal of the American Medical Association (AMA). The official name of journal is now just JAMA, pronounced ``JAM-uh.'' Try the old URL if the new one doesn't work.

The second part of that timeless phrase, ``rama-jama.''

Spanish, `never.' Sounds like ``Hamas'' in English.

Joint Analogue Microelectronics Initiative of Europe. Cf. jammie.

JApanese Society of Medical Imaging Technology. Really, why didn't they just translate it as Japanese Association...?

Cutsy-ese for pyjama or pajama, a word of Hindi origin.

Having to do with jam or jams.

Spanish for `ham,' in the common food sense. See also Jamón, jamón.

A slangy Spanish word for a woman who is not too young and not too thin. The word is formed as the feminine form of jamón. The term is usually not complimentary. In Puerto Rico it has the specific sense of `old maid.' But connotations drift, and words may be used ironically. On the set for the filming of Jamón, jamón, the sexy older actresses and young Penélope Cruz were all refered to jokingly as jamonas.

Jamón, jamón
Spanish for ``Ham, ham,'' and the title of a Spanish film that climaxed in a fight between the two male leads (Jordi Mollà and Javier Bardem) wielding hams as weapons. Actually, the hams used in the movie were made of latex. One of them has most of the ersatz meat off and is basically a bone. Raúl (played by Bardem) has the bigger ham (nudge nudge, wink wink) and he wins. You might say he slaughtered the other guy, but the other guy (``José Luis, played by Mollà) got (to keep) the girl, and the girl was played by young Penélope Cruz. [I thought of punning here on Pyrrhic and pyre (to cook the ham, you know), but I figured it would be too rebuscado.]

I think that's how it turned out, but I'm not sure. I'm basing myself on a quick skim of a book entitled El poderoso influjo de Jamón jamón [`The Powerful Influence of Jamón jamón'], and also a fast-forward viewing of the DVD, which had a slightly ambiguous straining-for-artsiness ending. The ham fight scene starts in the storage building for hams (Raúl's day job is there), and there are other connections with ham. Ham smell even gets a mention during a love scene. According to a storyboard frame, ``Se besan -- es exageradamente largo y ruidoso'' [`They kiss -- it is exaggeratedly long and noisy.'] This would be a good place to point out that in Spanish, the word jamón is not associated with overacting, as ham is in English. Still, the movie only runs 95 minutes, so the exaggerated length of the kiss may be another one of those artistic efforts that was left on the cutting-room floor.

Or maybe it was never filmed. Judging from other sections of storyboard reproduced in the book, in this scene one of protagonists (``Raúl,'' who was interpretado, as they often say in Spanish, by Javier Bardem) was originally supposed to be clad only in cotton briefs, but he wore jeans in the film. Underpants play an unusually prominent role in the movie. José Luis is an executive in his parents' underpants factory and Silvia (played by Penélope Cruz Sánchez, sixteen years old when the movie was filmed -- so it's not child porn if the nudity is above the waist?) is a worker in the plant. José Luis gets her pregnant and promises to marry her. His mother (played by Stefania Sandrelli) hires Raúl to seduce Silvia and break up the prospective marriage. Raúl is a prospective underpants model and aspiring bullfighter. In answer to the obvious question: it's not exploitation because it's art, see? Heck, those scenes in which the character brought to life by Jordi Mollà munches on the breasts of the character brought to life by Penélope Cruz? Inspired by ``La Caritá romana'' of Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644). So there: art.

The movie features both male and female frontal nudity and bull testicles. That's male mountain oysters, not ``male and female'' ones. The ``male and female'' only modifies ``frontal nudity.'' My apologies to those readers who were able to figure this out on their own. The bull testicles are not featured as food. They belong to a giant bull profile (about 12 or 13 meters high) on a hilltop (``el toro de Osborne en Candasnos''; there's a photo of it facing page 128 in the book). Another of the plates in the book shows the authentic iron cojones of the bull next to the wooden ones that were substituted for them in the movie. I didn't notice why a substitution was needed.

In case you were thinking of acquiring the book, it was written by Javier Angulo Barturen and published in 2007 by El Tercer Nombre and all you really need to know is that it begins with three dictionary definitions. The significance of the last fact is the same for a book written in Spanish as for one written in English and probably in any other language. An author who begins a book with dictionary definitions is not intentionally insulting his readers; he is merely indicating that he is a very simple person who does not mind or is unmindful of stating the obvious and ignoring shades of meaning.

(On the subject of meaning... Angulo -- the first surname in the preceding paragraph -- means `angle' in English. I'd like to make a joke about, but I can't come up with the right angle.)

I've seen a number of books that begin with one definition. This one begins with definitions of influjo, influir, and jamón. At least it didn't involve turning lots of pages. Evidently, influir is in there because it occurs in the definition of influjo. The definitions were excerpted from the DLE, which is better than some random ``Webster's.'' But three (3) definitions?! The back cover blurbiage includes the following statement: ``Se trata de un libro de lectura fácil y amena.'' Loosely: `this book is easy to read and the unpleasant task of reading actual words is broken up by pictures.' Maybe the definitions are meant as an insult.

For those of you who followed the link here from the jamón entry and are still reading, here's the short definition for jamón: ``carne curada de la pierna de cerdo'' (`cured meat of hog leg'). Isn't it only the back leg?

Mollà was born in Barcelona, which probably accounts for the grave accent. In the book (as in the Castilian language generally), his Catalonian surname is naturalized by the use of an acute accent (Mollá).

Joint Automated Mapping Project.

jam sandwich
Mnemonics for the order of planets (in order of average distance to the sun [Ftnt. 28]) are typically sentences about jam sandwiches (Jupiter Saturn). E.g.:
Mother very thoughtfully made a jam sandwich under no protest.
[column] ``[T]houghtfully'' here stands for Terrarium, the Latin name for the Earth. Another example of the use of this word is in the famous encyclical letter issued by Pope John XXIII, entitled Pacem In Terrarium, which urged all animals living in a confined space with limited resources to please calm down. Something like that, anyway.

I was going to mention that the pope issued a papal encyclical, but it seems that's the only kind he issues, and he seems to have a monopoly on the practice, at least for the last few centuries (c.).


Most volcanoes erupt mouldy jam sandwich under normal pressure.

There is a certain balancing act in this glossary -- in order to create a certain level of amusement, I find it useful, even necessary, to introduce certain ... inaccuracies ... into the definitions. On the other hand, in order to preserve the fiction of utility of this ``resource'' (hah!) it is somewhat desirable that the inaccuracies so introduced be of a blatant, easily identified sort. This entry contains an inaccuracy that does not satisfy this last criterion. For the benefit of some (idiots) I must note explicitly that the Latin for Earth is Terra (nominative case) and that the Pope's encyclical letter, of April 11, 1963, was entitled Pacem in Terris. It is available in English as publication No. 342-6 (ISBN 1-55586-342-6) from the Office for Publishing and Promotion Services, United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. I was going to write ``Washington, DC, zip code unknown,'' but I thought better of it. Someone would probably write out ``zip code unknown'' as part of the address.

JApanese Marine Science and TEchnology Center.

A given name or two or three.

As a man's given name, Jan is common in Holland. That name is pronounced roughly like the English word yon, but with a vowel of shorter duration (say half that of the ah sound in the English word).

Jan has been a common nickname for Janice, pronounced like the first syllable of the longer name. I imagine you knew that, so I'm not going to do a long song and dance explaining the pronunciation, etc., blah, blah, blah, and so forth. That would just be wasting your time.

William Jan Berry was half of the surfer-rock duo Jan and Dean. You can learn a lot about them on the web, much of it true, and much more than I care to repeat. I will mention that Jan Berry graduated UCLA in 1964 and enrolled in California Medical College, because that gives me a chance to link to two (2) other moderately meaty entries in the glossary, see?

There's an official Jan-and-Dean site; as I write this in May 2004, it doesn't yet mention that Jan died late last March, age 62. My condolences to his life-long musical collaborator Dean O. Torrence. Their official site was evidently designed by Dean, who got a BFA (1964) from USC. It is one of the most asinine sites on the web. From the slow-loading start page, you click to a kiosk window of fixed dimensions and no normal controls. Most of the text content is served as heavy graphics (which are also hard to keep up to date). The British Library won awards for doing this in its Turning the Pages project. But sometimes what works for the Diamond Sutra or the Luttrell Psalter does not work so well for Immortal Mispellings of And Dean. To save yourself some grief, click to index2 instead. Better yet, just read the excerpt below, which contains all you need to know. The biography section on the site (written by Dean) begins

Jan Berry and I both attended University High School in West Los Angeles, California. We met while playing for the University High School Football Team "The Warriors". Jan played tight end and I played wide receiver on offense and free safety on defense. Did you ever read that before?........ didn't think so. Our coach, Milton "Uncle Milty" Anisman who later when asked about what it was like to have Jan and Dean on his football team, he said who? gee I don't remember having a girl on any of my football teams.

After practice, a bunch of us teammates would all get together and harmonize some of the hit platters of the day while taking a shower. ...

Jan and Dean had their first hit as a duo in 1959. The surfer thing came a little later. They were very successful and bought cool new cars. On April 12, 1966, Jan drove his new Stingray into the back of a parked truck (at a high rate of speed). When he regained consciousness a few weeks later, he couldn't walk or talk. Dean put his degree to use, founding Kittyhawk Graphics. Jan presumably put some of his medical training to use over a decade of rehab. After CBS aired the television movie ``Deadman's Curve'' (1978) based on their story, they started touring and recording again. As everyone used to say, Jan could sing again pretty well ``considering.'' It's inspiring and very interesting for, uh, die-hard fans, I'm sure. Oh yeah -- Jan got into drugs and derailed the comeback, and Dean teamed up with Mike Love of the Beach Boys for some commercial gigs as Mike and Dean. Dennis Wilson had a fatal diving accident before he could get himself cleaned up, but Jan graduated from rehab, and Jan and Dean spent the next couple of decades on the nostalgia circuit.

Japanese Adopted Name. Official Japanese generic drug name.

Joint (J) Army-Navy (military standard).

Jane E.
Women whose first name is Jane seem to have about a fifty percent chance of having a middle name beginning in E. Often the E stands for Emily or Elizabeth, but more research is needed.

Read on.

A Jane Austen enthusiast. The word Janean is also used, though primarily as an adjective. Austenian, now much rarer, seems to have been more common in the past. FWIW, in 1927 the TLS recommended a new edition of JEAL's Memoir (for editor Robert Chapman's enumeration of JA's letters and manuscripts) as ``mak[ing] it necessary to the complete Austenian....''


Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society.

Jane's Fighting Ships
Nowadays it's Jane's Information Group, Ltd., and it comprises that I am aware of, anyway.

Joint Academic NETwork (U.K.). (An alternative/equivalent address: <http://www.ja.net/>. See also <http://www.ukerna.ac.uk/>) You might have this confused with JUNET.


Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.


An ancient-mythical Roman god with two faces (also for that reason known as Bifrons). The god of beginnings, or gates or other entries, and the fellow after whom the month of January is named. Janus was unusual among the gods venerated by the Romans: an old Italic god, he had no counterpart in the Greek pantheon.

I knew that, but for some reason a Greek restaurant opened in Buffalo and took Janus as its name, and that threw me off. In order to avoid making a similar mistake, you want to review this information at the Bijani subentry.

Joint (J) Army-Navy Uniform Simulation.

Joint (J) Air Operations Center. DOD term.


Journal of the American Oriental Society. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. I have a hunch it's related to the American Oriental Society (AOS).

Journal of Applied Physics. The associated letters journal is APL.

Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.


Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.


Journal of Archaeological Science. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

An evergreen tree that grows in the Scrabble forest.

A Mexican brand of sodas, and the only such widely available in the US. The word jarritos means `little jars' where I come from (Argentina), and little bottles are ``botellitas.'' I'll have to check with my Mexican ``informants,'' as we linguistic anthropologists call them, to find out how jarritos is construed in Mexico.

Okay, back from research. It turns out that yes, it has the same meaning in Mexican Spanish, and there are even some other people who have noticed the oddity of the name and are bothered by it.

I've only ever seen Jarritos in fruit flavors, but one informant informs me that they sell a nonalcoholic sangría-flavored soda. That's one of the exciting things about field work: the unexpected insights! I neglected to ask if he's ever seen any diet sodas from Jarritos.

Java Applet Rating Service.


Jane Austen Society. See also the Australian and North American Societies.

Jane Austen Society of Australia. See also the North American and British Societies.

And now a word from our sponsor...


Select from our complete line of bicycle ashtrays!

We now return you to your regularly scheduled glossary entry.

Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Published by ASIS.

Jane Austen Society of North America. See also the British and Australian Societies.

If you want some real resources, however, instead of club dues information, try the Jane Austen Info Page.

Journal of American Studies of Turkey. ISSN 1300-6606. ``A print and on-line publication of the American Studies Association of Turkey (ASAT), the Journal of American Studies of Turkey publishes work in English by scholars of any nationality on American literature, history, art, music, film, popular culture, institutions, politics, economics, geography and related subjects.''

Jet-Assisted Take-Off. More at the RATO entry.

Not a journal. The initials of J.A.T. Robinson, an HJ researcher who wanted to believe that the gospels were all written before the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE. He argued that an event of that magnitude would surely have gotten bigger play in the gospels, at a time when Christianity and Judaism were not completely resolved as distinct religions, if it had occurred before these were written. It's hard to credit this, since some, at least, of the Christian scriptures were written after the destruction and none mention it explicitly.

Usually, GMark 13 is taken as referring to the second Temple destruction; this is taken as one of the most important among the few guides, none very reliable, for dating the Christian scriptures.

Japanese Association for Toothfriendly Sweets. See also the heavy in the good-cop/bad-cop routine: JADR (Dental Research). There's an international umbrella organization for tooth-friendly sweets: TSI.

Japanese Anti-Vivisection Association.

Object-oriented (OO) programming language and environment. Originally called Oak. Omar Patiño maintained a Virtual Library (W3VL) page for Java that appears to have expired. This page allows you to suffer Java in French.

Try the Digital Cats' Java Resource Center. They probably already have something like this animation utility.

The following paragraph is what I thought back in 1996 or so, after writing my first long Java program. These thoughts are now more than a decade out of date, but I don't have any new ones. (Either that or I'm older, and less disposed to credit my own opinions.)

On the whole, although all its compilers are pre-beta-level buggy, and it displays security-inspired obstacles at every turn, handles strings obscenely clumsily, handles complex numbers not at all, makes most easy things strenuous, is not at all platform-independent as advertised, and though its design incorporates more really bone-headed choices than there is space in this vast glossary to describe, and even though object-orientedness is mostly hype, and even though C++ sucks but is much better, after all Java cannot be said, in the strictest sense of the word, to be utterly evil, probably. It should find utility as the ultimate punishment in countries that permit torture. In a country whose main export commodity was once coffee, but is now white, how appropriate to make Java fit the crime. Traffickers will beg for extradition to the US, where the highest punishment is merely capital.

For a taste of Java, try Michael Neumann's extensive list of sample short programs in different programming languages. As of now, it has five Java programs.

You can find out a lot about JavaScript on the web. Locally, we serve a short page about JavaScript comments and browser compatibility.

Michael Neumann's extensive list of sample short programs in different programming languages includes three JavaScript programs.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. The journal ``began publication in 1915 and is the most widely distributed veterinary medical journal. The mission of the JAVMA is to promote the science and art of veterinary medicine and to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of ideas important to the profession.'' The AVMA also publishes the American Journal of Veterinary Research (AJVR).


Here's something from Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (from the 54th printing, 1957) by the influential Dale Carnegie (author of How to Win Friends and Influence People). On page 227, Review Exercise.

1. Surrender your jaw, let it fall like a dead weight from your head. Take in a deep breath, feel as if you were sucking the air down into your stomach, and chant ``ah'' with ease, without one tiny trace of effort.

Why didn't he do any books on yoga? He was a natural!


Journal of Ancient War Studies. Earlier proposal for a new journal. Now AMW (Ancient and Medieval Warfare) is being considered.

A nickname of NFL analyst and former American football quarterback Ron JAWorSki.

Japan Aerospace EXploration Agency.

Name derived from original initialism: JC for Junior Chamber (of Commerce).

Buffalo was a big Jazz venue once, but few if any of the greats are from here. Even New York City was not the birthplace of too many. A Stammtisch investigation lends strong statistical support to the hypothesis that Pittsburgh and other Pennsylvania cities have been the birthplaces of Jazz greats. The Chicago era was nourished by local talent, Detroit, etc. John Coltrane was from Philadelphia.

I couldn't think of anything less relevant to write about Jazz. What did you expect, I should explain soul and tell you where to get some?

Oh, I thought of something else: if you want to be simultaneously pretentious and multi-culti, Jazz is the ticket.

Jean-Baptiste. French name meaning `John the Baptist' (Jo. Bapt.). I was going to write that it's a common name in French, but I remember when I told Sabine about a woman I met named Bernadette (I think that was it) and she laughed because it was such an old-fashioned name. Of course, I thought it was pretty remarkable that someone could be named Sabine and survive childhood without major psychological scars, but if this glossary ever becomes popular reading I'm probably going to catch hell for that remark, so I really should edit this bit out, instead of repeating it in the Jennifer Jones entry.

Being beautiful has psychic benefits. Sabine suffered no apparent psychological trauma on account of her name.

Jurum Baccalaureus. `Bachelor of Laws.'

John the BAPtist. This is the guy who lost his mind, isn't it?

Jahrbücher für preußisch-brandenburgische Geschichte. A German journal that might have been named `Yearbooks of Prussian-Brandenburg History' in English. Notice the letter-doubling (bb) to indicate plural (Bücher, `books,' instead of Buch, `book'). See Stuart Jenks's page of Tables of Contents of Historical Journals and Monographic Series in German for a partial table of contents (deutsche Seite: Zeitschriftenfreihandmagazin Inhaltsverzeichnisse geschichtswissenschaftlicher Zeitschriften in deutscher Sprache).

Journal of Biological Chemistry.

James Bullough Lansing. Founder of the company that makes JBL speakers. Lansing was born James Martini in 1902, but when he was 25, he changed his name to James Lansing at the suggestion of the woman who would become his wife. You might say he took his wife's name, even though his wife's name was Glenna Peterson. When he changed his last name, he also adopted the middle name Bullough from the name of a family he lived with for a short time as a child.

He adopted the new name shortly before registering a company called the Lansing Manufacturing Company (on March 9, 1927) with his partner Ken Decker. That company manufactured loudspeakers, but it was not exactly the forerunner of JBL, Inc. Lansing Manufacturing went downhill after Decker died in a 1939 plane crash, and in 1941 Altec Service Corporation bought it for the parts. That is, as components manufacturer for its own loudspeakers. They also hired Lansing himself as VP of Engineering with a five-year contract.

When his contract with Altec Lansing expired in 1946, J.B. Lansing left and began a new loudspeaker company initially called Lansing Sound, Inc. Altec Lansing thought that infringed their trademark, and the name was lengthened to James B. Lansing Sound, Inc. Lansing designed new loudspeakers initially very similar to ones he had designed for Altec Lansing, and at first tried to sell them under the ``Iconic'' brand name that he had come up with for, and that was used by, Altec Lansing. As this suggests, and as the decline of his first company after Decker's death is also supposed to show, he was a much better engineer than businessman; for this reason, or simply because of poor economic conditions, the new company did not prosper in its first three years. This contributed to the despair that led to Lansing's suicide in September of 1949. The company survived, however. I think the company name is still legally James B. Lansing Sound, Inc., but it sells its speakers under the JBL brand and does business as the JBL Company.

Other very very important details: James was the ninth of fourteen children, many of whom changed their last name to Martin. A couple of his brothers named Martin went to California to work for Lansing at some point. Be careful what you say to your coworkers about the boss -- you never know.

Steve Martin, well-known as a comedian and actor, wrote a best-selling novella called The Shopgirl (2001). (It was made into a movie, 2005.) At the start of the story, Jeremy (a vertex of the central romantic triangle) works stenciling logos for a struggling Los Angeles-based amplifier manufacturer. (When Jeremy proposes to go on the road to promote sales, his boss Chet is thinking of hiring a nephew to replace him.) The author, who grew up in the Los Angeles area, was born Stephen Glenn Martin in Waco, Texas, in 1945; he is the son of Glenn Vernon Martin, who was probably too young to be a brother of James Lansing. I can find no indication on the Internet that Steve Martin is related to Lansing, and I guess he isn't. And the fictional manufacturer has the rather lame name of ``The Doggone Amplifier Company.''


Journal of Biblical Literature. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Jamaica Bureau of Standards. The JBS has a range of laboratories for standards development and testing in textiles, paints, microbiology, chemicals, food, metallurgy, paper, furniture and packaging.

You call this ganja, mon? Weak! We put you in jail fa dis.

Journal of Biblical Studies. ``[A]n electronic journal dedicated to the field of Biblical Studies in general. Articles on any aspect of Biblical Studies (including: archaeology, linguistics, exegesis, history, and textual issues) are welcome, and contributions that challenge the traditional boundaries of Biblical Studies are encouraged. We would also like to see articles that discuss the relationship between Biblical Studies and other disciplines.''

Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. And existentialism. Throw some onions in the soup too -- that usually improves the flavor. From the ``NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS'':

The JBSP publishes papers on phenomenology and existential philosophy as well as contributions from other fields of philosophy. Papers from workers in the humanities and the human sciences interested in the philosophy of their subject will be welcome too. Space will be given to research in progress, to book reviews, and to bibliographies of use to students. The journal will also provide a forum for interdisciplinary discussion.

JBSP was founded in 1970 by the late Wolfe Mays. A subscription to JBSP is included in the price of membership in the BSP. JBSP is published in three issues per year -- January, May, and October. [Unlike some such journals, they really seem to mean it: I received announcements of the January and May 2006 issues (vol. 37, Nos. 1 and 2) in January and May, respectively, of 2006.]

Jewish believers in Yeshua. Christian proselytizers among Jews like this term, evidently because it emphasizes the Jewish origin of Jesus. Yeshua is the original Hebrew or Aramic name that we translate Jesus. (For more on this, see the His entry.)

Just Be Yourself.

Jakob-Creutzfeldt. A nasty virus which infects oligodendrocytes in the brain. Oligodendrocytes wrap around nerve processes and produce myelin, a fatty substance that provides electrical insulation. As this tissue is destroyed, neurological dysfunction follows. Kidneys harbor inactive JC virus in healthy individuals. When immune response is suppressed by HIV, JC virus migrates in some way to the bone marrow, from which it makes its way to the brain within B lymphocytes. This virus does not cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD, q.v.).

See Jaycees.

Jean Chrétien. A possible answer to a tough trivia question in the US: name a twentieth-century Canadian prime minister other than Pierre Trudeau.

If you can't remember, you might get away with ``oh, it's on the tip of my tongue -- the initials are Jay, uh, Cee -- it's uhh....'' J and C have been a popular pair of initials for Canadian PM's. An interesting borderline case is John Turner. After serving in a few Liberal governments, in 1975 he resigned in protest from a Pierre Trudeau government and went to work in the private sector. He returned to full-time politics in 1984 when Pierre Trudeau retired. That June he defeated Jean Chrétien (remember him?) to be elected leader of the Liberal Party, and so became PM. How did he defeat Jean Chrétien? Well, a number of unsatisfactory theories have been proposed, but I think the name is key. Even though he was apparently born John Napier Turner (in Sussex, England), he was also known as John Christopher Turner. Perhaps that provided the margin of victory.

You could hardly believe it, but in just a few short months, Turner was engulfed in scandal, and the next September he was replaced as PM by Progressive Conservative Party leader Brian Mulroney. (So Turner was PM ``1984-1984.'' Parliamentary systems have their lighter side.) It should have been obvious that Mulroney's successor in June 1993, Kim Campbell, had to use the nickname Jane when she faced Jean Chrétien the following November. PM ``1993-1993.'' She was overwhelmed because her opponent was Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien. It was overdetermined.

What we see here is that a partial JC may sometimes be able to defeat a full JC, probably not a replete JC, while a BM may defeat a partial JC. Probably a BM wouldn't stand a chance against a full JC. (Oh, of course Pierre Trudeau defeated Joe Clark. Get real.) With Paul Martin, it seems the Grits were experimenting with PM for PM (it might explain BM).

Hmmm. After less than a year, it didn't seem to be working out very well. He was replaced in 2006 by another partial JC (Steven Joseph Harper). However, since most people just think of him as Stephen Harper, he had to form a minority government. On the other hand, he's an evangelical Christian, so he won reelection handily in 2011.

In 2015, the Liberals were led by Justin Trudeau. Since it was a contest of partial JC's, it looked to be a close race, with the winner expected to be forced to form a minority government. In the closing days of the campaign, however, Justin Trudeau promised to use deficit spending to reform Question Period by replacing it with new daily Doonesbury strips, and his party won in a plurality rout.

The JC effect is equally effective in US elections. When Ronald W. Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in 1980, it was the first time that a major-party candidate with initials J.C. was defeated by someone with neither a J nor a C since 1920, when Warren G. Harding defeated James M. Cox. Both elections were won in landslides, which just goes to show how strong a candidacy has to be to overcome the JC effect.

JC, J.C.
Jesus Christ. In the same way that (okay not really in the same way that) J.R. have been popular initials in the US lately, it seems that around the first century BCE (if only you knew it), if you wanted to be an important personage J.C. were the initials to have.

Jesus is essentially the Latin transliteration of the Greek name Iêsoûs. (The circumflex on the e is to indicate that it's a Greek letter eta; the second circumflex is just a circumflex accent. Sorry. For what it's worth, accents weren't indicated graphically in Greek until centuries later.) The Greek name, in turn, comes from the Aramaic name Yeshua used among Jews (and which therefore may be regarded as a Hebrew name of that time). That name, in turn, is a version of the older Hebrew name, in use to this day, Y'hoshua. This is normally rendered as Joshua in English. Interestingly, coincidentally, suspiciously, providentially, or significantly, depending on your POV, Joshua means something along the lines of `[the Lord] saves.' The first famous Joshua, of course, was the son of Nun, and that makes a good pun (pone?) in English, when you consider that Mary was a virgin when she was inseminated or whatever by a holy ghost, so she was as celibate as a nun. Nancy Freedman had some fun with Joshua, Son of None, which she used as the title of a 1973 novel. In her book, some cells are saved from the dying JFK and cloned. The resulting child is named Joshua. The idolatry surrounding that guy is astounding.

From Hellenistic times, Greek (more precisely Koine) had been the widely used lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean from Egypt to Greece. The Greek name Iesus (the borrowed version of Joshua, remember?) was adopted into Latin (as a fourth-declension noun, I'm sure you wanted to know). In the usual way, consonantal I came to be written J after that letter was invented, and pronounced as a voiced fricative in English. While there are many versions of Latin pronunciation, Church Latin coincides with (our reconstruction of) Classical Latin for this name, pronounced YEH-soos (the oo is the oo of Sue; for vowel quantities you're on your own).

Christ means messiah. The English word messiah is derived from the Hebrew word meshiah (or maybe the Aramaic, I'll check details later). The Semitic word means `annointed [person],' a term with an interesting Biblical history. The word was readily translated into the Greek christos, etymon of the English word Christ.

Gaius Julius Caesar. This and other Classical Latin names explained at the tria nomina entry.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

Journal of CANnabis Therapeutics. Published by Haworth Press starting in 2001, it went up in smoke at the beginning of 2004.

These days, when you publish an article in a Haworth Press journal, along with your offprints they send you a little packet of chochkes to help you promote their journals. These include a notepad and a ballpoint pen with their URL on it and ... a foil-wrapped chocolate medallion imprinted with their logo. The chocolate is something new; maybe if they'd started providing munchies earlier, JCANT jmightve.

``Joseph Cyril Bamford launched the construction and agricultural equipment manufacturing company that bears his initials, in 1945.'' The company is also in materials handling equipment these days, but in the UK the initialism has come to be used as an antonomasia for backhoe-equipped digger, which the company pioneered.

On page 10 of Harm Done, an Inspector Wexford Mystery by Ruth Rendell, the inspector is driving his grandsons to school. One of them expresses his pleasure about some road-building work. ``I liked the diggers. I'm going to drive a JCB when I'm grown up and then I'll dig up the whole world.''

Boys, as Ruth Rendell has observed through Wexford's thoughts, take longer to reach an age where they are able to appreciate pretty landscapes. (Wexford is a wuss.) Incidentally, this novel is not recommended. At various points the writing is confusing, possibly for effect, but the immediate effects are confusion and irritation. Also, it is drearily obsessed with what bad people men are to women. (Only some men! Don't want to appear insensitively sensitive. And not any more often than once every page or so.) As you can imagine, correctly, the book is almost excruciatingly politically correct. Of course, for the sort of people who like to read that sort of book, this is the sort of book they would like to read. To help you decide if that's you, here is some of Inspector Wexford's thought from page 4:

    If she had been, well, a different sort of girl, Wexford wouldn't have paid so much attention. If she had been more like her friends. He hesitated about the phrase he used even in his own mind, for he liked to keep to his personal brand of political correctness in his thoughts as well as his speech. Not to be absurd about it, not to use ridiculous expressions like intellectually challenged, but not to be insensitive either and call a girl such as Lizzie Cromwell mentally handicapped or retarded. ...

Stupid. That will do.

Jewish Community Center.

Job Control Command. Like ``get to work, you,'' and ``we'll do it my way,'' but in words a computer can understand. I only remember this as a term in the context of IBM-mainframe JCL.

Joint (J) Communications Control Center. DOD term. Hey, man -- come on over and get high.

Junction Charge-Coupled Devices. Whereas ordinary charge-coupled devices (CCD) use MOS capacitors (MOS-C), JCCD's use the capacitance of reverse-biased pn junctions.

Journal of Cancer Education. The official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education (AACE) and the European Association for Cancer Education (EACE).

Journal of Chemical Education. LC number QD1.J825.

Jewish Council for Education & Research. A political action committee that no one ever heard of until 2008. The website doesn't indicate when the organization was founded, but is worded in a way that seems to try to suggest that it is a long-established organization. (That is, it emphasizes that the issues it addresses are of long standing, and mentions the experience -- in other organizations -- of JCER's leaders.)

JCER is basically a nominally (and no doubt by the letter of the law) independent organization campaigning for Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama ``and six other [sic] Congressional candidates.'' I suppose that if JCER were only supporting a single candidate they couldn't register as an independent PAC.

Obama is apparently relatively unpopular among Jews, polling at around 65%. Jews have for decades been among the most loyally Democratic voters, and 65% in the general would be a poor showing, comparable in recent decades only to the support received by unsuccessful Democratic presidential candidates like Michael Dukakis (who lost in 1988).

JCER has churned out a number of pro-Obama, er, heavily researched educational videos. As I write this, on October 6, 2008, the one featured on its website is ``Israel's Generals Speak.'' In the same day's edition of Israel Hayom (`Israel Today'), Dan Lavi reports that ``misrepresents several former Israeli security officials by claiming that they back Obama.'' [All English quotes are translations by Aaron Lerner of IMRA.]

Former IDF Deputy Chief of Staff Uzi Dayan complained that ``the announcement of my support for Obama is a lie and deception. I never supported him or his positions. I demand that the organization drop me from the video and I will consider legal action.''

Former Mossad chief Ephraim Halevy, who also appeared in the video, said that ``there is a complete misrepresentation of what I said. I said nothing that could be interpreted as support for Obama in the US presidential elections.''

It would be very hard to produce an honest video showing substantial Israeli support for Obama. Because Israel is heavily dependent on the US for its security, and because there is a strong possibility that Israeli government will have to deal with an Obama administration, people in the Israeli government (and even in parties that have any hope of forming part of the government in the future) are diplomatically ambivalent in expressing opinions on the US presidential contest. Polling of the Israeli public, however, reveals what Israeli politicians concede privately: Israeli support is strongly for John McCain. One idiosyncratic reason for this support is McCain's history as a prisoner of war. This is a condition Israelis have regular occasion to think about and sympathize with, and a survivor of the experience is naturally respected.

More programmatically, McCain benefits from his association with George Bush. Bush 43 has been the US president most supportive of Israel since Richard Nixon's emergency airlift of arms in 1974 saved Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Israelis, like Kurds and other groups the US MSM are less likely to think of when assessing Bush's effect on the international standing of the US, generally respect and like George W. Bush. Properly speaking, of course, McCain benefits very little from Israeli satisfaction with Bush. There are a few thousand American Jews living in Israel, though, and they are expected to cast a majority of their votes for McCain.

Palestinian leaders and elites generally expect or claim that the Palestinian public (presumably including Arab Israelis) support Obama. You'd imagine that someone with a middle name of Hussein would start with a natural advantage. Reports from the ground, however, suggest that this support is tepid if it exists.

Journal of Crystal Growth. LC number QD921.J6.

Just Classical Guitar. An old site that now forwards immediately to a ``Classical Guitar Internet Resource Site!'' with a focus on the greater (I don't know how much greater) Savannah area. We also have a bare-bones CG (classical guitar) entry.

Japan Center for Intercultural Communications.

Job Control Language. Probably IBM JCL, operating system for a mainframe.


Junior Classical League. A conspiracy to promote Latin, classical Greek, and other dusty classical learning among impressionable youth (US and Canadian high school students). A membership organization for unwitting US and Canadian high school students, manipulated (``sponsored'') behind the scenes (as we reveal here on your computer screen for the first time) by the American Classical League (ACL). Longer alternate name is National Junior Classical League (NJCL). If a distinction is made between the terms JCL and NJCL, it seems to be that students belong to the NJCL and student chapters in a high school belong to the JCL. Five students who've studied a classical subject with a teacher suffice to form a chapter.

The JCL cosponsors competitive national exams with the ACL -- in Latin (NLE), Classical Greek (NGE) and mythology -- but they still don't get to look at the answers beforehand.

JCLers who experience separation anxiety when they graduate high school can join the SCL.

Joint (J) Captured Materiel Exploitation Center.

Joint Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) logic. Another name for JMOS (q.v.).

Journal of Crystal and Molecular Structure. LC number QD901.J62 . Volume 1 in 1971, volume 11 in 1981; continued as JCSR.

Japan Corporate News. See JCNN. Newswire.

Jewish Communication Network.

Japan Corporate News Network. In principle, JCN Newswire (as opposed to JCN Network) carries company press releases and JCNN carries business news, but it's hard to see the distinction in practice.

Journal of Clinical Oncology. ASCO's peer reviewed journal.

Japanese Communist Party. In a new platform adopted at the end of a party convention on January 17, 2004, the JCP toned down its revolution rhetoric and accepted the emperor system as something temporarily acceptable. I thought that was worth a chuckle.

Jewish Council for Public Affairs. An umbrella group of 125 Jewish communal relations councils (JCRC's) across the United States, plus two dozen or so national organizations.

Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. We don't explain ``Privy Council'' at its abbreviation PC either. Who knows what we might find if we looked?

Journal Citation Reports. An annual publication that provides information about academic journals in the sciences and social sciences. It's the source of a widely used ``impact factor'' for each journal.

Jewish Communal Relations Council. A generic term; see JCPA.

Job Control Statement.

Joint Chiefs of Staff. At one time this was the body through which the separate activities of the four US military services were coordinated. Since the Goldwater-Nichols DOD Reorganization Act of 1986, its role is firmly advisory. This law resolved an ambiguous situation that had been evolving since WWII, when the the JCS exercised direct executive authority. The National Security Act of 1947 treated the JCS as a planning and advisory group, but its members had continued to exercise executive power in their separate roles as chiefs of military services. Since 1986, their status as military advisors -- i.e., as members of the JCS, takes precedence over their other duties to the exclusion of an executive role specifically in the direction of combatant forces (though not in other management tasks).

You can read some relevant history, oddly enough, at the LSJ entry. What, I don't mention Napoleon or the Prussian innovations? This is pretty incomplete.


Journal of Cuneiform Studies. An annual publication of the American Schools of Oriental Research. See AASOR for other publications.

Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. Published by CSCSR, it ``is a scholarly refereed quarterly journal. The volume year publication date is October (1), January (2), April (3), July (4). Subscription is for a volume year.'' Quoting from the same informative page (text harvested September 2004):

Current U.S. retention figures have not improved over time, even with large amounts of money expended by colleges and universities on programs and services to retain students. In spite of these programs and services, retention figures have not improved. [Why does the content of this sentence sound familiar?] In fact, only about 66% of high school graduates attend college and about 50% of those who attend college earn a bachelor degrees. [Sic. I just cut and paste, okay?] Put in real numbers [is that with the natural topology?], about 2,800,000 students will graduate from high school this year, 1,850,000 will attend college and only 925,000 of these students will earn a bachelor [sic; it's not some funny font glitch, afaik] degree. Colleges are looking for ways to keep the students that they recruit. The Journal will provide the educational community with current theoretical foundations, research and practice results, which will help educators and institutions to retain students.

Let me add a note here, since there is something not mentioned that needs to be explained. The fact that ``retention figures have not improved over time'' despite ``large amounts of money expended'' on ``programs and services'' does not reflect poorly on the trained professionals who run the programs and provide the services.

Based on Department of Education statistics, I think ``college'' in the quoted text excludes junior colleges. Roughly half as many associate's degrees are granted per year as bachelor's degrees. Most AA's are awarded by junior colleges, and about one third of these are university-parallel or general humanities degrees, designed to allow immediate transfer into the junior year of a four-year college. The remaining two thirds are business, technical, professional associate degrees and the like, for students planning to work immediately afterwards.

The abbreviation JCSR isn't all that common, which might be just as well. An alternative short form is Retention Journal.

Journal of Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Research. LC number QD901.J62 . Volume 12 in 1982; continues JCMS, which reached vol. 11 in 1981.

JISC Committee for the Support of Research. (That's the UK

JunCTion. In place names, it typically refers to rail spurs. Like Princeton Jct. (See NJT entry.)

JC Virus.

Juggalo Championship Wrestling. Misspelled here. The correct spelling makes the hilarious substitution of a letter t in place of the p. We realized that you couldn't stand so much intense and bloody cleverness. A product of ICP.

Jack Daniels. This guy advertises in Scientific American (SciAm). Too hoity-toity. That must be the reason why George Thorogood [unofficial page of rated links; excellent page from Finland, including lyrics; weak official page] doesn't drink with him when he drinks alone, with nobody else.

(His web site seems to have passed out of existence.)

Julian Day. A chronological system apparently invented by the astronomer John F. Herschel, and based on counting days and fractions of days from the first day of the Julian period.

In Herschel's original scheme, dating begins at noon (at the Greenwich meridian) in order that an entire night of observing (at least for Herschel and his European colleagues) occurred on a Julian day.

For Western historians, counting the beginning of a day from noon is inconvenient. Hence historians came to define Julian days that began at midnight. Historians also use the abbreviation JD, but the scheme is distinguished by calling its days ``chronological Julian days,'' as opposed to ``astronomical Julian days.'' As you can imagine, in practice one rarely sees these terms except in explanations of the difference.

To be precise, I should say that chronological Julian days begin at midnight twelve hours before the start of the corresponding astronomical Julian day. Most discussions of Julian days are phrased with the implicit understanding that the twelve hours before the first (astronomical) day of the Julian period are already in the first Julian day. That is, people implicitly think in terms of a day that begins before noon. Surprise.

In the neverending search for convenience and saving two keystrokes, historians have also defined an MJD.

Peter Meyer has a clear exposition of the various Julian Day numbers.


Juris Doctor. Latin, `Doctor of Law[s].' This is a rebranding of what used to be known in the US as the LL.B., the basic law degree. I suppose the name change was justified as reflecting the progressive professionalization of legal practice. People who have been awarded the J.D. traditionally are considered entitled to append ``Esq.'' after their names, but using ``Dr.'' as a title is too brazen for most. On personals websites lawyers generally select ``doctorate'' as their highest level of education completed, but this is perfectly acceptable because personals are supposed to be deceptive.

Joint Duty Assignment. Can be multi-Service, joint or multinational. I'm not going to speculate on the distinction between multi-Service and joint. Maybe this means ``multiservice -- joint or multinational --.''

Joint Duty Assignment List.

Joint (services) Direct-Attack Munitions.

Marshall McLuhan is credited with this prediction (and rather a lot of others): ``World War III will be a guerrilla information war, with no division between military and civilian participation.''

Java DataBase Connection.

Joint Declaration on Cooperation.

Joint Distribution Committee. A Jewish Relief organization.

Joint Document Exploitation Center. Just like JCMEC.

Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International. I think this is a previous name of the JDRF. See also the main diabetes entry DM.

Joint (J) Deployable Intelligence Support System. ``A transportable workstation and communications suite that electronically extends a joint intelligence center to a joint task force or other tactical user.'' In DOD usage, as far as I know, information about the enemy is the only meaning of the word intelligence.

Java Development Kit.

Jewish Defense League.

The organization formerly known as the ``Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.'' I guess ``Type-1 Diabetes Research Foundation'' just doesn't have the same ring. I'm just glad they didn't rename it TOFKAJDRF.

J. D. Salinger
Jerome David Salinger. Known as Jerry. But really, you shouldn't ask. He doesn't like personal questions like that. Even now that he's in the privacy of the grave, it probably still bothers him.

Jane's Defense Weekly. They've really leveraged the name recognition. Now JDW is part of Jane's Information Group. For a list, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.


Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Journal of Experimental Algorithmics. Published by the ACM.

ISSN 1084-6654.

James Edward Austen-Leigh, born 1798, died 1874. Nephew and important biographer of Jane Austen. He was the eldest son of James Austen, Jane Austen's eldest brother. The Austen family tree had a lot of rather leafy branches, and they tended to overuse some names. (Then again, in the period 1750-1799 a fifth of all English boys were christened William and almost a quarter of girls were christened Mary, so this can't have been a peculiarity.) Within the family, JEAL was called Edward.

The mother of Jane and James Austen was born Cassandra Leigh (1739-1827). Her brother James Leigh (1735-1817) changed his name to James Leigh Perrot in 1751 in order to inherit the estate of his maternal great-uncle Thomas Perrot. When Mrs. Leigh Perrot died in 1836, JEAL inherited Scarlets (the Leigh Perrots' Berkshire estate) on the condition that he add the name Leigh to his own. This stuff happened repeatedly. For example, JEAL was originally named after his uncle Edward Austen (1767-1852). However, uncle Edward had been adopted in childhood by his cousin Mr. Knight, and became Edward Knight in 1812. A rose by some other name may smell a lot sweeter with a comfortable legacy. (And on the subject of clichés, see about Bulwer Lytton's name at the entry for ``It was a dark and stormy night.'')

I haven't seen specific instructions on the pronunciation of the Leigh surname. However, a celebrated cousin, Dr. Theophilus Leigh, was master of Balliol College, Oxford for over fifty years. (When elected, he'd been expected to be just a temporary placeholder, as he was thought to be in poor health. He lived to be over 90.) In a letter to Dr. Samuel Johnson, local resident Mrs. Thrale wrote his name as ``Dr. Lee,'' so there's a clue.

Jane Austen died on July 18, 1817. Jane Austen's last surviving sibling, Admiral Sir Francis Austen, died in August 1865 at the age of 91. With a consciousness that the last of those who had any personal memory of Jane Austen would soon be passing away, and with some concern about what distant family or non-family might write about her, the family decided that a biographical memoir of Jane Austen should be prepared.

As a schoolboy, JEAL had once -- with Aunt Jane's encouragement -- begun to write a novel, though he never finished it. Late in life, he had published Recollections of the Vine Hunt (1865), and this success probably encouraged him in his efforts toward a biography. As the only son of JA's eldest sibling (this is sounding a little like a mafia story, isn't it?), JEAL took the task as his duty. His A Memoir of Jane Austen was based on his own and two of his sisters' recollections (his sister Caroline and his half-sister Anne), as well as those of some cousins. There were also a few relatives alive who for various reasons did not cooperate, and one consequence of this was that JEAL did not have access to all of JA's surviving correspondence.

JEAL began writing the memoir on 30 March 1869 and was done in early September. According to his daughter's memoir of him [Mary Augusta Austen-Leigh: James Edward Austen-Leigh: A Memoir, privately published in 1911], JEAL's A Memoir was published on 16 December 1869 -- what would have been JA's 94th birthday. The volume contains a postscript dated 17 November 1869, JEAL's own 71st birthday. In any event, the volume, published in a small print run of about 1000, bore the publication year 1870. A revised second edition of the memoir, published or at least printed on JEAL's 72nd birthday, dated 1871. (This sort of forward-dating is common in book-publishing, at least partly because it makes books seem fresher longer. Another book I can think of that was forward-dated was Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams -- it was published on November 4, 1899, but the date in the book is 1900.) Don't tell me you didn't need to read all this -- it's too late.

Two important documents that contributed to JEAL's memoir were written by JA's favorite brother Henry, who had seen her novels through to publication, including Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, which were published posthumously. Henry wrote a ``Biographical Notice'' that prefaced the two posthumous novels. (The four previous novels had been published anonymously, though their common authorship was indicated as they appeared successively.) Henry Austen's ``Memoir'' of 1833 was largely a shorter reworking of the 1818 notice, padded back up with quotes of favorable reviews, for inclusion in a new publication of Sense and Sensibility.

Ordained in 1823, JEAL was a clergyman his entire life. Yes, some clergymen hunted. Those who could, I think. Chaplain Groves (US Army), father of General Leslie R. (``Dick'') Groves, of the Manhattan Engineer District, was a severe Presbyterian who considered ``any leisure-time activity other than reading, hunting, and fishing to be a frivolous waste of time if not downright diabolical.'' [I quote William Lawren from p. 45 of a book mentioned at this MED entry.] Interestingly, from 1852 on, JEAL was the vicar of Bray, sir!

[The datum on names in 1750-1799 is lifted from a book by Maggie Lane: Jane Austen and Names (Blaise Books, 2002),]

A durable cotton fabric useful for long treks across the Scrabble tablelands. Gee (``Jea''?), I wonder if this has anything to do with pants called jeans. In any case, the plural jeans is also accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries, but of these three only OSPD4 and TWL2006 accept jeaned (as an adjective). That word was not in OSPD3 and is not in SOWPODS as of 2006. There's no mention of jeaning in any of the above-named dictionaries.

A nickname that is sometimes given to males with the initials J.E.B. The most famous instance is probably still the Confederate Army general James Ewell Brown ``Jeb'' Stuart.

So Jeb can be an acronym. In the case of John Ellis Bush, better known by his nickname Jeb, it gives rise to ``Jeb Bush,'' an acronym-assisted Aap pleonasm. (Jeb, who served as the 43rd governor of Florida, is brother of dubya, who served as the 43rd president of the US. The number 42 is special, though it is neither perfect nor prime. The father, George H.W., served as the 41st president of the US.)

Jeb also occurs directly as a given name. That's the case with Jeb Stuart Magruder, who achieved notoriety in the Watergate scandal. According to his memoir,

[m]y brother Don, who was named for our father, was born in June of 1930, and I arrived in November of 1934. Since my father was both a Civil War buff and a horseman, he named me for his favorite Confederate general, Jeb Stuart, his ideal of a hard-riding cavalry officer. I can remember seeing my father ride a few time when I was quite young. He was into middle age by then but he rode beautifully, always wearing a treasured pair of riding boots from his days in Squadron A.
[An American Life: One Man's Road to Watergate (New York: Atheneum, 1974), p. 15. Earlier Jeb Magruder explains that in 1916, Donald Dilworth Magruder had joined the New York National Guard's famous Squadron A, the last cavalry division in the US Army, but that he saw service in WWI as a sergeant in the 27th Infantry Division. I'm not sure what ``last cavalry division'' is supposed to mean; horse-mounted cavalry were used by the US in WWI and WWII, although modern weapons did render old-stye cavalry charges obsolete.]

Don senior grew up in Staten Island, New York, but from his choice of a CSA general's name for his second son, you might suspect a Southern background. In fact, the Magruder family was established in Maryland in 1659 by family patriarch Alexander Magruder. Thomas Jefferson Magruder, Jeb's great-grandfather, smuggled shoes and boots into Virginia during the American Civil War, and another ancestor, John Bankhead Magruder, was one of Robert E. Lee's generals (p. 13). Alexander, incidentally, arrived from Scotland as an impounded prisoner, and 1659 was the last year of Cromwell's rule -- the year before the restoration of the Stuarts to power. So there's another nominal connection. Moreover, after he was released from prison, Jeb Magruder pursued a career in the Presbyterian Church. (The Presbyterians are originally Scottish Calvinists. They were generally less regicidally disposed to Charles I, not necessarily because the Stuarts were a Scottish line of royalty.)

I myself met Robert E. Lee personally when he visited the Engineering Research Center at Arizona State University in the late 80's. He was introduced as Robert Lee, but I noticed a middle initial E on his briefcase and asked him if he was one of the Virginia Lees. He said no, his parents just liked the name. When Lee Iacocca (actually Lido Anthony Iacocca) was working his way up the corporate ladder at Ford, he spent some time in the South, where his Italian surname was regarded as difficult. He would break the ice by joking about being or not being part of the famous Lee family. (That's from memory; I suppose I read it in his best-selling 1984 autobiography.) The point, if there is one, is that you can't conclude too much from a name, although the collocation of ``Jeb'' and ``Stuart'' is rather suggestive, especially when Stuart is a given name.

That brings us to Jeb Stuart. He was born in 1956 in Little Rock, Arkansas, and is a scriptwriter probably best known for the screenplay of Die Hard, based on a novel by Roderick Thorp. (This is the 1988 action movie -- the first in a franchise that will eventually include 23 sequels and an unknown number of prequels. For Die Hard XV through XXIV, a stunt double will be used for all scenes which require Bruce Willis to walk without assistance. Later, he will shill for the DieHard automobile battery company, which will have been spun off from Sears, which will have died around 2013.) This was Jeb Stuart's first script, or at least his first that was commercially produced. I hesitate to say that it's been downhill since then.

The point is (okay, this isn't the point, but I just ought to point this out), that those who do not remember history are condemned to use ``Jeb'' as a sealed acronym. Also, if it's true (as some claim) that ``Jeb'' arose independently as a short form of ``Jacob,'' then it might be a backronym. My head hurts when I try to figure out whether it could possibly be a sealed backronym.

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.

Job Entry Control Language.


Journal of Early Christian Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. Used to be called Second Century and abbreviated SCent.

Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. A journal, as you have probably surmised. An economics journal. About dynamics and control.

I hope that's clear.

Joint Electron Device Engineering Council.

In a talk on 1997.10.1, a speaker on JEDEC specs in development was asked what ``JEDEC'' stood for, and he said ``it used to stand for'' the expansion above, ``but everyone had trouble remembering that so now it's just `jedec'.'' [Both ees short, accent on the first syllable.] (It's a good thing I put these comments in the glossary shortly after the meeting. I was just throwing away some old notes from that meeting, and ``jedec `used to' '' was all I had scribbled down.) It would help people realize that JEDEC no longer has an expansion if it was written

See previous entry.

Joint Enforcement Database Initiative.

May the Enforce be with you.

It seems to be generally believed that the word jeep, as a common noun or proper noun for the vehicle, originated as a pronunciation of an abbreviation GP (GP ... ``Gee Pee'' ... ``Jeep''). If so, the GP stood for either General Purpose (vehicle) or as a manufacturer's internal designation of the vehicle for part numbering, the G standing for government. It might have stood for both, if quartermasters correctly misinterpreted the manufacturer's code.

Originally introduced by Sir Harold Austin as a rugged utility vehicle for the American market, it never quite caught on in the twenties and thirties; the American Austin company, reorganized under some other name I forgot, continued to make them in small numbers right up to the war. They achieved a small cult following. When the US went to war, bids were requested for a general-purpose 4WD military vehicle, to be produced in unheard-of numbers. The successful bids were all for minor variations on that American Austin vehicle. Ford and Willys produced 75 per day, and from 1942, when civilian production was halted for the duration of the war, that was the closest thing to a car that American industry produced. After the war, Willys continued to manufacture a 2WD version for the civilian market, instead of returning to conventional car production. They eventually made some small ``improvements'' like roll-down windows.

In the 70's, the military finally replaced the Jeep with the HMMWV (Humvee).

WWII-surplus jeeps in the Philippines were converted to small, garishly decorated open buses called jeepneys. Here's a page with lots of Philippine Jeepneys. A similar vehicle is used in Puerto Rico.

It's Willys and not Willy's, after owner John North Willys. Jeep, the vehicle and brand, has been a kind of curse -- a perennial survivor of the auto companies that manufactured it. American Motors (AMC) had the Jeep for a number of years after Willys folded, and introduced the highly successful Wagoneer series. Renault tried to make a go of American Motors, and when they sold AMC to the Chrysler Corporation, Jeep was the only product line that eventually survived (I think they also kept up the Eagle line for a little bit). In 1999, Chrysler ``merged with'' (i.e., was diplomatically taken over by) Daimler-Benz, which unloaded it for a loss in 2007. Chrysler's Plymouth brand was an immediate casualty of the takeover, but Jeep keeps on truckin'.

Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (beamline). An X-ray beamline at the Diamond Light Source -- the UK's national synchrotron facility, which is located at the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Oxfordshire.

Japan Educational Exchanges and Services. JEES ``provides services and supports for all students in Japan to promote international understanding and exchange.'' One service it does not appear to provide is a homepage in any language other than Japanese, although the site for its Japanese Language Proficiency Test (JLPT) is in English. Aw, geez!

Japan Electronic Industries Development Association. Merged with EIAJ in 2000 to form JEITA.

German,`yes and no,' from ja and nein. Part of the reason this works is that, despite orthographic appearances, the two words share a vowel. This is apparent in IPA, in which the words are written /ja/ and /nai:n/.

Japan Electronic and Information Technology Industries Association. Created on November 1, 2000 in the merger of the two Japanese electronics industry associations EIAJ and JEIDA.

Jerusalem English { Language | Lending } Library for Youth.

Joint Equipment Manufacturers Initiative.

Short for a four-year series of Latin textbooks. They had their origin in Minnie L. Smith's First Latin lessons (1904). Charles Jenney, Jr., authored revisions to later versions of that book at least as early as 1954, and eight years later, it was still being published as Smith and Thompson's First year Latin, revised by Charles Jenney, Jr. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1962). Jenney's second-year book then was called Scudder's Second year Latin, revised by Charles Jenney, Jr.

Allyn and Bacon had a front-page advertisement for the set on the 1948-49 school year's first issue of Classical Weekly (CW). The advertisement bore the caption ``Latin and World Peace.'' Those were the days. The days of dodgy reasoning, among other things. It's not like that any more. From the ad, I infer that the third-year book was by Kelsey and Meinecke by then, and the fourth-year by Carlisle and Richardson. I have no idea how well coordinated the original ``well-tested Series'' was.

The books have continued to be revised by an army of successors, but (or perhaps therefore) the only author whose name appears on the cover nowadays is Jenney's (Jenney's First Year Latin, etc.), and there are workbooks available for the first two years. (In 1948 there was a workbook by Thompson and Peters, and an associated volume of classical myths compiled by Herzberg.) Your opinion of the books is bound to depend strongly on your opinion regarding the value of the traditional ``grammar-translation'' approach. It is a very traditional book based on ``real Latin'' -- excerpts from classical literature -- rather than made-up readings. Other texts typically introduce ``real Latin'' in the fourth year. Here's a detailed review. (There is some sentiment that the 1984 edition is better than the subsequently improved versions.)

A girl born in 1974.

Jennifer Jones
  1. The mother of Tom Jones in Richardson's novel of that name.
  2. A contributor to various web resources on Victorian literature, such as Voice of the Shuttle: English Literature and The Victorian Canon. [The latter is a ``web site devoted to investigating the problem of taste and aesthetics with regard to the Victorian canon in particular, and to the canon debates in the academy in general . . .  contains on-line syllabi (e.g. Victoriana: The Popular Canon; The Victorian Novel; Victorian Poetry; The Novel and the Long 19th Century; Literature of Empire), on-line texts (including short stories by Lady Jane Wilde and Mary Elizabeth Braddon), images, external links, and a theory archive.''] Okay, so Richardson is pre-Victorian; it's close.
  3. An Academy-Award-winning actress. She starred as Emma Bovary in the 1949 movie Madame Bovary, which was constructed as a frame narrative about Gustave Flaubert's famous novel. She co-starred in The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, discussed at the Babbitt entry. In her mid-twenties, she was cast as the fourteen-year-old Bernadette in the 1943 Song of Bernadette. This is a story about the creation of the religious attraction at Lourdes, and as such you expect it to have taken place in medieval times, but Bernadette reported her vision in 1858. Madonna named her daughter Lourdes. It seems to run in the family. Once I mentioned to Sabine that I had met a woman named Bernadette in France, and she laughed out loud -- Bernadette seemed such an old-fashioned name to her.
  4. There's another Jennifer Jones in show business, as well as a Jennifer Leigh Jones and J.B. Jones, who has gone by ``Jennifer Jones,'' and assorted Jennifer Joneses in non-acting roles.

Woman's name, or nickname for Jennifer.

Female donkey.

Journal of Economic Psychology. Do you really want to pay for this journal? Buy it and see.

  1. Third time derivative of position, equivalently the (first) time derivative of acceleration. Corresponds approximately to the ordinary notion of a jerk.
  2. [Among the old Los Alamos `device' makers] an energy of 1016 ergs. Does not correspond even approximately to anything ordinary.

Five-liter resealable container for ethanol-water solutions. Cf. the smaller magnum and the larger double imperial. I learned all this cool stuff by watching TV.

The term jerry can, for a flat-sided metal fuel can, capacity about five (US) gallons, stems from jeroboam in the sense of a large fluid container. A lot of folks who don't drink enough probably suppose it has something to do with this other jerry.

Joint Explosive Ordinance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle.

A German soldier, blitzing his way across the low-lying rectilinear battlelines of the Scrabble tablelands.

Japanese Earth Resources Satellite.

Job Entry Subsystem.

A regular verb (regular in the morphological sense, anyway) meaning to fasten straps around the legs of a hawk. Even if you're not into falconry, but just happen to find yourself lost and looking for a way out of the Scrabble forest, you might find this a useful word. Keep in mind also...

This is an alternate spelling of jess. It's accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries.

JESSI, Jessi
Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative.

Jessica Mitford
Jessica Mitford is one of the famous Mitford sisters. They're so famous that they really don't need a glossary entry. (However, as their floruit recedes into the past, such an entry may become necessary as early as next week.) We already have Jessica Mitford content elsewhere in the glossary. The most important bits are at the Lady Bird entry and within the U and non-U entry (specifically at this point, where ``You-All and Non-You-All'' and Poison Pen are discussed).

Jessica's (and all her sisters') mother had the given name Sydney. Around 1982, I myself met a woman whose name was Sydney. This Sydney was American, and I would guess she was born in the 1950's. I asked her how she felt about her name. I can't remember her exact words, but she seemed to rather resent her parents' having given it to her. I didn't ask why she didn't change it. Apparently she was waiting for 1995 and the release of ``The American President,'' in which Annette Benning played the love interest of Michael Douglas, as the lobbyist Sydney Ellen Wade to his President Andrew Shepherd.

Jessica Mitford herself was always known personally as ``Decca.'' Her first child, who died in infancy, was named ``Julia Decca Romilly.'' Her surviving children called her ``Decca'' or ``Dec'' rather than anything like ``mom.'' (Her daughter was called ``Dinky Donk'' and variants or pieces of that.) The kids got some press when they helped to promote Peter Sussman's Decca: The Letters of Jessica Mitford, published in 2006.

In early 1995, Jessica Mitford and her backing band recorded an album as ``Decca and the Dectones.'' The band was described by Patricia Holt in the San Francisco Chronicle as ``a kazoo-and-cowbell orchestra led by San Francisco author escort [the SBF glossary does not know what that means] and recording producer Kathi Kamen Goldmark. (Goldmark has done other similar projects; some are linked from this webpage, where you can order the two-song album in CD or MP3 format.) Yeah, Mitford was 77 at the time. That's not such a big deal; my mother was still singing (soprano in choirs) into her mid-80's. Mitford was wheelchair-bound with a broken ankle when she did her recordings, and she died of lung cancer a year-and-a-half later, aet. 78. Holt wrote, ``certainly the term `barrel-voice' comes to mind.''

I don't know how Jessica Mitford came by her nickname, but Decca was a well-known name in music for much of the twentieth century. In 1914, the musical instrument maker Barnett Samuel and Sons patented a portable record player called the Decca Dulcephone. The word Decca is said to have been coined by Wilfred S. Samuel, who merged the word Mecca with the initial D of their logo ``Dulcet'' or their trademark ``Dulcephone.'' I don't know what motivated an etymology based on Mecca. Barnett Samuel and Son was eventually renamed ``The Decca Gramophone Co., Ltd.'' and in 1929 it was sold to former stockbroker Edward Lewis. I suppose 1929 was a good year for former stockbrokers who still had their shirts to get into another line of business. Lewis fared well; his ``Decca Records, Ltd.'' [I guess there were partners] became the second-largest record label in the world. I used to own many of their records from the 1950's.

I'm not sure precisely when Jessica Mitford used a married name, but she does describe at least one occasion in Poison Penmanship. Vivian Cadden, an editor at McCall's, invited her to do an article on Elizabeth Arden's Maine Chance (a weight-loss spa located, against toponymic expectation, in Arizona):

... a slight feeling of paranoia took hold at the moment of actually picking up the phone to call Elizabeth Arden's for a reservation. Maine Chance would surely be, for me, enemy territory [she had earned a reputation as a muck-raking journalist]; what if my identity were discovered by the reservations people? Would they refuse my application? I could use my married name, but this would be scanty cover at the local Arden salon in San Francisco [she lived in Oakland], where they might easily make the connection with Jessica Mitford. So I telephoned to the New York office and announced myself as Mrs. Robert Treuhaft, which was how I was introduced to the other slimmers at Maine Chance. One day at lunch I overheard a woman asking another, ``Who is that?'' ``Oh, that's Mrs. Fruehauf'' came the reply. ``Her husband is very big in trucking.''

Journal of Extraneous Scientific Topics. SBF homeboy sez: Check it out!

Joint European Torus. An old tokomak.

I thought the major was a lady suffragette. (Hey, a jet has wings, Wings had a Jet.)

Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics. The Physical Review Letters (PRL) of the Russian Federation.

JETRO, Jetro
Japan External TRade Organization.

Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society.

The Junior Engineering Technical Society. ``Promoting Interest in Engineering, Science, Mathematics and Technology.'' An associate society of the AAES.

jeunes des banlieues
French term literally meaning `suburban youths.' A euphemism for ``beurs'' (not a euphemism) from any of the crime-infested rings of housing projects (see HLM) that were built on the outskirts of French cities in the 1960's and 1970's.

In October 2005, when major rioting broke out in les banlieues around Paris, Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy repeatedly objected to the euphemism, insisting for example that voyous (`thugs') was a better word for the rioters than jeunes (`youth'). A snit-load of bien-pensants criticized him for using accurate terms such as this and racaille, q.v.

But the voters found a way to punish Sarkozy: they made him Co-Prince of Andorra! (And President of France.) Also, his half-brother married Mary-Kate Olsen. I don't know what to say, but I don't have to.

Joint (J) Engagement Zone. This is not the romantic kind of engagement. This is a different kind, also expected to end only when someone has died. For a nonelliptic explanation, see the weapon engagement zone entry of the DOD's online Dictionary of Military Terms.

Journal of Field Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. If you think field archaeology is all the archaeology there is, consider IJNA.

If you're looking for the LGBT equal-rights organization with ``Justice for All'' in its name, you want AJA (And Justice for All).

Justice For All. ``Justice For All and our JFA E-mail Network were formed [apparently by the AAPD] to defend and advance disability rights and programs in the 104th Congress [1995-1997]. One JFA goal is to work with national and state organizations of people with disabilities to get the word from Washington D.C. out to the grassroots.''

Justice For All. ``Justice For All shall act as an advocate for change in a criminal justice system that is inadequate in protecting the lives and property of law-abiding citizens.'' JFA sponsors <murdervictims.com> and <prodeathpenalty.com>.

Joint (Military Services) Flow and Analysis System for Transportation.

Just Do It! Adjective, as in ``JFDI methodology.''

The story is told that once, after presenting a paper at a conference of film academics, P. Adams Sitney was asked by an audience member how he would characterize the methodology used for his analysis. Sitney replied,

My methodology is called `watching the films.'

Junior Faculty Development Program. There's one run by USAID for Russia.

Journal of Fluids Engineering. LC number TA357.T69; published by ASME.

Junction Field-Effect Transistor (FET). First proposed by William Shockley in Procs. of the IRE, 40, 1365 (1952). The first functioning JFET was made by G. C. Dacey and I. M. Ross, ibid., 41, 970 (1953).

Jordanian Fencing Federation. No-no: not that kind of fencing. No, not that kind either! Fencing the sport -- with swords'n'all.

JPEG File Interchange Format.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics. LC number QA901.J87 . First volume in 1956. It took 33 years to generate the first two hundred volumes; it took six years to generate the next hundred.

Jane's Foreign Report. (``Foreign'' here means other than UK.) For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Journaled File System. IBM disk-use system for machines running AIX, as near as I can make out.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy. A US president. Also an airport (next entry). John Forbes Kerry, another Roman Catholic Senator, also a Massachusetts Democrat, ran for president in 2004, another closely contested, high turn-out election. If he had won, we'd have had a massive namespace collision that might've taken years to sort out. Instead, we got President Bush. Man, did we ever dodge a bullet!

IATA code for John F. Kennedy International Airport. Located on the southern coast of Long Island. It used to be called Idlewild, after the location, although the official name was New York International Airport. Renamed for the assassinated president in memoriam. JFK is one of four airports for which reservations are always allocated by the ARO. Here's its status in real time from the ATCSCC.

Jewish Federations of North America. A federation, er, umbrella organization, of upwards of 150 Jewish federations. It was the ``United Jewish Communities'' until October 2009. Judging from the tool to find local organizations, the ``North America'' in the name includes Hawaii and excludes Mexico.

Junction-Gate [of a Junction (-gate) Field-Effect Transistor (JFET)].

Japanese Government Bond.

Japanese Geomorphological Union.

JoHannesBurg. One local name for the town is eGoli, meaning `city of gold.' Another town that doesn't have any native gold resources is Jerusalem, which has the epithet Yerushalayim shel zahar, `Jerusalem of gold.'

Jackson Hole Bible College.

``One God ... One Creation ... One Year ... One Foundation'' Trilogy. (Sorry, felt like sneaking that in.)

``Jackson Hole Bible College is a one-year, in depth study of the scriptures with a creation emphasis leading to a Biblical Foundation and Christian Worldview. ... We are dedicated to providing our students with a quality program combining outdoor recreational activities and solid Biblical teaching.''

One question you will ponder: ``How was the Grand Canyon really formed?'' Somehow I get the idea that this isn't going to be addressed from the ordinary godless perspective of a typical geology course. (Someone mentioned last February 2004 that there was a news story on just this topic: A book claiming that the Grand Canyon was formed in the aftermath of the Biblical flood was for sale at a US Park Service gift shop.)

Another: ``Could all the animals really fit on the Ark?'' Sure -- at the time all the life forms were prokaryotes.

Located in Jackson, Wyoming. ``Come visit our campus in the center of the beautiful Tetons.'' Pretty racy language for a bible college.

Journal of the History of Ideas. Published by Johns Hopkins University Press. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

J Homosexual
ISI abbreviation for the Journal of HOMOSEXUALity. I guess nothing shorter would do. They wanted to avoid confusion in case someone should start up a publication called Journal of Homologous Series (J Homo Se). I'm sure that's the reason.

Okay, the manuscripts were due at the end of August, and the following June, we heard that the relevant special issue was in press. It's November, two issues have appeared since the heads-up, but our issue hasn't. This isn't slow -- not even a little strange. It's f---in' queer!

There's actually a little bit of historical information (in your face!) at the GLQ entry.

Horrible film of Japan origin. Ah, sorry, please mistake, ah, HORROR film of Japanese origin.

Required features:

  1. Creepy little girl with long, dark hair.
  2. Supernatural stuff.
  3. Water as symbol of death.
  4. Western stars.
Recommended features:
  1. Remake of version with all-Japanese cast.
  2. Kouji Suzuki included in writing credits.

Movies like ``The Ring'' (2002) (not to be mistaken for the 1998 version with an all-Japanese cast or the 1999 Korean version), ``The Grudge'' (2004) (not to be mistaken for ``Ju-on: The Grudge'' (2003), Japanese cast), and ``Dark Water'' (2005).

Jobs, Health care, Oil, and Security. Pronounced, not very propitiously, ``jay-hose.'' Acronym, used within the 2004 Kerry presidential campaign, to refer to the campaign's essential message. Democratic presidential campaigns seem to generate more neologisms than Republican ones do. Cf. scorps.

Y'NO, I hadn't realized Kerry 2004 had a prospective policy-related message, but if I'd had to guess, I guess I'd have been way off. It's true that campaigns don't regularly have the luxury of being about what they'd like to be about, but this was ridiculous.

Journal of the History of Philosophy. ISSN 0022-5053.

JHPIEGO, the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Reproductive Health. I know, I know: it's a little bit difficult to extract the initials G-O from the words Reproductive Health. I only found this expansion in an article from 1999. Since then, they're even more reluctant to give an expansion. A few pages have the expansion, but the easiest way to find a page that gives it is to guess the expansion correctly first. It's the ``Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics.''

When they were founded, in 1973 or so, this was okay; since then, I guess the gee and oh terms have become increasingly politically fraught, so they're covering their, uh, asses. We live in a crazy world, but what's the alternative? This particular craziness is what we have come to recognize as a sealed acronym, but the seal is very slightly ajar or nonhermetic or something: Googling in January 2005, I found that for every page that revealed the original expansion of JHPIEGO, there were 300 that used JHPIEGO without the original expansion (whether without any expansion, or with the appositive and partially accurate expansion). That's unusual, but here at SBF it's our bread and butter, or anyway our virtual bread and butter. [In January 2013, it looks like someone has virtually eaten our breakfast, because that 300 is down to less than 20.]

Many webpages explain that JHPIEGO is ``pronounced `ja-pie-go'.'' When I learn how ``ja'' is pronounced (elsewhere than Jamaica), I'll let you know.

Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. You're probably asking yourself, ``are there some new ones?'' There always are.


Journal of Hellenic Studies. Founded in 1880, but it still hasn't got a website of its very own. Catalogued by TOCS-IN. A publication of the Hellenic Society (SPHS), annual since 1958 (previously semiannual).

Since the 1950's the JHS has had a supplement entitled Archaeological Reports (AR).

Junior High School. Typically seventh through ninth grades, distinguished from middle school, which ends at eighth grade (extended random thoughts at the MS entry).

Johns Hopkins University. The only university whose name is an admissions test. If you mess up the grammatical-number agreement in the school name, they toss your application in a slush pile for forwarding to UMBC admissions. Okay, I made that part up. They probably just write ``ADDRESSEES UNKNOWNS'' in big letters across the front and return to sender. That's what I would do. Cf. Liouville.

Johns Hopkins University CTY.

Joint Implementation (of action on greenhouse gases).

Junction Isolation (q.v.).

Apparently Japan International Cooperation. Standards.

Joint Industry Committee. An organization that standardizes hydraulic fittings specifications and symbols. More standards.

George Westinghouse, now best remembered for his electrical enterprises, made his fortune with an air brake for trains, and was a great proponent of industrial standardization. He lost his money in a crash (of the stock market) and died poor.

Joint Information Center.

Japan International Cooperation Agency.

Japan Industrial Conference on Cleaning.

Jerusalem International Computers and Communication.

Joint Industry Coupon Committee.

Japan Information Center of Science and Technology.

Jane's Intelligence Digest. They've really leveraged the name recognition now. JID is part of Jane's Information Group. For a list of their information services, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Joint Interoperability and Engineering Organization. [Of US Dept. of Defense (DOD).]

Journal of Indo-European Studies. A journal catalogued in TOCS-IN.

A dry liquid measure: 1.5 oz.

Obsolete term for four iron (golf club).

Japanese Institute of Intellectual Property.

Job Information List. The MLA has one that's divided up by academic disciplines.

Abstracted from the English Edition of the October MLA JIL's, 1975-1998, here is a graph of the number of positions listed. It peaked at 1053 positions in 1988. Another graph, served by ADE, shows the number of Ph.D.'s granted (probably only in the US) in English and American language and literature, 1958-2000. The curve has a similar shape, but it peaks at 1412 in 1973.

An alternate spelling of the volume unit normally spelled gill. Like gaol (British spelling of jail, pronounced ``jail''), gill is pronounced with a ``soft gee.'' So even though few people will recognize the unit in this alternate spelling, at least they'll know how to pronounce it. Also, it's accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries.

The gill is now generally taken to be equal to a quarter of a pint: 4 fluid ounces in the God-Ordained Tradition! System of Weights and Measures in use in the US, or 5 fluid ounces in the old British Imperial system. (Note that those are different fluid ounces: the fluid ounce of the US customary system is a volume equal to 1.8046875 cu. in., while the British fluid ounce measures 1.733871 cu. in., approximately.)

A half a gill (an eighth of a pint) is a noggin... in some places. In others it's equal to twice or four times that. Ain't it great? At various times and places, mostly in the past and England, a gill has also been a half pint, and in those places a quarter pint was a jack.

In Tour of the Hebrides for September 20, 1773, Boswell records Johnson's saying ``Each man called for his own half-pint of wine, or gill, if he pleased.'' I don't know how ``or'' was meant there (i.e., I don't know whether it is implied that a gill is a half pint), but I think it's worth pointing out that until British Imperial units were introduced, the Scots pint was a volume about equal to 1.80 US quarts.

Let's consider the spellings. English spelling generally reflects etymology, so that the pronunciation of certain letter sequences depends on the origin (or sometimes the mistakenly imputed origin) of the word. The initial letter sequence gi is a case in point.

The g is normally ``hard'' (or ``guttural'') in words of Germanic origin. Examples include giddy, gift, gild, gilt, gird, girdle, girth, girl, and give.

The g is ``soft'' in words taken from French, Italian, or Latin (even if they only passed through one of these languages on their way from Arabic or Greek). Relatively simple examples include giant, gibbet, giblet, gigantic, gigolo, ginger, and gingivitis. Gill itself is from the Old French gille, from the medieval Latin gillus, a wine vessel. Some exceptions to the rule can be explained on the basis of gui- spellings in Old French, including gimlet, gingham, and probably gizzard. More complicated things have happened as well (see gaol).

I suppose all this information really belongs at a gill entry rather than at this jill ``alternate spelling'' entry. Therefore, its presence here is a bonus.

Just to round out the entry, I should point out that in seventeenth-century England, the gill was once a unit used to measure quantities of tin, and in that application it corresponded to a full pint.

Japan Institute of Metals.

A nickname for James. In fact, ``James'' has a somewhat formal sound, so most Jameses are called Jim by their friends. But an Indian friend of mine is named James, and he doesn't use ``Jim'' because in many languages of the Indian subcontinent, jim means `dog.'

A tiny bit of candy for decorating ice cream, and a valid Scrabble word (with regular plural) according to the OSPD4 and the TWL2006. It wasn't listed in OSPD3 and was added to SOWPODS during the year or so before June 2007.

Diminutive form of Jim.

Jimmy the lock! Donald -- duck! Shit, John! It's a snap, Ginger! Oh Joy! You understand, Ken?

Name that GM came up with for its GMC truck division products. Cf. RB.

Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter. A proposed NASA vehicle that could move in and out of orbit around three of Jupiter's largest and most distant moons. The orbiter, to be powered by a nuclear reactor (for instruments and for an ion propulsion system) and expected to cost billions of dollars, is not expected to launch any earlier than 2011; exploratory studies for the project only began in February 2003.

Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures.

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. JINR is a research center in Dubna, Russia.

The first major research instrument was built at Dubna in 1947-1949, and the USSR Academy of Sciences eventually had two research institutes there: the Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP) and the Electrophysical Laboratory. CERN was created in 1954, and in 1956, keeping up with the Joneses of the West, the Soviet Union used those two Academy institutes as the basis on which to establish JINR. Initially, JINR could be regarded by the Soviets as their CERN, but over time they diverged. In particular, CERN eventually had showcase high-energy accelerators for elementary particle research, whereas Dubna stayed in what became the medium-energy regime -- nuclear physics. Probably the thing for which Dubna is best known is the discovery of new transuranic elements. This defines its peers: initially (like its prececessor INP), it competed with Berkeley (LBL) for discovery of and naming rights to new elements. Berkeley eventually moved in different directions also, and now Dubna's main peer institutions are GSI in Germany and the RIKEN Nishina Center (Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics Laboratory) in Japan.

The ``Joint'' in the name originally referred to various parts of the Soviet Empire: some, at least, of the republics of the USSR, and Soviet bloc member states. In a couple of days, I hope to find out about possible members or ``participants'' that are no longer such. I wonder in particular about the Baltic republics. It seems there may have been a little hesitation evem among those that re-upped: sovereign but not-especially independent Belarus renewed or continued its participation in 1991, seven other current participants that had been Soviet Republics did so only in 1992. (These were Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan). Russia, where Dubna is located, was always a participant by dint of the owner and operator, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, becoming the Russian Academy of Sciences. Nine other countries participate formally: Bulgaria, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Vietnam. Most of these, or their Soviet-era predecessors, have been members since 1956; Cuba joined in 1976; and for North Korea (the ``Democratic People's Republic'' and mass prison), appropriately enough, no details are available.

Most of my life, I've heard JINR referred to simply as ``Dubna.'' The 1962 accident that ended Lev Landau's career took place when he was being driven to Dubna. He was being driven by a graduate student, so you might suppose Dau was going to JINR. I think he was, but he was probably mixing business with pleasure. As his widow Kora Landau-Drobantseva explained in ch. 4 of her 1983 memoir (Akademik Landau. Kak mi zhili, `Professor Landau: How We Lived'), the Landaus had an open marriage. That fateful morning of January 7, 1962, he told her that she shouldn't answer the door -- he would do so. This was what she called a `stop sign' or `red light' -- evidently a warning not to be too inquisitive about his plans.)

Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs.

Jane's Intelligence Review. Just how much intelligence can they have if they try to hijack the acronym of the real JIR? How bright is that? They want the free publicity, sure. For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Journal of Irreproducible Results.TM Either this or Nature (London) is the most widely read scientific journal in the world. This is particularly impressive when you consider that JIR is no longer published as a periodical -- they're just reprinting best-of collections in book form. For something that's up-to-date, but no less um, whatever, see AIR.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences.

Japan Industrial Standard. Standards established by JISC (infra). More English-friendly JIS information served from Chiba University.

Jurisdictional Interstate Service.

Japan Information Service Association. (In English also.)

Japan Industrial Standards Committee.

Joint Information Systems Committee (of UK). Sometimes incorrectly expanded ``SubCommittee.'' Man, that kindof sloppiness really gets on my nerves.

Japanese Industrial Standard Code for Information Interchange. Slang designation of JIS character-set standards, modeled after ASCII (q.v.).

Juvenile Intensive Supervision Program. A New Jersey alternate-punishment program. See the ISP entry.

Just In Time. A manufacturing strategy that minimizes the capital invested in inventory by substituting close coordination with suppliers. First widely implemented in Japan, where many companies belong to keiretsu (loose conglomerates, very loosely speaking) that engender broad cooperation. There are both horizontal and vertical (integration) keiretsu, and some of both kinds would probably be in violation of antitrust law in the US. Most allegations of predatory practices by Keiretsu are never proven. It reminds me of Big Jule in ``Guys and Dolls'': ``Well, I used to be bad when I was a kid, but ever since then I've gone straight, as has been proved by my record: Thirty-three arrests and no convictions!''

The acronym is also used in computer programming. In general it refers to the second stage in certain two-stage compilations. In the first stage, the source code of a stand-alone program or module is ``compiled'' to byte code. In the second stage, which occurs at run time, the byte code is ``JIT compiled'' or ``jitted'' into an executable. This sort of two-stage compilation, and the term JIT, are characteristic of Java in general, and of all programming languages running within Microsoft's .NET framework.

Joint Interoperability Testing Center.

JIT Lieferung
German term meaning `Just In Time delivery.' In other words, it means `JIT.'

International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research.

Josai International University. A new university in Japan, founded 1992. The initialism is (as is fairly standard for romaji acronyms) given using English letter names (i.e., pronounced ``jay eye you'' -- or rather jei ai yu in romaji). You can hear this on the university song (WAV format here).

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe.

When we learned the word ogive in statistics (used as an alternate term for a cumulative distribution function) in high school, somebody observed that it was like, so cool to say ``oh jive!''


June, July, August. Aggregated Summer data. Take your complaints to the MAM entry. Cf. DJF, SON.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

JJ coupling
A procedure for treating the LS coupling in high-Z atoms (and essentially all nuclei), which for some electrons (nucleons) is so strong as to rival the residual Coulomb (internuclear) interaction magnitude. The procedure consists in first treating the LS coupling of individual electrons (nucleons), to define states of definite L, S, J and Jz, and then to treat the residual interaction as a perturbation coupling different J states.

Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.

JoKe. Chatese.

JK Flip-Flop. ``JK'' stands for Jordan and Kelly, the inventors. Or so I've heard. I've also read in various places that in 1919 W. H. Eccles and F. W. Jordan published the first FF circuit design. They called the circuit a ``trigger.''

J. K. Rowling.

J. K. Rowling
Pen name of Joanne Rowling, author of the hugely successful children's book series about the young wizard Harry Potter. It was supposed that boys would be less inclined to buy a book if they thought the author was a woman, hence the use of initials. Since a single initial tends to look unbalanced or inadequate, Rowling used the initials J. and K. The kay honors her late paternal grandmother Kathleen. Rowling, seemingly inappropriately, rhymes with bowling rather than howling.

[column] In college, Rowling read French with a Classics subsid (majored in French and minored in Classics; you could do a Classics subsid at Exeter without studying Latin). In one interview no longer at its old URL she said,

I went to Exeter University straight after school, where I studied French. This was a big mistake. I had listened too hard to my parents, who thought languages would lead to a great career as a bilingual secretary.
Her books are full of Latinate invented words, and she gave Hogwarts school the Latin motto Draco Dormiens Nunquam Titillandus (`Never Tickle a Sleeping Dragon'). As she put it in a March '99 interview at the Mothers Who Think website,
I taught for about four years, mainly teenagers. It is my own memories of childhood that inform my writing, however; I think I have very vivid recall of what it felt like to be 11 years old. The classics part of my degree at Exeter College did furnish me with a lot of good names for characters -- not exactly the use my lecturers expected me to put it to, however.

It was announced in December 2001 that Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, the first book in the Harry Potter series, would be published in Latin (in 2003) and ancient Greek (later). The stated intention is to help children overcome the common dread of studying the two dead languages. (Gives you a whole different take on ``scary stories,'' huh?) Peter Needham, who taught Latin and Greek at Eton College for more than 30 years, was contracted to do the Latin version. Needham is ``calling Harry Harrius Potter. Arrius is a Latin name -- there's an Arrius in a Catullus poem -- and it declines perfectly well so that, for example, we have Harrium Potterum. The literal translation of Potter would be Figulus but I very much hope that Potter will survive.'' (This is a bit of sly humor. In poem 84, Catallus ridicules Arrius for his speech defect: he inserts an aitch -- a rough breathing rather than a sound, as the Greeks and many Romans thought of it -- before words beginning in a vowel. Hence, he'd have pronounced his own name Harrius.)

For more on Roman attitudes to aitch, see comments in the Noctes Atticae (`Attic Nights') of Aulus Gellius, bk. II, iii.1-5, Quintilian, IO 1.5.19. One secondary source that I can think of, just speculation really, is E. S. Sheldon, ``H as a Mute in Latin,'' vol. 5 HSCP (1894), pp. 167-168.

Our small contribution to Harry Potter studies is the Voldemort entry.

For a deeper analysis of the use of initials and other variations in name presentation, see

It turns out the ``J. Rowling'' might have implied, depending on circumstances, that the author was self-derogatory or masochistic. ``J. K. Rowling'' is a form that may (as it does in this case) indicate a desire to avoid revealing oneself. Ezra Pound gave Hilda Doolittle the pen name H.D. I'm not clear whether this was intended to help get her work published; her first three published poems all appeared in the literary magazine Poetry, published by Pound's friend Harriet Monroe.

Other famous authors who have used a pseudonym that concealed the fact that they were women: George Eliot [Mary Ann Evans], George Sand, Collette. (No, ``Collette'' doesn't dissimulate the author's gender, but read on.) Samuel (Erewhon) Butler argued that The Odyssey (yeah, ``Homer's Odyssey'') was written by a woman (the title sort of kills the suspense of the argument: The Authoress of the Odyssey). A somewhat different case is presented by the Pentateuch, redacted from texts written by a number of authors (possibly not all male) and attributed to Moses (see J entry).

Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin (neé Dudevant) co-wrote her first novel with her then-lover Jules Sandeau, published under the single pseudonym Jules Sand. Her second novel, Indiana (my state of residence!), and subsequent novels, she single-authored as George Sand. She was famous not only for her novels but for her sexual iconoclasm -- smoking cigars, affecting male clothing, and engaging in multiple affairs with a lack of secretiveness unusual for women of her class. She had a prodigious output -- she wrote for the money. As Dr. Samuel Johnson said -- ``No man but a blockhead ever wrote except for money.''

Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine first wrote several books published under her husband's name (Henri Gauthier-Villars). After her divorce, she published first under her maiden name and then as Collette. In her memoirs she wrote

Born into an unmonied family, I never learned a métier. I knew how to climb, whistle, and run, but no one ever suggested that I earn my living as a squirrel or a deer. The day necessity put a pen in my hand, and in return for my written pages I was given a little money, I realized that every day thereafter I would slowly, tractably, patiently have to write . . .

(Did I mention Dr. Johnson? Have I pointed out that a major irritant in the long feud between Dostoyevsky and Turgenev was the fact that the latter was better-paid for his work? Dostoyevsky complained that Turgenev was paid five times as much per word. I wouldn't have complained if Fyodor had written shorter novels.)

George Sand, Collette, and J. K. Rowling all had unhappy first marriages, divorced and were poor, and wrote to make money. Mary Ann or Marian Evans, who wrote under the pen name George Eliot, never had a legally sanctioned first marriage -- unhappy or otherwise -- but she lived happily with George Henry Lewes from 1854 until his death in 1878. (He was unable to obtain a divorce from his first wife; his sinful cohabitation with Evans was a scandal.) There must be a pattern or a lesson in all this, but I can't imagine what it is.

Joanne Rowling was married on Friday, October 16, 1992. In Harry Potter and The Prisoner of Azkaban, Professor Trelawney tells Lavender Brown, ``That thing you are dreading -- it will happen on Friday the 16th of October.''

Some of the people who write romance novels are men, but none of the names of authors listed on the covers of romance novels are men's names. If you'll just do the arithmetic, you'll see that this means that there are men writing under female pseudonyms. In the traditional romance novel, the heroine finds happiness in her first marriage. (Although there does now exist a ``second chance'' subgenre.)

I read three romance novels once, almost, and later I thought, ``Hey, I can turn out shlock like this too!'' My cousin Victoria (raking in the big bucks as a schoolteacher) encouraged me in this enterprise, sort of, and came up with a good pen name for me. Eventually, however, I realized that to write what you can't bear to read any more of can really put a damper on your working life, so that project is on hold everlasting.

There's a bound typescript publication by Alice Kahler Marshall, Pen Names of Women Writers from 1600 to the Present (1985). For Laura Riding, the pen names listed are Barbara Rich; Laura Riding (Jackson; Gottschalk). Don't worry if you find this confusing. It was confusing. There was an article on her in TNR many years ago (1980's, probably), and I think the title was Laura Riding Roughshod.

The Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope. A 1.0-meter telescope operated by ING on behalf of the NWO and other scientific do-gooders.


Journal of Late Antiquity. Published twice a year, it ``is the first international English-language journal dedicated to the study of Late Antiquity writ large. The journal provides a venue for multi-disciplinary coverage of all the methodological, geographical, and chronological facets of Late Antiquity, going from AD 250 to 750, ranging from Arabia to the British Isles, and running the gamut from literary and historical studies to the study of material culture. One of the primary goals of the journal is to highlight the status of Late Antiquity as a discrete historical period in its own right.''

Here's something interesting that the whole family can appreciate: a half-page ad (5.5 × 4") costs $206, while a full-page ad (5.5 × 9") costs $275.

Jefferson LAB. Previously, and still informally, known as CEBAF. Known more formally as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Street address: 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia.

Justice League of America: New World Order. Superman (with longer hair than I remember from years ago), Batman, Wonder Woman, and Flash (?), and three lesser heroes including the Green Lantern, a Martian, and somebody else green and super, I think. From DC Marvel Comics.

Superman's parents perished when his home planet was destroyed, and Batman's parents were murdered. They're both very unhappy about these violent demises of course. I don't know about the other superheroes, but I think I see a pattern of childhood fantasy here that would not want to recognize itself. Harry Potter is a sort of boy superwizard; his parents are killed at the beginning of the first Harry Potter book.

Incidentally, you know that according to oral history as handed down and reported by Flavius Josephus (Antiq. Jud. 1.13, 2), Isaac was twenty-five years old when Abraham set out to sacrifice him. Also according to the oral history, they came down Mt. Moriah in silence and never spoke to each other again. I mean, like, what do you expect?

[I think it's just so cool how, by proceeding methodically in alphabetical order, all of these unexpected connections just automatically reveal themselves. (Don't mind the dangle.) There must be something to literacy.]

J. K. Rowling's mother died of MS when the author was twenty-five. Her father moved in with another woman what-many-regarded-as indecently soon after, and due to various other circumstances, relations between Joanne and her father were strained. It seems they talk infrequently, if ever. I'd say more, but recently a Byzantinist I know, and I too, have been criticized for publicizing information about JKR. You know -- personal, private stuff, the kinds of secrets you only learn about if you read newspapers. God forbid if that kind of information were to get into a mailing-list or web site -- everyone would know about it. If I pick up any information in my lonely monitoring of the Tonight Show With Jay Leno, I'll be sure to keep mum about that too.

Java Language Conversion Assistant. The one I know of that is so called is meant to output or yield C# code.

An IC chip carrier lead shaped like the letter J. Typically, the lead comes out of the side of package, goes down along the vertical side of the package and then continues past the bottom in the shape of a semicircle, tucking underneath the package.

J'lem, Jlem

Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor. A theater-based sensor system using deploys tethered aerostats.

The US Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology originally established the JLENS program office in 1996 as the Joint Aerostat Project Management Office. Originally targeted for initial deployment in 2012, the roll-out has been moved up (as of 2005) to 2010.

Japanese-Language Instruction.

According to ACTFL figures mentioned in this report by Kyoko Toriyama (1992), it experienced a surge in the 1980's. By 1985 US high-school enrollments for Japanese had surpassed those for Russian, making Japanese the sixth-most-studied foreign language, with a total enrollment of 8,558. As of 2000, Japanese was still in sixth (at 0.8% of FL enrollments), after Spanish (70.8%, including SNS), French (18.3%), German (4.8%), Latin (2.7%), and Italian (1.2%).

The source for the Y2K percentages in the last paragraph is the ACTFL report quoted at the SNS entry, which does not list Japanese-language enrollments for 1985. It appears that enrollments continued to surge in the early 1990's and then began to stabilize: total public high-school enrollments were 24,123 in 1990, 42,290 in 1994, and 50,884 in 2000. (Yes, the ACTFL does these studies rather irregularly. In my experience, US Education statistics are gathered at haphazard intervals.)

California public high schoools had the most students studying -- about 10,000. Hawaii had 7400, which probably represents the highest percentage of students.

The 1992 study by Toriyama was primarily based on a survey sent to 29 high schools; usable responses were obtained from 17 schools. These schools reported using 11 different textbook series. The most popular textbooks were designed for the college level, and there was evident dissatisfaction with the available texts designed for English-speaking high-school students.

Most schools were allocating 3 to 6 weeks to learn hiragana and an additional 2 to 6 weeks for katakana. There was enormous variation in the rate at which kanji were introduced. The focus was generally on speaking and understanding first.

Joint Level Interface Protocol.

Jennifer LOpez. Hispanic actress and singer who became a star with her portrayal of murdered Hispanic singer Selena. (Is that a stretch, or what?) Lopez (also Lópes) is a common Spanish surname. There's a Jennifer Lopez who works as an announcer on The Weather Channel.

Joint (Military Services) Logistics Over The Shore (LOTS).

Japanese Language Proficiency Test. A particular one set by JEES and administered by JEES in Japan, by the Interchange Association in Taiwan, and by the Japan Foundation elsewhere. (The Japan Foundation is a Japanese government organization that appears to have no other function than to administer the JLPT abroad, at no charge.)

Japanese Livestock Technology Association. I don't really have any information on livestock technology that you could use around the home, Japanese or otherwise, although cattle probes are tempting. Why don't you visit the cow magnet entry? It describes a technological cure for the bovine malady known as hardware disease.

(Domain code for) Jamaica.

James Madison. He signed himself JM.

Johnny Mnemonic. Protagonist of a 1995 movie by the same name. There used to be a pretty good JM-themed pinball machine (from Gottlieb, I think). You probably remember the great Gary Larson comic in which a Neanderthalish fellow in the middle of the class asks to be excused, because ``[his] brain is full.'' That's basically the premise of this movie.

Junge Mädchen. [German: `Young Girls.'] Nazi Brownies (pre-Girl Scouts). Cf. BDM.


Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Jerusalem Media and Communication Centre. An organization that polls Palestinians.

Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. Published by ASIP and AMP.

Journal of MicroElectronic Packaging. They seem to be pretty careful. One of our papers received three peer reviews. It's not like they needed a third to break a tie: all three were positive. Maybe they used three reviewers to be sure they got the paper reviewed within two months (their own target, which they met).

Journal of Modern Greek Studies.

Just My (Honest|Humble} Opinion. Modeled after IMHO.

Journal of Medieval Military History. Published annually by Boydell and Brewer for Deremi. One of the founding editors, and contributor to the first issue (I hope that's not a conflict) commented on Mediev-L that `` one of the reasons for this journal has been the ignoring of military history by Speculum and other so-called mainstream journals.''

The first issue: November 2002.

Just My Opinion. Modeled after IMO.

Joint(-gate) Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS). A realization of CMOS logic in which gates are constructed with PMOS transistors below (typically) and NMOS above a common gate.

Joint Memorand{um|a} Of Understanding (MOU).

JuMP. Assembly-language goto.

Journal of Manufacturing Systems, published by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

If I order now (because I ``belong to a very special group'') I'll receive Passion for Manufacturing absolutely free! Wow. My mouth is secreting enzyme-rich anticipatory saliva.

They list no web site.

John Molson School of Business. Part of Concordia College (in Montreal). Why could't they be ``MSB'' like everybody else?

Japan MIDI Standards Committee.

Journal of Music Theory.

James Madison University.

Jet Navigation Chart.

Well, if the navigation chart is jet, I hope they used a light-colored ink.

Joint National Committee For Languages. ``Since 1976, the Joint National Committee for Languages has provided a forum for cooperation and discussion among language professionals.'' ``JNCL is affiliated with the National Council for Languages and International Studies (NCLIS), an advocacy organization with which it shares a governance structure and staff.

Just-Noticeable Difference. The smallest difference sensible. A famous rather approximate rule says that within a broad range, the JND is a fixed fraction of the stimulus magnitude. From this, if one regards the JND as a perceptual ``measuring unit,'' one concludes that sense is logarithmic. That is, the subjective difference in magnitude between two stimuli is proportional to the absolute ratio of their stimulus intensities. This makes decibels (dB) a natural unit of measure.

Compare Least Publishable Unit (LPU).

Just-Noticeable Distortion. In political speech, any level of honesty beyond this level is known as `martyrdom.'


Japan Numismatic Dealers Association.


Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Jewish National Fund.

Jane's Navy International. See our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Java Native method Interface.

Journal of Nursing Jocularity.

Japanese Neural Network Society. Quite apparently distinct from International and European same, though they publish a thing or two jointly.

John. Although this is used systematically (among those who still bother to abbreviate John) to the exclusion of ``Jo.'' (which is used for Joseph, Joel, and some related names), an exception occurs for John the Baptist (Jo. Bapt.).

Jump if No Overflow. Assembly mnemonic.

Johnson-Noise-Power Thermometer. The power spectral density of noise in a resistor is proportional to the absolute temperature and to the resistance. This discovery, and its theoretical explanation, were presented in back-to-back articles in the Bell System Technical Journal, by Johnson and Nyquist, respectively, in about 1920.

Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages.

Japan National Tourist Organization. Also see Tourism entry.

Joel, Joseph, Joeline, Josephine, and some other names. Not used for John (Jno.). Except in the case of John the Baptist (Jo. Bapt.).

(Domain code for) Jordan.

A sweetheart. Specifically, a Scrabble® sweetheart. The kind of sweetheart that is cherished because it's a two-letter word that enables a ``player'' to discard a letter J that is no longer wanted. It does sound rather heartless, but it's accepted by all three major Scrabble dictionaries.

Interestingly, this kind of jo appears to be a concrete count noun without a plural form (JOS is not accepted by any of the three major Scrabble dictionaries). Maybe it's a lonely instance of the vocative in English.

Joint Operating Agreement.

Junior Olympic Archery Development. ``Our most important asset in archery, just as in life, is our youth.'' Tough luck for me.

Surname of the family at the center of John Steinbeck's 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath.

The title of the novel is borrowed from the song ``The Battle Hymn of the Republic.'' (``Oh mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. / He is tramping out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored. / He has loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword. / His truth is marching on.'' These are not the lyrics exactly as Julia Ward Howe wrote them, but as I have always heard them.) The lyrics allude to Rev. 14:19, which mentions a ``great winepress of the wrath of God'' (in the KJV) that yielded blood (Rev. 14:20). There are plenty of other Biblical allusions, and the name Joad sounds somewhat Biblical too, echoing Joab, Moab, Job, Joed, and a very large number of personal and place names ending in -ad.

Here's an unusual use of the English language:
I got a job by accident.

When we were graduate students in physics, and we observed as each student in turn disappeared beyond the event horizon of the final public oral (FPO), to be torn apart by the tidal forces of the job-market black hole, one of the few triangulation points we learned was the following datum:

Job offers are bosons.
That is, they obey Bose-Einstein (B-E) statistics: if you are in a one-job-offer state, your probability of transitioning to a two-job-offer state is twice the probability that the poor guy with no job offer will get even one; if you are in a two-job-offer state, your chances of getting another offer are three times his chance of getting a first job offer. The injustice of this situation is obvious, since the person with no job offers needs a job offer much more than the person with two, who is going to turn down one of the offers anyway. It is said that the market is cold, and while no precise temperature measurement has been reported, it appears that we may be close to the Bose Condensation (BEC) regime, where all the job offers condense on one applicant. On the basis of this observation, I think that an effective jobs program would be to give that one applicant a secretary. That would not only open up a secretary position, but the excess job offers could be turned down promptly, creating a population inversion, etc.

Even I get tired of teeteringly extended metaphors, and I hadn't even discussed lasing. It is probably fair to note that early research on job offer statistics is implied in the classic research of Saint Matthew (Matthew Principle) However, I first learned about quantum job-offer statistics from Steve, a student of Arthur S. Wightman, so it may be that the principle has now been placed on a rigorous axiomatic field-theory foundation.

New research suggests that MOTAS statistics are also bosonic. For more detail on job stats, try following the link at the BLS entry.

Although they're not pronounced identically, it seems appropriate that the Biblical Job and the quotidian job should have the same spelling. Both are associated with great suffering. Incidentally, the English word job has been borrowed into German as a masculine noun. This loan is reputed to have a German pronunciation simmilar to the English (something like what would be spelled ``jawp''). But it's a very common word, and without researching the matter, I suspect that as usual its pronunciation will go a bit native and start to resemble that of the name of the Biblical character (also spelled Job or almost equivalently Hiob).


Jahrbuch der Österreichische Byzantinistik.

Jo. Bapt.
John the Baptist. The guy who lost his head two thousand years ago. Not used as a given name in English, but in some other languages, such as French (Jean-Baptiste, abbrev. J.-B.).

Note that normally, Jo. abbreviates Joel and some other names, and John is abbreviated Jno.. I've also seen JBap used, by HJ people who think nothing of posting ten-thousand-word messages every couple of days for months on end, all under the subject head ``Historical method.''

JOBOP, JobOp, Jobop
Job Opportunity.

job out
A term patterned on drop-out. A job out is someone who is lured out of a technical training program by a job.

JOsephson (junction) Broadband Spectrometer.

Joburg, Jo'burg
JOhannesBURG, South Africa.

Japanese Olympic Committee.

Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers. The Japanese Peace Corps.

Java Objects Everywhere.

Short for Joseph. Hey -- where' you goin' with that gun in your hand?

Baby kangaroo. A kid sister of Carrie Fisher, who's on a TV show. ``Ellen'' vel sim.

I'm goin' down to shoot my ol' lady, you know I caught'er messin'roun' with another man.

joggers with umbrellas
I thought of that today when I didn't see it. That's how free association works, probably.

Elton's last name. He was born Reginald Kenneth Dwight.

JOHN von Neumann Integrator and Automatic Computer. An early computer built by the RAND corporation and based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann and named in his honor. Like all computers of its era, it was a one-of-a-kind machine that could not exchange programs with other computers (even other IAS machines). Then again, the programs were pretty short. JOHNNIAC operated from 1953 until February 11, 1966, logging over 50,000 operational hours. The machine currently takes up space at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California.

The preceding information, but not the crucially important attitude component, was cribbed from the JOHNNIAC entry at Wikipaedia, the free encyclopaedia, with an extra vowel because this is SBFary, the free glossary.

According to the Giant Computers file, this computer contained about 3000 tubes, no crystals, and about 200 relays, and occupied 250 square feet. It was used for scientific calculations for general research.

Johnny Rotten
Gerard is taken with the album title:
Never mind the bollocks.

JR got back together with the rest of the Sex Pistols for a recording session or concert or something, in 1997, so he could insult them and give a filip to his sagging solo career.

Johnson is the second most common surname in the US.

When Gary and Susan married in Scottsdale, one of my tasks, as a local, was to taxi some of the out-of-town guests, including Gary's sister. Sitting in the back seat, she asked about the frilly black garter on the floor of my car. I had to explain about how a famed composer of liturgical music, David A. Johnson, had passed away not long before, and how, as a direct and unavoidable consequence of the Law of Unintended Consequences, a letter of condolence had arrived at CSSER, where another David A. Johnson was an ASU graduate student in EE. It was decided to celebrate David's passing with a memorial quaff at a nearby bar, within walking distance of EE for the badly decomposed body himself. Seeking to show the proper respect, I called a few funeral homes for information, but they all said it was an east coast thing, or an Italian thing, and they had no idea where I could get a black armband, so I went out and bought a black garter as the next-best thing.

Then Gary's sister asked me about the castanets.

One of the problems with having a popular name like David Johnson, in addition to people mistaking you for another David Johnson, is people mistaking you for another David Johnson when it's really you. This happened to Orioles manager Davey Johnson, who on the same day at the end of the 1997 season (a) was fired from his job and (b) won the American League Manager-of-the-Year honors. It was the same guy, but the team owner obviously thought that the Davey Johnson who did such a good job was a different Davey Johnson than the one he was firing. I guess. Perhaps owner Angelos was confused because the same Davey Johnson had managed teams in both American and National Leagues (none of which had ever finished lower than second place). Perhaps Mr. Angelos was confused because Davey Johnson had managed the team to a second-place finish the previous year, but this year the team was in first place from the first day of the season to the last. Perhaps Mr. Angelos was just confused.

Maybe Davey Johnson can pretend to be the different DJ who won the award and get his old job back as a new DJ. Reminds me of the new Richard Nixon.

There ought to be some way to take advantage of this kind of thing.

Legally, I mean.

Japanese Olympiad of Indiana.

Jewish Outreach Institute.

Remember, you can't spell joking without king. When the king tells a joke, everybody laughs.

``The Great Race'' (1965) was directed by Blake Edwards and had an all-star cast (alright, not quite literally) led by Jack Lemmon, Tony Curtis, and Natalie Wood (not credited in that order). Jack Lemmon played Professor Fate -- one of the racers -- and also Crown Prince Frederick Hoepnick of Pottsdorf, where the movie is temporarily detained on its way from New York to Paris. I won't be able to finish this entry until I revisit that.

The Icelandic word for glacier runs -- flooding due to glacier melting.

Journal of the Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society.

Joints, Obvious (cardiac), Nodules (subcutaneous), Erythema marginatum, Syndeham's chorea. The major criteria for acute rheumatic fever, in mnemonic form. (From Seth Wright's list at Vanderbilt.)

Jones, LeRoi
Imamu Amiri Baraka.

Jón Gnarr
This entry is among the j's rather than the g's because it starts with J, see? Anyway, in many languages the pronunciations of j and g overlap. Granted, that's not the case in Icelandic: the initial g in Gnarr is unvoiced. (I.e., it's pronounced /k/. Interestingly, all the stop consonants in Modern Icelandic are unvoiced, and the distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants that is typical in other European languages is replaced by a phonemic aspirated/unaspirated distinction.) Nice try, though. Honestly, I've put the entry here because I wanted another j entry. Also, this is the name of a person whose last name is not Gnarr. The full name is Jón Gnarr Kristinsson. As you may have gathered, it's an Icelandic name, so Kristinsson is a patronymic and not a family name. Jón was named Jón Gunnar Kristinsson at birth (on January 2, 1967), but in 2005 he had the middle name legally changed to Gnarr, which is the way his mother pronounced it when he was kid. How did she pronounce it later? I don't know.

For the moment, most of our substantive information about Jón Gnarr is at Farting People, The.

A mixture of Spanish and Guaraní.

Joint (Military Services) Operating Planning and Execution System.

Joseph was a snitch. It says so at Genesis, ch. 37, verse 2: he would go and rat to Dad on his own older brothers. That's the real reason they hated him. It wasn't the coat.

No one likes a snitch. His own brothers wouldn't even talk to him (37:3). God spake directly to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Joseph? Let him interpret dreams.

Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat
Joseph's father gave him a garment that was described in Hebrew as [transliterated; I'll get around to Unicode in a decade or two] k'tonet passim. The first word means `garment' of some sort, but the second word is a mystery, at least as of 1995, which is the most recent literature I've looked at. (Of course, some speculations are expressed confidently. Shame on me for being taken in.)

The Septuagint (LXX) translates the term with chiton polikilon, `many-colored coat.' But the Septuagint translation came many centuries after the text of Genesis was first composed (the Hebrew continued evolving, though), and it appears that `many-colored' was a guess. (Most of the relevant Genesis chapter, 37, appears to have been written by the J author. In fact, the sentence that introduces the famous garment calls Joseph's father ``Israel,'' and that is generally regarded as a reliable indication that the author was J. However, the other two contexts of k'tonet passim in this chapter are E, so the clause with this phrase is considered E. Textual criticism, ugh.)

Another traditional interpretation is that passim here means `with sleeves,' and that is the translation favored by, for example, the revised standard version (``robe with sleeves''). Yick. No one ever seems to mention that -im is a plural ending, and for `sleeves' one might expect the dual ending -ayim. I mean, to the extent that the -ayim is possible or probable, its absence counts as weight in the balance against the sleeve interpretation. (Ah say, ah say gimme that ollllllld time relijun! The KJV, in His Own English, says ``coat of many colors.'' Yea and Amen!)

For a word like passim, it's natural to seek occurrences elsewhere in the Bible. In addition to the three occurrences in the Joseph story (ch. 37, vss. 3, 23, 32), k'tonet passim occurs in II Sam. 23:18, where it describes a garment worn by the daughters of kings.

That's the uncertain state of affairs as it stood, in limbo for a couple of millennia. In the twentieth century, there was some new old information. Among cuneiform inventories (written in Akkadian, another Semitic language), one kind of clothing listed is kitu pishannu and kiutinnu pishannu [details in JNES vol. 8, p. 177 (1949)]. These were ceremonial robes for draping over the statues of goddesses, and pishannu apparently denoted gold appliqué ornaments. (The ornaments were sewn on; they would come undone and require resewing, at which time they would appear in the inventories.)

I'm not sure how firm this Akkadian stuff is, but it's good enough for me. Anyway, you can see that title ``Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat,'' for a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, takes no unusual liberties in translation.

A circular disc concentric to a shaft, which rests in a complementary bearing and supports centered rotation when the shaft is subject to lateral stress, as in a camshaft or crankshaft. Cf. magazine.

journalistic balance
In a 1984 conversation with Edna O'Brien, Philip Roth commented (Shop Talk, p. 109) that she ``write[s] about women without a taint of ideology or, as far as I can see, any concern with talking a correct position.'' Her reply began thus:
The correct position is to write the truth, to write what one feels regardless of any public consideration or any clique. I think an artist never takes a position either through expedience or umbrage. Artists detest and suspect positions because you know that the minute you take a fixed position you are something else--you are a journalist or you are a politician.

journalistic instinct
The courage to ask a question which accurately reflects the ignorance of one's audience, combined with the wisdom to accept an answer only if it is consonant with one's own sincerest prejudices.

For thoughts on the common adjective jovial, you obviously don't want the JOVIAL entry -- that's about a computer language. See the JPO entry instead.

JOVIAL, Jovial
Jules's Own Version of IAL. IAL was the original name of Algol, and Jovial was similar to Algol 60. I don't know who this fellow Jules is, or perhaps was, but he was apparently associated with the US Air Force, since that was the main customer for Jovial. And is! The felicitously named USAF JOVIAL Program Office, based at Hill AFB, has a webpage that was updated as recently as April 2006. Then again, the B-52 was last manufactured in 1962, and the plan is for the Air Force to still be flying it in 2040, so I suppose this isn't all that surprising.

Benjamin Jowett, of course, born in London, 1817. Often referred to as ``Jowett of Balliol,'' the college at Oxford where he was master from 1870 until his death in 1893. A Church of England clergyman, he also served as vice chancellor of Oxford.

The following bit of doggerel, written about him during his early years as a lecturer, expresses something of his personality and the pronunciation of his name:

First Come I
My name is Jowett;
It is not knowledge
If I don't know it.

Another instance of poetry used to elucidate the pronunciation of an English name is given at the Pepys entry. The poems convey the pronunciation information in rhyme as well as meter. Of course, many kinds of poetry do not use rhyme. That is particularly true of poetry in Ancient Greek (which will become relevant to this entry later) and in Latin (whose most prestigious poetic forms were adapted from Greek). As Dante wrote in Vita nuova, in his day (around 1300), the ``poet'' word was reserved for writers of Latin verse, and the rest were mere ``rimatori.'' Japanese poetry also doesn't make much use of rhyme. (Frankly, with mostly synthetic verb conjugation and with a verb-last syntax, rhyme might get pretty boring and even silly, though it seems to work in German despite the V2 structure.) So haiku is based on syllable counts. For an instance of pronunciation clarified by haiku, see the homogeneous entry.

You needed password authorization to access <www.jamesjoyce.org>. This seemed fundamentally wrong, and sure enough, they no longer have a DNS entry.

Joyce ACC
Edmund P. Joyce Athletic and Convocation Center Fieldhouse. It's located west of the Notre Dame Football stadium. (At one time, Juniper Road ran behind the west of where the stadium now, stands. Then, to accommodate the expanding campus, Juniper Road was shifted east, and the parts of it that remained inside the campus were renamed ``Old Juniper Road.'' The stadium was on the west side of the new Juniper Road, and later the Joyce ACC was built on the east side across from the stadium. Juniper Road was normally a two-way street, but for many hours on football Saturdays it was one-way ``in'' (toward the stadium) or ``out.'' Other buildings continued to be built east of Juniper, and in 2006 or so, to accommodate the expanding campus, most of Juniper Road was torn up and grassed over, or otherwise landscaped or repaved as part of the new parking configuration. As of 2008, Joyce ACC is separated from the stadium by a plaza, so it looks like part of a stadium complex. Joyce ACC is frequently mis-expanded (or at least unofficially expanded) as ``Joyce Athletic and Convention Center.''

When WNDU-TV's first transmission tower was completed in June 1955, its blinking red beacon was installed eighteen inches below the apex rather than at top, as is normal. You might think that this displacement would have endangered any barnstorming pilots coming in to land (VFR) at South Bend Regional, but not to worry: at the top was ``a gilded statue of Mary, mother [an avatar, as I understand it] of God,'' according to WNDU, which goes on to point out that

The simplicity of the sculpture is overwhelming.
Frankly, if the closest most people will get to see it is 570 feet (the height of the original broadcast tower) minus eye height, why spend money making a complex speculative likeness?

Maybe it is the simplicity of the faithful that is overwhelming. In 1415, as the friar Jan Hus (`John Huss' in English) was being burned alive at the stake, he remarked, or quipped (with great presence of mind, IMO):

O sancta simplicitas!
[`Oh Holy Simplicity!'] This was apparently a reference to a peasant adding a faggot to stoke the fire. It was also presumably an allusion to a comment of Saint Jerome -- Veneratoni mihi semper fuit non verbosa rusticas sed sancta simplicitas. [`I have always revered not crude verbosity but holy simplicity.'] Then again, maybe he was misheard and actually said ``Oh Holy Shit!''

That hasn't aught to do with this entry, I guess, except that the tower functions as a lightning arrestor, so the statue is scarred up some after fifty years. What does have to do with this entry is that in June 1955, Father Edmund P. Joyce demonstrated his athleticism by climbing to the top of the 570-foot tower and blessing the statue. Just how close did he have to get? Couldn't he bless it from the ground? In 1970, the statue was lifted to the top of WNDU's new 1000-foot tower, but it wasn't necessary to rebless it because it had already been blessed fifteen years earlier. Why didn't they think ahead in 1955 and first put it at the top of a two-foot tower so that it could be blessed at a convenient height? Then they could transfer it to the new (570-foot) tower with no need for a rebless climb (just as it wasn't needed in 1970). These clerical types just aren't practical.

Father Edmund Joyce, C.S.C., died in Spring 2004.

In a press release dated November 23, 2005, the University of Notre Dame announced that it had reached an agreement with Gray Television, Inc., under which Gray acquires all of the capital stock of Michiana Telecasting Corporation, the university-owned company that operates WNDU-TV, for $85 million in cash, most of which will be invested in the university's endowment. Student internships at WNDU-TV will continue. The agreement is subject to certain conditions and regulatory approval, and is expected to be completed before June 30, 2006. According to the press release, WNDU-TV ``is the NBC affiliate serving the South Bend-Elkhart, Ind., television market, the nation's 87th largest Designated Market Area (DMA).''

Eighty-seventh largest DMA out of roughly two hundred? A four-syllable rank? This is humiliating. No wonder all our local stations are in UHF Siberia (WNDU is channel 16, WNIT is 34, WSBT is 22; there's at least one other). Gray previously announced its acquisition of WSAZ-TV, the NBC affiliate serving Charlestown-Huntington, W.Va. Where?

Gray Television, headquartered in Atlanta, will own 35 stations when the WNDU and WSAZ acquisitions are complete, reaching approximately 6 percent of total U.S. TV households. This is not making me feel better. Of these 35, 16 are CBS affiliates, 10 are NBC affiliates, and 7 are ABC affiliates. Twenty-five of the stations ranked No. 1 in local news audience, and 24 are No. 1 in overall audience within their respective markets. Is this impressive? Why sure: the 35 stations serve only 30 TV markets, so at most 30 could be first. I don't know if any more than six of these markets are served by a No. 2 TV station.

Joy's Law
Computing power of the fastest microprocessors, measured in MIPS, increases exponentially in time. Roughly,
                   uP speed = 2             MIPS

Oh joy.

While RISC processors are following this trend, the essentially CISC personal computer uP's have been scaling more slowly. Cf. Moore's Law and Rent's Rule.

Bill Joy is a co-founder of Sun Microsystems, Inc.. In addition to this ``Joy's Law,'' he has other, noneponymous laws, such as ``The smartest people in every field are never in your own company.'' I bet this makes him real popular with his own employees. To compensate, they hold regular Gates-hates (not their official or even unofficial name, but accurate). You could see this sort of thing evolving into those Goldstein scream things in 1984. Which reminds me of the famous advertisement that Apple Computer used.

(Domain code for) Japan. There's a Japanese <--> English Dictionary Server. Here's another. A major resource for learning Japanese is also available online. A clutch of Japan FAQ's is available.

International telephone access number 81.

Impress your non-Japanese friends with authentic-sounding Japanese profound gibberish!

Here's the Japanese page of an X.500 directory.

The hierarchical structure of domains under the .jp nTLD is described under JPNIC. Appart from <google.jp>, an important Japanese search engine is NAVER.

Jerusalem Post.

Jet Prop{ ellant | ulsion }.

J. P.
Justice of the Peace.

J. P.
John Pierpont (Morgan) (1837-1913).

Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex.

Johnson Publishing Company, Inc. ``The world's largest Black-owned publishing company is the home of Ebony and Jet magazines. Also part of the company are Fashion Fair Cosmetics, Supreme Beauty Products, Ebony Fashion Fair and Johnson Publishing Company Book Division.''

Joint Publishing Company, Ltd. (In Hong Kong.)

Based at JPCERT/CC (next). A member of FIRST.

JaPan Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center. ``Emergencies'' are security breaches. See CERT for other relevant organizations.

JPEG, jpeg
Joint Photographic Experts Group of the CCITT. Also refers to the compressed graphics encoding defined by this group. There's a jpeg-faq for this. Graphics files encoded according to this scheme often take a .jpg extension. Pronounced ``Jay-peg.'' Cf. MPEG.

Jean Paul Gaultier. He's the guy trying to get non-Scottish guys to wear skirts. Not a common expansion of this acronym.

.jpg, .JPG
Common filename extension for JPEG files.


APh abbreviation that used to stand for the Journal of Philology, now long-defunct, in which A. E. Housman published many of his papers, and which now stands for the Journal of Philosophy.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Journal of Philosophical Logic.

JaPan Network Information Center.

Japanese Patent Office Others here.

Jovial Program Office. Sign me up! Errr, what's this business about ``orders'' and ``conscription''? The Air Force runs this thing!? It didn't sound so serious. It turns out that Jovial is a programming language, so I suppose JPO does sound serious -- compared to JPPO. They write it ``JOVIAL Program Office,'' and I suppose they have a point with the all-caps, since it's an acronym and all, but what I want to talk about is joviality.

[column] I can see in principle how Jove could be what is called jovial. If I were the Olympian top dog, or pot god, or some other permutation, I imagine that I could find my way to a permanent high. But his reported activities suggest that like JPO, Jove is basically about target acquisition and force projection. All you hear is thundrous lightning thrown and nymphs raped by Jove. And when a mere man calls his wife a ``goddess'' (not even a ``domestic goddess'' or a genia loci), rightly suspicious sister Juno is decidedly not the kind of babe he has in mind. ``Saturnine,'' on the other hand -- that I can see.

Jerusalem Post.

Japan Physical Society. When spelled out, it's normally Physical Society of Japan.

They publish JJAP, JPSJ, and PTP.

Jewish Publication Society. Based in Cambridge, UK. Known principally for its translation of the Jewish Bible (``Old Testament'' from a Christian POV), NJPS.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan.

Jewish Publication Society Version. The (Jewish) Bible translation of published by the JPS in 1917. Superseded by the NJPS. They just keep coming up with better bibles; you can't stop progress.

An orgy that begins the Friday following Ash Wednesday of the sophomore year. Extra-large sweat-shirts with the letters J - P - W are on sale at the university book store.

It must have been a long time ago that I wrote the first paragraph of this entry. At the University of Notre Dame (in Saint Joseph County, Indiana), JPW stands for Junior Parents' Weekend. It sounds a bit like it's promoting teenage pregnancy, but it's actually a juniors' parents weekend: a weekend when the parents of juniors enrolled in the university come to visit their kids and see what their $30,000 or so a year is buying. I'm not sure how they pick the weekend. In 2008 it was the second weekend after Ash Wednesday (Feb. 16-17), so secular considerations may intrude.

This annual ritual was instituted in 1952 by then-president Father Theodore Hesburgh. (For more about names ending in -burgh, see the Pgh entry.) Father Hesburgh (``Father'' is not his first name, so this isn't an instance of nomen est omen) felt that ``parents should become more involved in their students' lives at Notre Dame before the following year's graduation ceremony,'' according to an article in the student newspaper in 2008, when about 1750 parents were expected for JPW.

A quick bit of googling suggests that Harvard is the only other school with a Junior Parents' Weekend. Harvard is a more demanding school, though: they also have a Freshman Parents' Weekend. Saint Mary's College, which neighbors Notre Dame, has a Sophomore Parents' Weekend on the same weekend that Notre Dame has its JPW. Entirely by coincidence (surely they wouldn't do it as a deliberate provocation!?) the students who do a local performance of ``The Vagina Chronicles'' have a performance on Sunday during the parents' weekend.

Saint Mary's College also holds an annual event for seventh-grade girls from the local area (Michiana) to, of all things, ``celebrate [the] accomplishments of Saint Mary's students in math.'' They were expecting 90 students on Saturday, February 23, 2008. (I didn't follow up to check how many actually showed up, okay?) This (2008) is the 18th year they hold the event, and it's also the first year that I've heard of it. Of that I am pretty sure, because a Catholic school celebrating a ``Hypatia Day'' (that's what the event is called) is immediately arresting and memorable.

Hypatia of Alexandria had other distinctions besides being ``the first female mathematician'' (whose name we know) and a leading Platonist philosopher. During the patriarchate of Cyril of Alexandria, a (nonheretical!) Christian mob kidnapped her to a church, where she was stripped, flayed to death with tiles, and dismembered. It's not clear what role Cyril played in this episode, but it was the same Cyril who some time earlier had led mobs in the destruction of the Alexandrian synagogues and the expulsion of the Jews. I'm sorry, that's Saint Cyril.

Anyway, for SMC to hold a Hypatia Day displays about as much chutzpah as would Notre Dame University holding a day to honor Giordano Bruno or Jan Hus or the Albigensians or Galileo Galilei, although the last was not murdered. He was even rehabilitated in a sort of mini-de-Stalinization event a few years back. I guess I can see where this is leading. When ND holds its first Galileo Astronomy Day, I'll try to mention it here.

Jewish Quarterly Review.

James River. They have a clever logo, displayed on a paper towel dispenser they make in a bathroom around the corner from where I'm typing this right now. The paper towel dispenser is in the bathroom near here, but they made it elsewhere. You probably guessed that, even though my original sentence was ambiguous. The truth is, I guessed it too. I have no way of knowing for certain. Maybe they snuck in here one night and set up a paper-towel dispenser factory in the Men's Room. Probably not. They certainly don't make it there ``right now.'' I know that; I was just there.

As you've probably guessed, I win a prize this month if I add enough stuff to the neglected J section of this glossary. For more on paper dispensers, see the TP entry. Also, see the image of JR's toilet paper on exhibit at the VTPM.

Japan Railways. Seven companies created in the privatization of Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. Even in Japanese, this entity is called ``Jei Arr.''

Journal of Religion. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.



Journal of Roman Archaeology. (There's a UK mirror site.) Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI). The sister publication of JRAI is at.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

European Commission Joint Research Centre.

Japan Committee for Research Networks.

Jeunes contre le racisme en Europe. `Youth against Racism in Europe.' It doesn't seem to have its own website any more, but maybe it was always rather decentralized. It seems clear from its communiqués or whatever that it was a leftist organization and that the focus of its opposition was fascist parties. So maybe it foundered in the usual leftist schismatism.

Junior Research Fellow.

Journal of Ritual Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Journal of the Russian Numismatic Society (RNS, q.v.). Published in the USA.

US Joint Requirements Oversight Council.

Junior ROTC.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. Tolkien's last name is widely misspelled, mostly as * ``Tolkein.''

I read The Hobbit, and Uncle Charlie and Aunt Mary gave me a copy of The Silmarillion for my birthday that I recall enjoying, but my interest flagged about halfway through LOTR. I prefer his nonfiction. In LOTR, I really felt that he broke faith with the reader when Gandalf the Grey came back as Gandalf the White. Oh, you hadn't read it yet -- you didn't wanna know. Tough. You shouldn't have been surfing into spoiler danger, then. Here, go surf this tribute. Here's a helpful timeline. There's an Electronic Tolkien Encyclopedia Project (ETEP). The Tolkien Usenet newsgroups generated an faq and a LessFAQ (less frequently ...), no longer maintained (since perhaps 1996), and Steuard Jensen has created a supplement. See his Meta-FAQ.

Jesuit Refugee Service. ``A worldwide network to accompany refugees and displaced people and offer practical and spiritual support.''


Journal of Roman Studies. An annual publication of the Roman Society (SPRS). Journal catalogued by TOCS-IN. ISSN 0075-4358.

Jack Russell Terrier.

Joint Readiness Training Center. A facility covering 106,000 acres of Ft. Polk in Louisiana.

Jesus Seminar. See JSem.

Junior State of America. Sort of like a model UN. ``The Junior State is a nationwide, non-profit, non-partisan political education organization for students in grades 9-12. We are run completely by and for students, and we hold many events throughout the year to help further our goals of student political awareness and involvement.'' So far they haven't declared war on any Canadian Youth Parliaments.

Japanese Society of Automotive Engineers. They sure whupped the SAE for a few years there.

Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence. (You and your browser had better be Japanese-capable).

Johnson Space Center.

Japan Society for Computer Aided Surgery.

Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society.

Journalism SCHOOL. It's widely reported that top of the heap is the Columbia School of Journalism (i.e. Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism).

Journal of the Saudi Chemical Society. If you can't read Arabic, then you may not recognize the link there to the English version of the contribution guidelines.

``Work submitted for publication must contain original scientific work which has not been published previously. However, work which has appeared in print in the form of an abstract or as a published lecture, report, or thesis is normally acceptable.''

``The manuscript may be written in either Arabic or English. An abstract in Arabic or English must accompany the submitted papers. Furthermore, a complete abstract in the language other than that of the manuscript must be included.''

Two issues per annum ``(temporary).'' (Temporary since 1996, at least.)

It's not stated whether being a member of the SCS, or of some other group, has any effect on the likelihood of your paper being accepted.

Jesuit Secondary Education Association. A membership organization serving Jesuit (SJ) high schools in the continental United States and Puerto Rico. Forty-Six members as of September 1998.

Jesus SEMinar. A bunch of scholars who get together and vote in a vain attempt to achieve ``consensus'' on what words in the gospels Jesus did or did not say. Each person in the shifting membership votes red (that's Jesus!), pink, gray, or black (no way!).

Joint Strike Fighter. ``Joint'' in the sense that all of the services (Army, Navy, Air Force...) are buying essentially the same bird.

Japan Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Joseph Snerdly Mohammed Jackson Version. An illustrated edition of Ye Holy Bible. This doesn't exist yet, but it's coming. In order to satisfy the surge in religious feeling, yet accommodate and be welcoming to the diversity of everlastingly true interpretations of that good book, services will arise to provide customized print-on-demand versions. It'll give a whole new meaning to the term ``family bible.'' You'll visit a website, fill out a detailed form stating your requirements (e.g.:
Question 43: Homosexual proscriptions:
Yes (God's Very Words!)
No (Damnable late interpolation!)

There will be a dramatic increase in the number of people quoting chapter and verse, when they get to choose the wording.

Journal for the Study of the New Testament.

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Hmmm, maybe you'd prefer to read English A private foundation chartered by Emperor Showa in 1932, reestablished as a quasi-governmental organization within the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture (Monbusho) in 1967. A researcher visiting here from JSPS gave a talk on VCSEL's. He claimed that JSPS is the Japanese equivalent of the US NSF. The JSPS budget in FY 2000 was 135.2 billion yen, or roughly a billion dollars US. The NSF had US$3.897 billion for FY 2000 (that's over 5% of the US government's budget for research).

Journal of Semitic Studies.

Japan Society of Snow and Ice. If you or your browser lack Japanese capability, you can find some English-language information on this topic at the SBF snow blower entry.

Japan Society for Software Science and Technology.

Japanese Standard Time. They don't use daylight saving time (DST) there at any time of the year. Just like Hawaii (which has the highest percentage of ethnic Japanese of any US state) and most of Arizona. The Navajo reservation in Arizona does use DST, however. During WWII, US forces had Navajo servicemen send spoken messages in their obscure language (particularly obscure to the Japanese) as a kind of what we might now call ``secure communication.'' The Navajo engaged in this were called ``code talkers.'' There are a few other places that don't use DST, amounting to about half the world.

Japan Science and Technology Information AGgregator, Electronic.

Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System. A 707 outfitted for reconnaissance against enemy ground forces.

Japan Science and Technology Foundation.

Journal STORage. ``Redefining access to scholarly literature.'' Back issues of paper-printed journals.

Jackson State University. It's a HBCU located in Jackson, Mississippi.

Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine.

Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems. Not available for purchase to the general public, whoever that is. For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.


James Taylor.

Jewish Telegraphic Agency.

Joint Technical Architecture. [For the US Department of Defense (DoD).]

Joint Test Assembly. Another definition for the same DoD acronym. I thought they kept a big acronyms book to prevent this from happening. JTA's are assemblies of components in weapon-like configurations delivered by a weapons contractor to the DOD for flight testing under field conditions. Inside, the ``physics package'' (gotta love it), consisting of the cased HE and nuclear materials components of the nuclear weapon, is replaced with ballast to simulate and electronic test equipment.

Joint Test Action Group.

JISC Technology Applications Programme. [JISC is the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee.]

Jahn-Teller Distortion.

Japanese Technology Evaluation Center ``and its companion World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) at Loyola College provide assessments of foreign research and development in selected technologies under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF).''

January-Term. A short session between fall and Spring semesters of the academic calendar, used for short course.

Joint Time-Frequency Analysis.

Journal of Theological Studies. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Japan Toilet Institute. Most of the -- ahem -- content is in what Gibbon called ``the decent obscurity'' of a foreign, if not learned, language. JTI seems to be pushing Western-style toilets. The Shinkansen have (or had, when I was there in the 1990's) equal numbers of Western and traditional Japanese models. Generally, the Western sitting-down models (as opposed to the native-standard squatting models) are becoming more popular as the population ages.

The JTI pages have prominent links to the Singapore-based WTO but not to the upstart Seoul-based WTA.

Jane's Terrorism and Insurgency Center. (They don't do, they just write about it. Sort of like Penthouse Forum.) For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (UK).

Jobs Training and Partnership Act.

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

Journal of Theological Studies.

Jump The Shark. A television series is said to jump the shark when it airs a particularly lamentable episode that heralds the show's decline. Often this show involves a, ah, let us say, daring premise (Josh cloning a thought-to-be-dead Reva, or Reva time-traveling, on GL), and demonstrates final exhaustion or jettison of the original artistic inspiration.

The term is not applied to the first show or the pilot: there is an underlying assumption that every show has achieved some sort of level from which it can decline. It is fashionable to pretend that each show has only one JTS moment, but the reality is that if a show declines only as fast as standards generally, there is nothing to prevent it from gaining a new loyal following during its post-JTS decline. These fans will eventually find their own JTS moment, and so on.

The term was coined in reference to the episode of Happy Days in which the Fonz went water-skiing in California and jumped a shark.

Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor. For a list of information services offered by Jane's Information Group, see our entry for Jane's Fighting Ships.

jua jua
One Spanish version of English `ha ha.' If the sound of the letters jua as read in Spanish were transliterated into English, it would be written ``hwa.'' Still, on the web, if not among my friends, it appears that ja ja is much more common.

Jwa jwa is also seen, but rarely. The letter w is principally for foreign loans. (We're not talkin' FIM here.)

Okay look, if you don't find this intuitive, here's what to think of: comedies of the silent era. No canned laughter, of course, but after someone was humiliated for the amusement of everyone else (not a rare occurrence), a lone horn would intone hwa-hwa-hwaaa on a descending scale.

[Football icon]

JUnior COllege. Term used in describing the struggle of scholar athletes to get the strongest possible education.

There are a number of toponymic Judays north of South Bend, Indiana. Some of these apparently antedate the puzzling story about Cary Grant. Not he nor anybody else seems to have been able to track down with any certainty the origin of the story of his saying ``Judy, Judy, Judy.'' The repeated name is pronounced in an affected way, with both syllables stressed, and the second syllable sounding a bit like ``day''; this is sometimes indicated in eye dialect by writing the name ``Juday.''

Locally, the name comes from meandering Juday Creek, north of the University of Notre Dame. It's not clear how that name in turn arose. An 1863 map labels it Sheffield Creek, and in the late 1880's it was referred to as ``The State Ditch.'' I kid you not..

judge names
People whose names include common non-name words, or whose names are odd in some other way, end up on the bench surprisingly often. A number of them are listed in the Nomenclature-is-destiny entry. Here's a complete list of the judges listed there; you can decide which fit the bill above.

Not mentioned there, because it's hard to state precisely and with certainty some way in which his name turned out to be unusually appropriate, is John Minor Wisdom. He's mentioned in the black Republicans footnotes. I guess from the text quoted there that Judge Wisdom was known by his last two names (Minor Justice), as Judge Learned Hand was.

The following is from the chapter entitled ``Judicial Levity'' in Arthur Train's nonfiction My Day In Court (New York and London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939), p. 61.

    Even the names of the defendants and other trial participants sometimes had a humorous aspect.
    I had a case in the Supreme Court Criminal Trial Term before the present Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals, Cuthbert W. Pound, which no doubt he remembers. The defendant's name was Schornstein (chimney), that of his counsel, Firestone, my own, Train (also suggestive of smoke and cinders), while the judge and clerk rejoiced respectively in those of Pound and Penny.

What a knee-slapper, oh boy!

A Field-Effect Transistor made out of a gallon container for moderately-priced alcoholic beverages. Frankfort Kentucky's belated answer to the Leiden Jar. Okay, maybe not. JUnction-Gate Field-Effect Transistor. Now generally called JFET.

Juggalo, Juggalette
Members of the rap group ICP (that stands for Insane Clown Posse, but visit the entry anyway) at some point started to refer to themselves as Juggalos. (The plural is formed without an e.) Lyrics in their Carnival of Carnage CD make reference to the jugula' (vein, to rhyme approximately with strangle-uh, and mentioned in the context of neck-breaking), and also to juggling (metaphorically). There might be some reference to gigolos too, but probably not to boogaloo dudes (vide Day Tripper entry).

The next album, The Great Milenko, included a rap entitled ``What is a Juggalo?'' that doesn't answer the title question in any essential way. As the term is used by ICP fans, a Juggalo is an ICP fan. (Unless he is an ICP member who isn't a fan. I don't know if this second category is, or is conceived to be, nonempty yet. Positive enthusiasm isn't very cool, you know, if you're a Juggalo.) A Juggalette (or Lette) is a female ICP fan, and the term Juggalo is typically used in the complementary sense of a male ICP fan. Juggalettes can be enthusiastic about ICP and some other groups (but not eminem!) and not suffer any coolness deficit. (Juggalos should say that they really like ICP, but that they don't consider themselves Juggalos.) To signal their coolness and belonging, Juggalos and Juggalettes can use expressions like ``down wit' de clown'' (DWTC) and MCL, and buy ICP merchandise. No secret decoder rings yet, though they could come in handy.

Los and Lettes are unexceptional young white people (``caucasions'') who are often bored and who think of themselves as nonconformist. They make careers as associates in the retail service profession. They like 2 party! Have fun! They used to wear clown make-up occasionally. There's probably a white-face angle in this somewhere, but I don't give a %^*##@!!, and that's cool. F off. Peace.

There's a large Ukrainian community around southern Ontario, extending into the Detroit and Buffalo areas. I don't know how my homies in ICP happened to chose the name Milenko (probably for scansion, dontchathink?), but ICP is Detroit-based. Milenko sounds like a Ukrainian surname (a large fraction of Ukrainian surnames end in -ko). And Mihalenko (also Mihailenko or Mihajlenko) is a moderately common Ukrainian surname. But it turns out that Milenko is mostly a south Slav (Slovenia to Macedonia) man's given name. I figured I ought to explain that.

Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display! A search engine for gopher space!

Veronica is another gopher-space search engine! Archie searches anonymous ftp servers (by filename or file pathname only)! The other major teen characters in the Archie comic book series (Reggie and Betty) don't seem to have any engines named after them! Gopher servers and gopher-protocol support are disappearing fast!


Jukka Ammondt
A Finnish Elvis impersonator who sings the King's songs in Latin. I probably should write the Finnish Elvisimpersonator who..., but you never know with these crazy Northern types. (I hear that the Finns aren't even Scandinavians.) At least one CD has been released. See here for details. Last I heard, he was working on a Sumerian version.

Japanese term for a wide range of schools or classes. In practice now, if not otherwise qualified, it refers to cram schools.

Cram school makes a lot of Japanese kids miserable, and somebody has to take the blame. Hence kyoiku-mama.

Jumping Frenchmen of Maine Syndrome
This syndrome deserves to be better known, maybe. It's an exaggerated startle reflex that was first reported to the medical community by G.M. Beard, at the 1878 conference of the American Neurological Association [see ``Remarks upon `jumpers or jumping Frenchmen','' J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. vol. 5, p. 526 (1878)]. The following description, at least partly a quote of Beard, is in an article at OMIM (see item 244100):

In response to sudden sensory input, abnormal reaction occurred. For example, if one of them was abruptly asked to strike another, he would do so without hesitation, even if it was his mother and he had an ax in his hand. If given a short, sudden, quick command, the affected person would respond with the appropriate action, often echoing the words of command. Some, when addressed quickly in a language foreign to them, would echo the phrase.

Beard found it among French-Canadian lumberjacks in the Moosehead Lake area of Maine. Many of the lumbermen had origins in the Beauce region of Quebec, and the syndrome has been documented there and also reported in five offspring of a French-Canadian fishing guide in Wedgport, Nova Scotia. In some cases, there was a family history of the syndrome. All this suggests that the condition is hereditary, but does not exclude a necessary environmental trigger. A 1986 study (see the OMIM article for reference) concluded that the cases they studied were related to the specific conditions in lumber camps in the 19th and early 20th centuries. They also concluded that `jumping' is not a neurologic disease but rather can be explained in psychologic terms as operant conditioning.

Georges Gilles de la Tourette translated Beard's 1880 article on the syndrome, and this may have stimulated him to study certain patients making peculiar sounds and movements. This research led him to describe the disorder that soon bore his name (see GTS).

jumping up and down
When you think about it, there's a lot to ponder in this phrase. Most people really just jump up repeatedly and allow gravity to complete the cycle. This seems most efficient. I'll finish the entry when I'm ready to make a complete final report.

The only time that anyone can recall George Washington jumping up and/or down in excitement was when he received word of French ship arrivals around Yorktown, which meant that he had Lord Cornwallis completely surrounded. Cornwallis's subsequent surrender marked the end of the military action in the Revolutionary War.

junction isolation
Doping to achieve electronic isolation between devices. E.g.: Integrated-circuit BJT's are fabricated as a sequence of successively enclosed doped regions; an npn presents an outer n (collector) region. For junction isolation (JI), this is fabricated in an n epi layer on a p substrate, and different devices are separated by thick p regions that reach down to the substrate. The substrate and these doped regions constitute a single electrical node which is connected to the most negative voltage on the chip, so that the electrical path between any two transistors is collector-to-collector, through a pair of junctions equivalent to a pair of opposed, reverse-biased diodes.

Cf. ROx, dielectric isolation, LOCOS. One striking difference between junction isolation and dielectric isolation is that within the same technology, JI'd pnp transistors have much lower fT values than npn transistors, whereas dielectric isolation tends to give comparable fT values.

An early form of JI is (or better ``was'') CDI.

Japan Unix Network. A researchers' net. (Do not confuse with JANET.)

`Fountain of youth' in German. The noun Brunnen (`well') is masculine.

Jurassic Park
A work of fiction. Vide dinosaurs.

jury of your peers
Jury of idle busybodies and suckers too stupid to wangle their way out of serving.

Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. Look, this is the order they give. I have a better idea, but they didn't consult me.

The username of Joe User. A restricted subset of foos.

just coincidence
Ed Turner, vice-president of CNN, is no relation of Ted Turner, network founder.

See also the nomen-est-omen item on Samuel Johnson, Jr.

just desserts
Uh, no. See the second definition under deserts.

When others write ``just desserts,'' you should ridicule their ignorance mercilessly. Draw it out. Ponder at length whether there are meals that are postprandial repasts, entire of themselves (just desserts), or if all deserts are by their nature part of the meal they, conclude. Then run away.

Just Desserts

Taylor's `Just Desserts' specializes in New Hampshire maple-syrup products.

Just do it.
This was/is a campaign slogan for a sneaker company (oh! I'm sorry, that should be ``athletic shoe'' company). I think it's Nike.

I read the following interesting advice in Some of my best friends are writers, but I wouldn't want my daughter to marry one! by Robert Turner (Los Angeles: Sherbourne Pr., 1970). It's in the chapter on getting past initial writer's block -- attacking page 1:

One other warning. The subconscious is a slippery, sneaky little devil, too. At times, it will try to dodge all your attempts to nudge it into motion by conning you that you are too sick, too hung over, too depressed, too tired to try to write. And that if you do write, it will be appallingly bad, not up to your usual standards; so, forget it. You may even attempt to do a few pages, then read back over them and decide that it is true. What you have just written is sheer tripe, so what's the use of going on?

Ordinarily, this will just not be true. Forget it. Write anyhow. Unless you are practically a hospital case or have the shakes so bad that you can't hit the right typewriter keys, what you write under these conditions will probably not be any worse than at any other time. It will just seem that way. If you will just persevere, sometime later, when you reread it, you will realize the truth.

just don't get it
Just don't agree; labor under a different enlightenment.

Just my personal opinion.
Oh wait, I just remembered: I've got a fully documented analysis here in my hip pocket.

Cf. JMO.

just packaging
  1. Righteous, honest, and complete wrapping.
  2. Look, don't be so smug. Packagers've got to feed their families too.

Juvenile detention facility. No, not room 203 after school. Prison. (And the word is slang. I'm not going to write ``JUVenIlE'' as if juvie were an acronym; that would be juvenile.)

Stephanie Wilder apparently burned out as an English teacher in juvie and took a job recruiting deep-foundations and geotechnical professionals. In Foundation Drilling (see ADCS) she wrote that she had found frustrating similarities. One is that both juvenile delinquents and geo industry professionals are tight-lipped and suspicious of outsiders. Another is that in both the juvenile justice system and the deep foundations industries, personnel are often needed in a hurry, but when an appropriate candidate is available the hiring decision often takes too long.

Joint Venture.

Junior Varsity.

Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. A publication of the AFB.

Java Virtual Machine. In mid-July 2001, Microsoft acknowledged that JVM would not come pre-installed with its next Windows ``upgrade,'' Windows XP.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. A publication of the AAVMC.

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology.

Current-density (vs.) Voltage (as a function of) Temperature. Cf. IVT.

Jehovah's Witness[es].

Japan Weather Association.

The Journal of World Anthroplogy. Available free on the internet.

Crossing the street on foot, if the street is bounded by two regulated intersections. If you want to get technical, this is probably vague. On the other hand, this is probably not a frequently cited violation. Also, that woman you were approaching, who crossed to the other side, that wasn't J-walking, or jaywalking either. There's a secret codicil to the law now; everybody else got the announcement in the mail, but it wasn't broadcast so you wouldn't find out. It's now legal to cross the street to avoid you.

Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Catalogued by TOCS-IN.

Joint Working Group Group on Telemedicine. Sounds like an infomercial cooperative, but it's sponsored by the US government's National Agricultural Library (NAL).

Jewish Women International.

Journal of Women's Imaging. Settle down, settle down. It's a quarterly that ``focuses [ooh, good word] on all clinical imaging modalities, as well as on health care policy and economic issues related to women's imaging. The Journal is intended to serve not only radiologists, but [yes? yes?] all the physicians who are an integral part of the team required to provide health care to women.'' Alright then, I guess I'll order Playboy instead.

JWI is the official journal of the AAWR and has an association with SAWI (qq.v.). It would seem to make more sense the other way around.

Javits-Wagner-O'Day. The JWOD Program, subsidized by the US government, ``provides a wide array of custom solutions at a fair market price while creating employment opportunities for people who are blind or have other severe disabilities.''

The original Wagner-O'Day act ``Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act'' is the popular name of an act that became law on June 25, 1938. ``In 1971, under the leadership of Senator Jacob Javits, Congress amended this Act (41 U.S.C. 46-48c) to include people with severe disabilities and allow the Program to also provide services to the Federal Government.'' (According to 41 U.S.C. 46 nt., it may be cited as the ``Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act.'')

Jane's World Railways.

Jewish World Review.

The Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, ``organized in 1896 by Jewish Veterans of the Civil War, is the oldest active national veterans' service organization in America.''

[dive flag]

Jacques-Yves Cousteau. His friends actually pronounced this as an acronym. Transliterated into English, the acronym is something like ``Zheek.''

With various collaborators, he invented relatively lightweight and self-contained apparatus for breathing underwater (scuba). Almost as important, they invented good watertight goggles and underwater camera housings, and JYC became world-famous with films and books about his explorations. I still remember watching this stuff on TV as a kid. His ship was called the Calypso; whether for the Greek legend or the Caribbean music, I don't remember. He died on June 25, 1997, at the age of 87, and you can find more information about him in obituaries from then, like this reverent one still up at the IANTD website.

A detail about capitalization. The pronunciation of JYC as an acronym is mentioned in various French-language articles I can pull up from the 1990's -- mostly obituaries. For example, the AFP announcement commented en passant, ``JYC, comme tous ses amis l'appelaient....'' The 26 articles that mentioned the nickname generally wrote it in all-caps, with the single exception of one article with ``Jyc'' in Le Figaro (out of four). But here's some really big news: as of 2004, French-language articles in Lexis-Nexis finally use accented characters!

Visa type for a ``short-term scholar'' [clever phrase!]. Also professors and au pairs (would that be aux pairs in French?) and a variety of other guests. Category includes graduate students, foreign guest lecturers, participants in meetings (workshops, seminars, conferences,...). They're permitted to receive direct compensation as well as payment for travel expenses. There is a limit on how many hours per week an au pair may be required to provide child care services, but professors do not benefit from this kind of protection.

Cf. J-2 visa.

j10n, J10N
Japanization. A particular L10n.

Visa type for person present in the US as the spouse of someone on a J-1 visa.

Java 2 platform Enterprise Edition.

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